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EE 5349 Section 5 Microsystems


We study the scaling of mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and fluidic ... Prior to 1987, these micromechanical structures were limited in motion. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EE 5349 Section 5 Microsystems

EE 5349 Section 5 Microsystems
  • Lectures MonWed, 230-350 pm, NH 109
  • Instructor Dan Popa, Ph.D., Assistant Professor,
  • Office hours MonWed 1000 am 1200 pm, NH525
  • Course info http//
  • Grading policy
  • 5 Homeworks 25
  • Midterm (in-class) 25
  • Course project 25
  • Final (in-class) 25

  • Part 1 Introduction to small things
  • Week 1 August 24, 26, Lectures 1, 2
  • Introduction to microsystems, brief history.
  • Example MST classification and examples.
  • Modeling of microsystems - what is different
    (scaling laws)?
  • Week 2 August 31, September 2 Lectures 3, 4
  • Modeling Refresher in continuum mechanics
    mechanics of beams, plates, statics, dynamics,
    electrostatics, electromagnetics, fluid dynamics,
    heat conduction, MATLAB simulation.
  • Week 3 September 9, Lecture 5
  • Modeling More on scaling laws.
  • Homework 1 posted September 9.
  • Week 4 September 14, 16, Lectures 6,7
  • - Modeling More on scaling laws.
  • Week 5 September 21, 23, Lectures 8,9
  • Fundamental concepts in precision design
    kinematics, constraints, alignment, flextures,
    error compensation, nanometric measurement
  • Homework 2 posted on September 23.

  • Part 2 Microfabrication
  • Week 6 September 28, 30, Lectures 10,11
  • Fabrication Basics of Lithography, Wet and Dry
    Etching and Deposition
  • Examples Micromachined devices.
  • Week 7 October 5, 7 Lectures 12,13
  • Fabrication EDM and Laser Micromachining.
  • Homework 3 posted on Oct. 7
  • Week 8 October 12, 14 Lectures 14,15
  • Fabrication LIGA and Micromolding.
  • Homework 3 posted on Oct. 7
  • Week 9 October 19, 21 Lectures 16,17
  • Fabrication Surface Micromachining
  • Homework 4 posted on Oct 21
  • Midterm 1 (in class), October 21

  • Part 3 Modeling and Control of Microactuators
  • Week 10 October 26, 28 Lectures 18, 19
  • Modeling Microsystems layout basics design
    rules, tools, formats, examples.
  • Modeling Microsystems modeling and simulation
  • Week 11 November 2, 4 Lectures 20, 21
  • Modeling Simulation of Microactuators using
  • Modeling Reduced Order MEMS Models,
    Eectrothermal microactuators.
  • Homework 5 posted Nov. 4
  • Week 12 November 9, 11, Lectures 22, 23
  • Modeling Electrostatic Microactuators and
    MEMS Control
  • Week 13 November 16, 18, Lectures 24, 25
  • Modeling Piezoelectric, SMA, and Magnetic

  • Part 4 Microassembly, Micropackaging
  • Week 14 November 23, 25, Lectures 26, 27
  • Backend Introduction to microassembly and
  • Example Microfluidic and Microoptical systems.
  • Week 15 November 30, December 2, Lectures 28,
  • Backend Introduction to microsystems packaging.
  • Course project due Dec. 2 with presentation
  • Week 16 December 7, 11
  • Final Exam (In-class, comprehensive) Dec 7.

  • Grading policy on curve
  • Homeworks 5. Homeworks contain both written
    and/or computer simulations using MATLAB. Submit
    code if it is part of the assignments.
  • Reading Assignments After each course. The
    assigned reading material is given out in order
    to make you better understand the concepts.
    Materials from the reading assignments may be
    part of course exams.
  • Examinations One midterm (in class) and one
    final (in class).
  • Course project Due on Dec 2, with a report and
    an in-class presentation. This project requires
    students to focus on a microsystem from a list
    provided in class, and walk through details
    related to its manufacturing and
    characterization. Students should identify
    suitable materials, designs, models, and
    processes to manufacture the microsystem and
    report their findings in a 8-10 page research

  • Modeling MEMS and NEMS, by J.A. Pelesko, D. H.
    Bernstein, Publisher ChapmanHall/CRC Press,
    2003, ISBN 1-59488-306-5 (required)
  • Fundamentals of Microfabrication, by Marc J.
    Madou, Second Ed., Publisher CRC Press, 2002,
    ISBN 0-8493-0826-7 (required)
  • Microsystem Technology and Microrobotics, by S.
    Fatikow, U. Rembold, Publisher Springer-Verlag,
    1997, ISBN 3-540-605658-0 (recommended, on
    library reserve)
  • Fundamentals of Microsystems Packaging, by Rao
    Tummala (Ed.), Publisher McGraw Hill, 2001,
    ISBN 0-07-137169-9 (recommended, on library
  • Foundations of Ultraprecision Mechanism Design,
    by St. Smith, D.G. Chetwynd, Publisher CRC
    Press, 1992, ISBN 2-88449-001-9 (recommended, on
    library reserve)
  • Fundamentals and Applications of Microfluidics,
    Second Edition (Integrated Microsystems), by
    Nam-Trung Nguyen, Steven T. Wereley, Publisher
    Artech House Publishers, 2006,  ISBN 1580539726
    (recommended, on library reserve)

