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Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills

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Equipment accidents (malfunctioning or improper use of medical equipment). Hygiene ... They are a legitimate part of the medical treatment. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills


1
Basic Nursing Foundations of Skills Concepts
Chapter 20
  • SAFETY/HYGIENE

2
Safety
  • The number one priority in providing client care.
  • Prevention is the key to safety.

3
Factors Affecting Safety
  • Age.
  • Lifestyle.
  • Sensory and Perceptual Alterations.
  • Mobility.
  • Emotional State.

4
Causes of Accidents in the Health Care Setting
  • Client behavior accidents (e.g. poisoning, burns,
    self-inflicted cuts and bruises).
  • Therapeutic procedure accidents (medication
    errors, falls during transfers, contamination of
    sterile instruments or wounds, etc.).
  • Equipment accidents (malfunctioning or improper
    use of medical equipment).

5
Hygiene
  • The science of health.
  • Promotes cleanliness, provides for comfort and
    relaxation, improves self-image, promotes healthy
    skin.

6
Factors Influencing Hygiene
  • Body Image.
  • Social and Cultural Practices.
  • Personal Preferences.
  • Socioeconomic Status.
  • Knowledge.

7
Cultural Considerations and Hygiene
  • Some cultures do not permit women to immerse
    their bodies in water during menstruation for
    fear they will drown.
  • In North America, people typically bathe daily
    and use deodorants.
  • In Europe, many people do not bathe daily or use
    deodorants.

8
Nursing Process Assessment
  • Do you wash your hands before preparing food?
  • Do you keep meats and dairy products refrigerated
    before using?
  • Is there a smoke detector or fire extinguisher in
    your home?
  • What things do you do to stay healthy?
  • Do you need assistance with bathing and dressing?
  • Do you regularly visit the eye doctor and
    dentist?
  • Do you floss regularly?

9
Assessment Appraisals
  • Nurses will assess clients for risk with two main
    tools
  • Skin Integrity Risk Appraisal.
  • Fall Risk Appraisal.

10
Nursing Diagnosis
  • After data collection and analysis, the main
    nursing diagnoses that relate to safety and
    hygiene deficits are
  • Injury, Risk for.
  • Risk for.
  • Self-Care Deficits.

11
7 Subcategories of Risk
  • Trauma, Risk for.
  • Latex Allergy Response.
  • Latex Allergy Response, Risk for.
  • Aspiration, Risk for.
  • Disuse Syndrome, Risk for.
  • Poisoning, Risk for.
  • Suffocation, Risk for.

12
Self-Care Deficit
  • A condition that exists when an individual is not
    able to perform one or more activities of daily
    living.

13
Implementation and Hygiene
  • Implementation involves continual assessment of
    client health risks and prioritization of such
    nursing interventions as
  • Administration of prescribed medications.
  • Provision of balanced nutritional intake.
  • Promotion of adequate rest and exercise.
  • Teaching client about health hazards.

14
Reducing the Risk for Client Falls
  • Proper supervision.
  • Keeping hospital beds in the lowest position and
    side rails up.
  • Using nonslip mats and rugs.
  • Illuminating the environment.
  • Orienting the client to the environment and the
    call system.
  • Providing ambulatory aids (e.g. wheelchair or
    walker).
  • Placing personal belongings and call light within
    easy reach.

15
Nursing Interventions and Prevention of Falls
  • Specific nursing interventions aimed at
    preventing falls include
  • Wiping up spills.
  • Encouraging use of side rails.
  • Applying restraints.
  • Encouraging use of assistive devices for walking.
  • Using proper body mechanics.
  • Ensure adequate lighting.
  • Removing obstacles.

16
Restraints
  • Protective devices used to limit the physical
    activity of a client or to immobilize a client or
    extremity.

17
Types of Restraints
  • Physical (reduces the clients movement through
    the application of a device).
  • Chemical (medications used to control a clients
    behavior).

18
Acceptable Reasons for Restraints
  • They are a legitimate part of the medical
    treatment.
  • All other interventions have been tried first.
  • Other disciplines have been consulted for
    assistance with the problem.
  • Supporting documentation has been provided.

19
Key Elements of Restraint Documentation
  • Reason for the restraint.
  • Method of restraint.
  • Explanation given to client and family.
  • Date and time of and clients response.
  • Duration.
  • Frequency of observation and clients response.
  • Safety.
  • Assessment of continued need.
  • Client outcome.

20
Assistive Devices for Walking
  • Canes.
  • Crutches.
  • Walkers.
  • Wheelchairs.

21
Using Proper Body Mechanics
  • The safest way of lifting and moving things is to
    use these principles of body mechanics
  • Center of gravity (pelvic area).
  • Base of support (the feet).
  • Body alignment.

22
Fire Prevention
  • Nursing interventions aimed at preventing or
    reducing risk of fire include
  • Clearly marking fire exits.
  • Knowing locations and operation of fire
    extinguishers.
  • Practicing fire evacuation procedures.
  • Posting emergency phone numbers.
  • Keeping open spaces and hallways clear of
    clutter.
  • Checking wiring.
  • Educating clients about fire hazards.

23
Reducing Exposure to Radiation
  • Minimizing the time spent in contact with
    radiation source.
  • Maximizing distance from radiation source.
  • Using appropriate radiation shields.
  • Monitoring radiation exposure with a film badge.
  • Labeling all potentially radioactive material.
  • Never touching dislodged implants or body fluids
    of person receiving radiation therapy.

24
Nursing Interventions and Hygiene
  • Providing foot and toenail care.
  • Oral care.
  • Hair care.
  • Eye, ear and nose care.
  • Providing clean bed linen.
  • Reducing noise pollution.
  • Providing for clients bathing needs.
  • Offering back rubs.
  • Providing perineal care.

25
Bathing Clients
  • Bathing of clients is an essential component of
    nursing care that falls into two general
    categories
  • Cleansing baths (Shower bath, tub bath).
  • Therapeutic baths (hot, warm, cool, tepid soak
    or sitz oatmeal, cornstarch, or sodium
    bicarbonate).

26
Providing Oral Care
  • Common problems occurring in the oral cavity
    include
  • Bad breath (halitosis).
  • Cavities (dental caries).
  • Plaque.
  • Periodontal disease (pyorrhea).
  • Inflammation of the gums (gingivitis).
  • Inflammation of the oral mucosa (stomatitis).
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