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Fundamental Medical Mycology

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Fundamental Medical Mycology. Fungal Characteristics. Fungal Classification. Fungal ... mycology.adelaide.edu.au ... Mycology is the study of Fungi. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fundamental Medical Mycology


1
Fundamental Medical Mycology
  • Fungal Characteristics
  • Fungal Classification
  • Fungal Terminology

Some of the images herein are taken from
Kaminskis Fungal Jungle Power Points with some
modifications
www. mycology.adelaide.edu.au/Fungal_Jungle/kamins
ki.html
2
Biological Relationships
  • Mycology is the study of Fungi. Fungi (singular,
    fungus) are a group of organisms similar to and
    different from animals, plants, protists, and
    bacteria.

Fungi
Protists
Bacteria
Animals
Plants
Multicell v v
v
One cell
v v v
Eukaryote v v v
v
Phototroph v
X v
Autotroph v
X v
Heterotroph v v
v v
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4
Fungal characteristics
  • The fungi grow as molds (moulds), yeast, or
    combinations of the 2 (dimorphism). In that
    latter case they usually grow as mold in the
    environment and as yeast-type cells in vivo.
  • Groups of cells grow via filamentous extensions
    called hyphae. Collectively these are known as
    mycelia - especially true of the molds.
  • Mold colonies are fuzzy masses of mycelia
    whereas yeast colonies are smooth and homogeneous
    like those of bacteria.
  • Yeast are primarily single celled organisms.
  • Fungi possess cell walls composed of chitin,
    but are in most other ways similar to other
    Eukaryotes.

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6
Fungal characteristics
  • Fungi generally reproduce both sexually
    asexually via production of tough spores. They
    produce asexual spores called conidia at the
    end of aerial hyphae. Sexual spores vary between
    groups of molds. Yeast utilize a unique asexual
    mechanism called budding.
  • All fungi are capable of aerobic heterotrophic
    respiration. Some are also capable of
    fermentation. Nutrients are acquired via simple
    absorption (diffusion).
  • Fungi, especially molds, are saprophytes.
    They derive neutrients and energy from dead and
    decaying matter making them critically important
    to Earths nutrient cycle.

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8
Fungal characteristics
  • Fungi inhabit most habitats on planet Earth
    including terrestrial aquatic, but most are
    terrestrial organisms.
  • Some fungi coexist in mutualistic relationships
    with plants (ex. Mycorhizae), algae (lichens),
    insects (termites), etc.
  • Most parasitic fungi are plant pathogens, indeed
    fungi are responsible for the most ecomonically
    significant plant diseases.
  • and then there are some fungi that are human
    pathogens.?

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10
Fungal characteristics - clinical
  • Fungal pathogens are opportunistic infection is
    unlikely in immunocompetent individuals. Normal
    microbiota (mainly bacterial) prevents fungal
    infection in most cases.
  • Most human fungal infections are epidermal /
    peripheral. Internal systemic fungal infection
    is limited to immunocompromised individuals for
    the most part.
  • Non-specific cell-mediated immunity are the
    primary means of defense vs fungal infection.
  • Fungi vary in regard to morphology, sexual
    life-cycles / sexual spores, and the extent of
    infection (see table 19-3). Fungi are classified
    primarily on these 3 bases. ?
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