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Introduction to Microbiology

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Describe basic and specialised microscopy techniques and their applications ... Mycology: study of fungi. Immunology: study of immunity ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to Microbiology


1
Introduction to Microbiology
  • Dr Paul Brown
  • paul.brown_at_uwimona.edu.jm
  • BC10M Introductory Biochemistry
  • Lecture 1

2
Teaching Objectives
  • To give an overview of the history of
    Microbiology
  • To introduce the following
  • The extent of the microbial world
  • Microscopy theory
  • Fundamental and quantitative techniques
  • Bacterial and viral growth characteristics
  • Microbial phylogenetic and metabolic diversity

3
Learning OutcomesI
  • At the end of this section, students will have an
    appreciation of /or be able to
  • The important developments in Microbiology
  • Describe basic and specialised microscopy
    techniques and their applications
  • The extent of the microbial world
  • Describe the important differences between
    prokaryotes (Bacteria and Archaea) and eukaryotes

4
Learning OutcomesII
  • At the end of this section, students should be
    able to
  • Describe basic and specialized techniques for
    quantifying microbial growth
  • Summarize the process of bacterial and viral
    reproduction and describe the dynamics of a
    bacterial growth curve and the plaque assay
  • Indicate how bacteria are divided into groups
    according to their phylogeny /or metabolism

5
Lecture Plan
  • Scope of Microbiology
  • Extent of the microbial world
  • History of Microbiology
  • Techniques
  • Microscopy and Staining
  • Pure culture methods
  • Quantitative methods
  • Microbial growth curve
  • Plaque assay
  • Microbial diversity
  • Phylogeny
  • Substrate utilization

6
References
  • Madigan et al. Brocks Biology of Microorganisms
    9th, 10th eds.
  • Prescott et al., Microbiology, 3rd, 4th eds.
  • Black, Microbiology, 4th ed.
  • Other Microbiology texts

7
Introduction
  • microbiology - the study of microorganisms
  • organisms to small to be seen with the naked eye
  • except in large groups
  • effects of large numbers often visible
  • e.g., chemical reactions in soil horizons
  • e.g., toxin and gas production in incompletely
    sterilised food cans
  • e.g., disease in animals and plants

8
Microbial World
  • Viruses
  • Bacteria (Eubacteria) and Archaeabacteria
  • Fungi (Yeasts and Molds)
  • Protozoa
  • Microscopic Algae

9
Benefits
  • Maintain balance of environment (microbial
    ecology)
  • Basis of food chain
  • Nitrogen fixation
  • Photosynthesis
  • Digestion, synthesis of vitamins
  • Manufacture of food and drink

10
Benefits
  • Genetic engineering
  • Synthesis of chemical products
  • Recycling sewage
  • Bioremediation use microbes to remove toxins
    (oil spills)
  • Use of microbes to control crop pests
  • Normal microbiota

11
Harmful Effects
  • Cause disease (basis for bioterrorism)
  • Food spoilage

12
Pioneers of Microbiology
  • Robert Hooke, UK (1665)
  • Proposed the Cell Theory
  • Observed cork with crude microscope
  • All living things are composed of cells
  • Spontaneous generation
  • Some forms of life could arise spontaneously from
    non-living matter
  • Francesco Redi, IT (1668)
  • Redis experiments first to dispprove S.G.

13
Pioneers of Microbiology
  • Antoni van Leeuwenhoek, DE (1673)
  • First observed live microorganisms (animalcules)
  • Schleiden and Schwann, DE
  • Formulated Cell Theory cells are the fundamental
    units of life and carry out all the basic
    functions of living things
  • Pasteur, FR and Tyndall, UK (1861)
  • Finally disproved S.G.

14
Pioneers of Microbiology
  • Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), Chemist
  • Fermentation (1857)
  • Pasteurization heat liquid enough to kill
    spoilage bacteria (1864)
  • Vaccine development rabies
  • Proposed the germ theory of disease
  • Proposed aseptic techniques (prevent
    contamination by unwanted microbes)
  • Director of Pasteur Institute, Paris (1894)

15
Pioneers of Microbiology
  • Joseph Lister, UK (1867)
  • Used phenol (carbolic acid) to disinfect wounds
  • First aseptic technique in surgery
  • Robert Koch, DE (1876)
  • Postulates Germ theory (1876)
  • Identified microbes that caused anthrax (1876),
    tuberculosis (1882) and cholera (1883)
  • Developed microbiological media streak plates
    for pure culture (1881)

16
Kochs Postulates
  • The specific causative agent must be found in
    every case of the disease.
  • The disease organism must be isolated from the
    lesions of the infected case and maintained in
    pure culture.
  • The pure culture, inoculated into a susceptible
    or experimental animal, should produce the
    symptoms of the disease.
  • The same bacterium should be re-isolated in pure
    culture from the intentionally infected animal.

17
Branches of Microbiology
  • Bacteriology study of bacteria
  • Mycology study of fungi
  • Immunology study of immunity
  • Edward Jenner, UK developed vaccination (1798)
  • Metchnikoff, RU discovered phagocytes (1884)
  • Paul Ehrlich, DE theory of immunity (1890)
  • Virology study of viruses
  • Beijerinck, NE discovered intracellular
    reproduction of TMV coined the term virus
    (1899)

18
Branches of Microbiology
  • Parasitology study of protozoa and parasitic
    worms
  • Chemotherapy
  • Treatment of disease by using chemical means
  • Antibiotics produced naturally
  • Synthetic drugs
  • Paul Ehrlich (1878) used arsenic compounds to
    fight disease magic bullet

19
Branches of Microbiology
  • Chemotherapy
  • Alexander Fleming, Scotland (1928) discovered
    penicillin
  • Selman Waksman, Ukraine (1944) discovered
    streptomycin
  • Problems
  • Toxicity of drugs gt Selective toxicity
  • Resistance of bacteria to drugs

20
Branches of Microbiology
  • Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Recombinant DNA
  • Genetic engineering/biotechnology
  • Microbial genetics mechanism by which microbes
    inherit genes
  • Molecular biology structure and function
    (expression) of genes
  • Molecular epidemiology/diagnostics

21
Branches of Microbiology
  • Biotechnology
  • GMOs/GEMs for industrial, pharmaceutical and
    agricultural applications
  • Improvements of agriculture (plants and animals)
  • Gene therapy inserting a missing gene or
    replacing a defective one in human cells
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