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Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles

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Title: Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles


1
Chapter 6 Personality and Lifestyles
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 8e Michael Solomon
2
Chapter Objectives
  • When you finish this chapter you should
    understand why
  • A consumers personality influences the way he
    responds to marketing stimuli, but efforts to use
    this information in marketing contexts meet with
    mixed results.
  • Consumers lifestyles are key to many marketing
    strategies.
  • Psychographics go beyond simple demographics in
    helping marketers understand and reach different
    consumer segments.

3
Chapter Objectives (cont.)
  • Identifying patterns of consumption can be
    superior to knowledge of individual purchases
    when crafting a lifestyle marketing strategy.

4
Personality
  • Personality a persons unique psychological
    makeup and how it consistently influences the way
    a person responds to his/her environment

5
Freudian Systems
  • Personality conflict between gratification and
    responsibility
  • Id pleasure principle
  • Superego our conscience
  • Ego mediates between id and superego
  • Reality principle ego gratifies the id in such a
    way that the outside world will find acceptable

6
Freudian Systems (cont.)
  • Marketing Implications
  • Unconscious motives underlying purchases
  • Symbolism in products to compromise id and
    superego
  • Sports car as sexual gratification for men
  • Phallic symbols, such as cigars

7
Motivational Research
  • Freudian ideas unlock deeper product and
    advertisement meanings
  • Consumer depth interviews
  • Latent motives for purchases
  • Examples of Dichters motives (Table 6.1)
  • Bowling, electric trains, power tools power
  • Ice cream, beauty products social acceptance

8
Dichters Consumption Motives
Table 6.1 (abridged)
9
Motivational Research (cont.)
  • Criticisms
  • Invalid or works too well
  • Too sexually-based
  • Appeal
  • Less expensive than large-scale surveys
  • Powerful hook for promotional strategy
  • Intuitively plausible findings (after the fact)
  • Enhanced validity with other techniques

10
Neo-Freudian Theories
  • Karen Horney
  • Compliant versus detached versus aggressive
  • Alfred Adler
  • Motivation to overcome inferiority
  • Harry Stack Sullivan
  • Personality evolves to reduce anxiety

11
Neo-Freudian Theories Jung
  • Carl Jung analytical psychology
  • Collective unconscious
  • Archetypes in advertising (see Figure 6.1 old
    wise man, earth mother, etc.)
  • BrandAsset Archetypes model
  • BAV Brand Health measures

12
BrandAsset Valuator Archetypes
Figure 6.1 (part 1 of 2)
13
BrandAsset Valuator Archetypes (cont.)
Figure 6.1 (part 2 of 2)
14
BrandAsset Archetypes BAV Brand Health
  • Archetypes across cultures and time
  • Archetypes telegraph instantly
  • Strong evidence of achieving business objectives
    with this model
  • Early warning signal of brand trouble

15
Trait Theory
  • Personality traits identifiable characteristics
    that define a person
  • Traits relevant to consumer behavior
  • Innovativeness
  • Materialism
  • Self-consciousness
  • Need for cognition
  • Frugality

16
Are You an Innie or an Outie?
17
Problems with Trait Theory
  • Prediction of product choices using traits of
    consumers is mixed at best
  • Scales not valid/reliable
  • Tests borrow scales used for the mentally ill
  • Inappropriate testing conditions
  • Ad hoc instrument changes
  • Use of global measures to predict specific brand
    purchases
  • Shotgun approach (no thought of scale
    application)

18
Brand Personality
  • Brand personality set of traits people attribute
    to a product as if it were a person
  • Brand equity extent to which a consumer holds
    strong, favorable, and unique associations with a
    brand in memoryand the extent to which s/he is
    willing to pay more for the branded version of a
    product than for a nonbranded (generic) version
  • Extensive consumer research goes into brand
    campaigns

19
Brand Behaviors and Personality Trait Inferences
Table 6.2 (abridged)
20
Lifestyles
  • Lifestyle patterns of consumption reflecting a
    persons choices of how one spends time and money
  • Lifestyle marketing perspective people sort
    themselves into groups on the basis of
  • What they like to do
  • How they spend leisure time
  • How they spend disposable income
  • Example Magazines targeting specific lifestyles
    WWF Magazine, 4 Wheel Off Road, Readers Digest