Course Tools
  • Math linear/matrix algebra, trigonometry,
    differential equations (ODE and PDE).
  • Physics thermodynamics, mechanics of plates,
  • Programming MATLAB.
  • UC Berkeley SUGAR 2.0 for MATLAB, available for
  • http//

Honor Code
  • Missed deadlines for take-home exams and
    homeworks Maximum grade drops 10 per late day.
    Speak to me about missed deadlines for full
    credit in extenuating circumstances.
  • Academic Dishonesty will not be tolerated. All
    homeworks and exams are individual assignments.
    Your take-home exams and homeworks will be
    carefully scrutinized to ensure a fair grade for
  • Attendance and Drop Policy Attendance is not
    mandatory. However, if you skip classes, you will
    find the homework and exams more difficult.
    Assignments are going to be posted here, however,
    due to the pace of the lectures, copying someone
    else's notes may be an unreliable way of making
    up an absence. You are responsible for all
    material covered in class regardless of absences.

Lecture 1 Intro to Microsystems
  • Course Outline
  • Microsystems vs. MEMS.
  • Brief history.
  • Basic concepts what this course covers.

What is a microsystem?
  • A system with dimensions generally between 1µm
    and 1mm at the functional device level, and 1mm
    to 1cm at the system level.
  • System scaling Expressed in terms of part size,
    tolerance or positioning accuracy. Definition
    taking into account the types of instruments
    needed for visualization.
  • Nano Part sizes below 500nm, positioning
    accuracy below 250nm, SEM/TEM.
  • Micro Part sizes between 0.5 µm and 500 µm,
    accuracy between 0.25 µm and 2.5 µm, optical
  • Meso Part sizes between 500 µm and 5 cm,
    accuracy between 2.5 µm and 25 µm, regular
  • Macro Part sizes greater than 5 cm, accuracy
    greater than 25 µm, regular optics.
  • Special cases where not all 3 dimensions are in
    the same size scale, for example optical fibers
    or thin substrates.

Microsystems examples
  • Examples in nature abound
  • living cells
  • capillary blood vessels
  • small insects (e.g. fruit fly)
  • Examples of older man-made systems
  • Watches
  • Microdrills at your dentist office
  • Thin films for your sunglasses
  • Examples of recent man-made microsystems
  • Microfluidic microTAS (Lab-on-Chip).
  • Microoptic micromirror array (DMD).
  • Micromechanic microaccelerometers (air-bags).
  • Microsensors gas and pressure transducers.

Why small is different
  • Micromachines are governed by the same physical
    equations as macromachines, but solutions of
    these equations have different dominant effects.
  • These effects sometimes work in favor of a
    microsystem (for instance devices are lighter,
    faster, consume less power). Sometimes they work
    against MST (less force, harnessing less power,
  • Quantifying these effects is done though
    so-called scaling laws, where the variable of
    interest (e.g. mass, power, temperature, force)
    is expressed in terms of the device scale
  • OutputKrn, n scaling factor, r device length
    scale, K- constant.
  • Most important scaling law is a result of the
    ratio between surface and volume. At small
    scales, surface effects become dominant.
  • V4/3?r3, A?r2, V/AO(r), therefore VltltA if
  • Example of surface effects electrostatic
    attraction of plates
  • Example of volumetric effects gravitational
  • In this course we will look at solutions
    governing the evolution of microsystems and
    derive appropriate approximations for their
    length scales. We study the scaling of
    mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical and
    fluidic physical laws.

Microsystems VS. MEMS
  • MEMS/MOEMS Microelectromechanical,
    Microoptoelectromechanical systems
  • Term coined in the 1980s in the US using
    fabrication technology similar to the IC
    semiconductor industry.
  • MST Microsystems Technology
  • Terms used mostly in Europe to denote
    miniaturized devices and associated technology.
  • Micromachines
  • Term used mostly in Japan to denote miniaturized
    machines and systems, including those used to
  • MEMS is a subset of MST, as it includes
  • Non-Silicon materials
  • Non-IC fabrication methods
  • Precision engineering concepts
  • In this course we focus on MST rather than just

