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A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe

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Gothic style - spires - arched windows. Rural Life. more complex economy ... breakdown of intellectualism & art less rationalism & artistic realism ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: A New Civilization Emerges in Western Europe


1
CHAPTER 10 A New Civilization Emerges in Western
Europe
2
Map 8.1 Charlemagnes Empire
  • Map page 219 ( may need to reference page 104
    717
  • 1. What modern nations did Charlemagne
    rule?
  • 2. What modern nations did each of the
    Frankish empire become
  • West Franks?
  • East Franks?
  • Kingdom of Lothair?
  • 3. What is the relationship between Charlemagnes
    borders and Europes religious groups?

3
FLAVOR of MIDDLE AGES
not as commercially or culturally developed
similarities politically to Japan, Russia,
sub-Saharan Africa
indications of vital society
POST CLASSICAL DEVELOPMENT
Italy in decline
Catholic Church - strong
Spain Muslim controlled
4
center France, Low countries, Sthn Wstn
Germany
Viking raids
literates monks priests
5
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10
Manorial System
reciprocal economic and political obligations
between landlords peasants
lords protect serfs on their land serfs provide
crops labor to lord
serfs not slave, owned houses land
Church
spiritual political power
monasteries - promote Christian unity -
example of holy life - agriculture -
productive work
Pope head of - Bishops
11
Charlemagne
Carolingian dynasty 800s - empire - church
based education
after regional monarchies - center on Catholic
Christianity
9th 10th centuries increased ag production
fewer Viking raids
population growth, towns
12
New Agricultural techniques
moldboard plow
3 field system
horse collar
13
Feudal monarchies
greater lords provide protection to lesser lords
(vassals)
vassals supply military service
first local then larger regions
use to evolve from regional lords to rulers of
larger areas (Capetian kings)
14
William the Conqueror 1066
used a more centralized government
15
Holy Roman Empire Germany Italy - local
lords city-states
power limited
King John Magna Carta 1215
parliaments rule on taxation
16
Expansion
take Spain back from Muslim
Vikings across Atlantic
Crusades 1095 13th century - expose Europeans
to cultural economic influences from Byzantium
Islam
17
Religious Reform
church has wealth power
reform St. Francis St. Clare - purify
monastic orders
free church from secular interference - priests
not marry - bishops appointed only by Pope
18
High Middle Ages
12th 13th centuries
changes in political, intellectual, social
religious life
Christianity clearest unifying cultural element
in Western Europe
19
Theology
faith in Gods word stressed
human reason contributes to understanding
religion - from classical Greek civilization
Peter Abelard uses logic to show
contradictions in doctrine
challenged by those with ideas of mystical union
with God
debates match similar tension in Islam -
scientific philosophical
20
Europe debate flourishes (universities) -
intellectual avenues
China only single path allowed
synthesis of medieval learning - 13th century -
faith came first but human reasoning allows a
greater understanding of natural order, moral law
nature of God - Thomas Aquinas
medieval philosophy not scientific
21
Popular Religion
devotion ran deep
cults of saints lay groups, intermediaries
between people God
pagan practices continue and blend in
22
Religious Art
early stiff stylized later - realistic
architecture Roman model domes
vernacular literature Beowulf - Canterbury
Tales
poets courtly love
23
Gothic style - spires - arched windows
24
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25
Rural Life
more complex economy
struggles between landlords peasants - peasant
conditions improve - landlord control weakens
Trade Banking
use of money
capitalism
trade with world
26
Hanseatic League
Guilds
merchants have freer hand - government leave
alone
less venturesome wealthy than Middle Eastern
commercial and capitalistic trends jostled
slower rural economy guild protectionism
27
Women
spiritual equality
Virgin Mary monasteries
economy growswomen limited
Decline
100 years war agriculture not keep up with
population black death
28
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29
Challenges
aristocracy lose military role chivalry
Emperor Otto
church/state balance of power change
church lose touch with everyday life less
rationalism
30
Map 8.2West Europe toward the end of the
Medieval Era, 1360
  • Map page 233
  • 1. What medieval states have already established
    their modern borders?
  • 2. What areas have not yet united into modern
    states?
  • 3. Why would the Hoy Roman Empire be difficult
    to govern?

31
What defines the post classical period in Western
Europe?
  • decline fall of Roman Empire (gradual recovery
    from that)
  • civilization extends to all W. Europe
  • new religious beliefs
  • participate in international community
  • learn new technologies
  • tools for agriculture
  • crops
  • math, science, philosophy

32
What were the signs of vitality in Western Europe?
  • population growth
  • economy blossom
  • political units more effective cover larger
    territories
  • complex artistic intellectual life
  • technological innovations
  • water-driven mills
  • iron-casting of bells
  • religious commitments expand
  • universities
  • architecture (Gothic, towers)

33
What developments in the 9th 10th century
Western Europe pointed the way to political
economic recovery?
  • new ag techniques
  • moldboard plow
  • 3 field system
  • horse collar stirrups
  • land ownership new land opened up
  • Vikings raiding less
  • regional stability
  • new crops (durum wheat, alfalfa)
  • less rigid social structure
  • population growth
  • creates innovation
  • new markets
  • urbanization

34
Describe the various political units of Western
Europe between 1000 1400
  • manorialism feudalism
  • limited government
  • parliaments
  • regional monarchies
  • central monarchies (national)
  • bureaucracy

35
How was theology linked to classical rationalism
during the Middle Ages?
  • importance of absolute faith in Gods word yet
    human reason could move toward an understanding
    of some religious aspects natural order
  • possible to prove Gods existence?
  • contradictions in doctrine (Abelard)
  • Aristotle valued b/c of his clear rational
    thought
  • need to come to terms wit both Christian
    classical heritage
  • rational philosophy Christian faith
  • emerging universities debate

36
What were the signs of economic prosperity after
1000?
  • trade revives
  • wool England, timber fur Scandinavia, cloth
    low countries
  • growth of trade banking
  • urban growth more specialization
  • international trade Crusades helped
  • beginnings of capitalism
  • banking commercial transactions throughout W.
    Europe
  • Jews loan money to monarchs too

37
What were the crises of the later Middle Ages?
  • 100 years war
  • decline in feudal armies
  • hired armies, especially archers
  • plague
  • change in nobility chivalry, tournaments,
    leisure
  • shift in church state church too political,
    not spiritual enough
  • breakdown of intellectualism art less
    rationalism artistic realism

38
How did the Middles Ages carry on the culture of
ancient Mediterranean civilization and also added
to its own innovation?
  • classical rationalism, Latin
  • manorialism origins in large farming estates of
    ancient world
  • Christianity
  • lack of empire local regional political focus
  • more vitality in economy commercial structure
  • credit, banking, wealthy class, accounting
  • end of slavery
  • culture vernacular literature, Gothic
    architecture

39
Compare contrast the Medieval West from 1000 to
1500 with Islamic civilization during the same
period.
  • WEST
  • flourishing
  • lack of empire concept
  • active merchant class
  • used religion to carry civilization to new areas
  • tension b/t religion classical rationalism
  • ISLAM
  • core fragmenting
  • empire (though some localization)
  • active merchant class
  • commercial empire more extensive
  • used religion to carry civilization to new areas
  • tension b/t religion classical rationalism
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