21
Lifestyles as Group Identities
  • Forms of expressive symbolism
  • Self-definition of group members common symbol
    system
  • Terms include lifestyle, taste public, consumer
    group, symbolic community, status culture
  • Each person provides a unique twist to be an
    individual
  • Tastes/preferences evolve over time

22
Building Blocks of Lifestyles
  • Product usage in desirable social settings
  • Consumption style
  • Patterns of behavior
  • Co-branding strategies brands team up with other
    companies to promote their products understand
    this
  • Product complementarity symbolic meanings of
    different products relate to one another
  • Consumption constellations define, communicate,
    and perform social roles

23
Linking Products to Lifestyles
Figure 6.2
24
Discussion
  • What consumption constellation might characterize
    you and your friends today?

25
Psychographics
  • Psychographics use of psychological,
    sociological, and anthropological factors to
  • Determine market segments
  • Determine their reasons for choosing products
  • Fine-tune offerings to meet needs of different
    segments
  • Consumers can share the same demographics and
    still be very different!

26
Best Buy Psychographic Segments
  • Jill busy suburban mom who buys electronics
    for family
  • Buzz focused, active younger male interested
    in buying latest gadgets
  • Ray family man who likes his technology
    practical
  • BB4B (Best Buy for Business) small employer
  • Barry affluent professional male wholl drop
    tens of thousands of dollars on a home theater
    system

27
Lifestyle/Personality Variables for Soup
Table 6.3
28
Doing a Psychographic Analysis
  • Lifestyle profile differentiates between users
    and nonusers of a product
  • Product-specific profile identifies a target
    group and profiles consumers based on
    product-related dimensions
  • General lifestyle segmentation places a large
    sample of respondents into homogeneous groups
    based on similarities of preferences
  • Product-specific segmentation tailors questions
    to a product category

29
AIOs
  • Grouping consumers according to
  • Activities
  • Interests
  • Opinions
  • 80/20 Rule lifestyle segments that produce the
    bulk of customers
  • Heavy users and the benefits they derive from
    product

30
Lifestyle Dimensions
Table 6.4
31
Psychographic Segmentation Uses
  • To define target market
  • To create new view of market
  • To position product
  • To better communicate product attributes
  • To develop overall strategy
  • To market social/political issues

32
VALS2TM
  • Click to take the
  • VALS2 survey

Figure 6.3
33
Discussion
  • Construct separate advertising executions for a
    cosmetics product targeted to the Belonger,
    Achiever, Experiencer, and Maker VALS types.
  • How would the basic appeal differ for each group?

34
Global Psychographic Typologies
  • Global MOSAIC
  • Identifies segments across 19 countries
  • RISC
  • Lifestyles/sociocultural change in 40 countries
  • Divides population into 10 segments using 3 axis
  • Exploration/Stability
  • Social/Individual
  • Global/Local
  • 40 measured trends (e.g., spirituality)

35
Discussion
  • Extreme sports. Day trading. Blogging.
    Vegetarianism. Can you predict what will be hot
    in the near future?
  • Identify a lifestyle trend that is just surfacing
    in your universe.
  • Describe this trend in detail, and justify your
    prediction.
  • What specific styles and/or products are part of
    this trend?

36
Ten Risk Segments
Figure 6.4
37
Geodemography
  • Consumer expenditures/socioeconomic factors
    geographic information
  • Birds of a feature flock together
  • Can be reached more economically (e.g., 90277 zip
    code in Redondo Beach, CA)

38
Discussion
  • Geodemographic techniques assume that people who
    live in the same neighborhood have other things
    in common as well.
  • Why do they make this assumption, and how
    accurate is it?

39
Food Cultures
  • Food culture pattern of food and beverage
    consumption that reflects the values of a social
    group
  • Differences in international food cultures
  • In China, milk chocolate has less milk
  • In United States, Campbells soup is saltier than
    in Mexico
  • In Germany, food must be healthier

40
PRIZM by Claritas, Inc.
  • 66 clusters of U.S. zip codes
  • Example Young Influential, Money and Brains,
    Kids and Cul-de-Sacs
  • Ranked by income, home value, and occupation
  • Maximize effectiveness, cost-efficiency, and
    impact of marketing communications

?Click to access Mybestsegments.com
41
Comparison of Two PRIZM Clusters
Table 6.5
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