Why making small things is a lot harder than
making conventional things
Brief History of Microsystems (USA)
  • Invention of the transistor at Bell Telephone
    Laboratories in 1947 sparked a fast-growing
    microelectronic technology. Jack Kilby of Texas
    Instruments built the first integrated circuit
    (IC) in 1958 using germanium (Ge) devices. It
    consisted of one transistor, three resistors, and
    one capacitor. The IC was implemented on a sliver
    of Ge that was glued on a glass slide. Later that
    same year Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor
    announced the development of a planar
    double-diffused Si IC. The complete transition
    from the original Ge transistors with grown and
    alloyed junctions to silicon (Si) planar
    double-diffused devices took about 10 years. The
    success of Si as an electronic material was due
    partly to its wide availability from silicon
    dioxide (SiO2) (sand), resulting in potentially
    lower material costs relative to other
    semiconductors. Since 1970, the complexity of ICs
    has doubled every two to three years. The minimum
    dimension of manufactured devices and ICs has
    decreased from 20 microns to the sub micron
    levels of today. Current ultra-large-scale-integra
    tion (ULSI) technology enables the fabrication of
    more than 10 million transistors and capacitors
    on a typical chip.
  • Richard Feynman delivers his famous lecture
    There is Plenty of Room at The Bottom, in which
    he notes that in 40 years from now. Feynman
    considered a number of interesting ramifications
    of a general ability to manipulate matter on an
    atomic scale. He was particularly interested in
    the possibilities of denser computer circuitry,
    and microscopes which could see things much
    smaller than is possible with scanning electron
    microscopes. These ideas were later realized by
    the use of the scanning tunneling microscope
    (1982) and the atomic force microscope (1986).
    Feynman also suggested that it should be
    possible, in principle, to do chemical synthesis
    by mechanical manipulation, and he presented the
    "weird possibility" of building a tiny,
    swallowable surgical robot by developing a set of
    one-quarter-scale manipulator hands slaved to the
    operator's hands to build one-quarter scale
    machine tools analogous to those found in any
    machine shop.
  • K. Eric Drexler reuses Feynmans ideas in the
    context of Molecular Manufacturing in 1981. He
    introduced the concept of a billion tiny
    factories and added the idea that they could make
    more copies of themselves, via computer control
    instead of control by a human operator, in his
    1986 book Engines of Creation The Coming Era of
    Nanotechnology. Carbon nanotubes were invented
    prior to Sumio Iijimas Nature paper that brought
    them in focus in 1991, and mass-produced in 1996
    by Richard Smalley at Rice University.

Brief History of Microsystems (USA)
  • Attention was first focused on microsensor (i.e.,
    microfabricated sensor) development. The first
    microsensor, which has also been the most
    successful, was the Si pressure sensor. In 1954
    it was discovered that the piezoresistive effect
    in Ge and Si had the potential to produce Ge and
    Si strain gauges with a gauge factor (i.e.,
    instrument sensitivity) 10 to 20 times greater
    than those based on metal films. As a result, Si
    strain gauges began to be developed commercially
    in 1958. The first high-volume pressure sensor
    was marketed by National Semiconductor in 1974.
  • Around 1982, the term micromachining came into
    use to designate the fabrication of
    micromechanical parts (such as pressure-sensor
    diaphragms or accelerometer suspension beams) for
    Si microsensors. The micromechanical parts were
    fabricated by selectively etching areas of the Si
    substrate away in order to leave behind the
    desired geometries. Isotropic etching of Si was
    developed in the early 1960s for transistor
    fabrication. Anisotropic etching of Si then came
    about in 1967. Various etch-stop techniques were
    subsequently developed to provide further process
    flexibility. The first micromachined
    accelerometer is developed at Stanford by
    Roylance et. al.
  • Among these is the sacrificial layer technique,
    first demonstrated in 1965 by Nathanson and
    Wickstrom, in which a layer of material is
    deposited between structural layers for
    mechanical separation and isolation. This layer
    is removed during the release etch to free the
    structural layers and to allow mechanical devices
    to move relative to the substrate. A layer is
    releasable when a sacrificial layer separates it
    from the substrate. The application of the
    sacrificial layer technique to micromachining in
    1985 gave rise to surface micromachining, in
    which the Si substrate is primarily used as a
    mechanical support upon which the micromechanical
    elements are fabricated.
  • Prior to 1987, these micromechanical structures
    were limited in motion. During 1987-1988, a
    turning point was reached in micromachining when,
    for the first time, techniques for integrated
    fabrication of mechanisms (i.e. rigid bodies
    connected by joints for transmitting,
    controlling, or constraining relative movement)
    on Si were demonstrated. During a series of three
    separate workshops on microdynamics held in 1987,
    the term MEMS was coined.

Microsystems by market volume
  • Largest Current Markets Inkjet, Pressure
    sensors, DLP, Inertial Sensors

Top 30 Manufacturers (2003)
Anatomy of a Microsystem

Applications Automotive Optics Telecom Biomedical
Technology (Design) System Tech. (Fab) Micro
Tech. (Si, non-Si) Materials Tech. (Package)
Process Tech.
Optical Electrical Mechanical Thermal Fluid Magnet
ic Electromagnetic
Interface toEnvironment
InformationEnergySubstancesmove across a
Signals, Power
What this course covers
  • Micro System Technology Concepts
  • Design, simulation, control (device and system
  • Interconnects, packaging
  • Assembly precision concepts
  • Micro Fabrication Concepts
  • Si and Non-Si machining
  • Materials and Effects
  • Thermal, Electrostatic, Piezo, SMA, Fluidics,
  • MST Examples

  • http//
  • http//
  • Chapter 1 from Pelesko Text