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Security 101 for Radiation Safety Professionals

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Title: Security 101 for Radiation Safety Professionals


1
Security 101 for Radiation Safety Professionals
  • Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM,
    CPP, ARM
  • Assistant Vice President for
  • Safety, Health, Environment Risk Management
  • The University of Texas Health Science Center at
    Houston

2
Abstract
  • The tragic events of 9/11 have significantly
    impacted the radiation safety profession. Issues
    related to security have become a preeminent
    concern for employees and management alike,
    potentially overshadowing the importance of
    previously identified safety concerns. The
    traditional lines that separated security
    functions and safety functions have become
    blurred. Workplace evaluations that previously
    considered the possible safety and health
    implications of the actions of well-intended
    individuals are now are expected to include
    consideration of actions with sinister intent as
    well.
  • In recognition of these changes, it is
    imperative that radiation safety professionals
    become familiar with the basics of security to
    ensure that issues are adequately addressed
    within the context of this new paradigm. This
    presentation will provide an overview of the
    security profession from the perspective of a
    radiation safety professional, specifically
    addressing
  • the essential differences between safety
    security and security public safety (police),
  • the areas where safety and security intersect,
    especially post 9/11,
  • areas of cooperation, optimization, and synergy,
    with specific emphasis on some basic security
    issues that can be incorporated into routine
    safety considerations
  • the professional organization that represents the
    security industry and the associated professional
    certification in the field, and
  • examples of useful references used in the
    profession.
  • Ample time will be allotted for questions,
    answers, and discussion.

3
Speaker Biography
  • Dr. Robert Emery is the Assistant Vice President
    for Safety, Health, Environment Risk Management
    for The University of Texas Health Science Center
    at Houston and Associate Professor of
    Occupational Health at the University of Texas
    School of Public Health. Bob has over 25 years of
    experience in the field of health safety and
    holds masters degrees in both health physics and
    environmental sciences, and a doctorate in
    occupational health. Bob is unique in that he
    possesses national board certification and
    registration in all of the main areas of health
    safety
  • Health physics Certified Health Physicist, CHP,
  • Occupational safety Certified Safety
    Professional, CSP,
  • Industrial hygiene Certified Industrial
    Hygienist, CIH,
  • Biological safety Registered Biosafety
    Professional, RBP,
  • Hazardous materials Certified Hazardous
    Materials Manager, CHMM,
  • Security management Certified Protection
    Professional, CPP
  • and Risk management Associate in Risk
    Management, ARM.
  • Bob is the author of many peer-reviewed articles
    on practical health and safety topics and makes
    frequent presentations on such issues at the
    local and national level. He welcomes to
    opportunity to interact with colleagues from the
    various health safety disciplines and can be
    contacted via e-mail at Robert.J.Emery_at_uth.tmc.edu

4
The Old Paradigm
Security
Safety
5
The New Paradigm
Security
Safety
6
The New Paradigm
Emergency plans Security surveys Ingress/egress F
acility design Insurance losses
Security
Safety
7
The New Paradigm
Emergency plans Security surveys Ingress/egress Fa
cility design Insurance losses
Security
Safety
Workplace violence Background checks Select agents
8
The New Paradigm
Emergency plans Security surveys Ingress/egress Fa
cility design Insurance losses
Security
Safety
Workplace violence Background checks Select agents
DOT security Other hazardous agents Driver
Safety/License checks
9
The New Paradigm
Emergency plans Security surveys Ingress/egress Fa
cility design Insurance losses
Routine surveillance Guard patrols Drills
Security
Safety
Workplace violence Background checks Select agents
DOT security Other hazardous agents Driver
Safety/License checks
10
Safety vs. Security Whats the Difference?
  • Interestingly, in most of the worlds languages
    there are not separate words for safety and
    security
  • There is, in effect, an interdependence
  • The difference stems from intent
  • Was an event due to an oversight, an accident, or
    was it on purpose?
  • In the post 9/11 environment, any previous
    perceived differences have been diminished in the
    eyes of major stakeholders perhaps necessarily

11
Security Everyone Wants It but Few Seem Able to
Define It
  • Security the state of being safe or secure
    protection
  • Safe free from threat, harm, loss, or danger
    unharmed involving no risk
  • Are some stakeholder expectations unrealistic?
    How will you protect our organization against an
    RPG attack?

12
The Presumption of Terrorism
  • In the post 9/11 world, events seem to be
    immediately assumed to be terrorism examples
  • Post 9/11 NYC plane crash
  • South Padre Island Bridge
  • DC area sniper
  • Space Shuttle
  • SARS
  • NE Power outage
  • NYC Barge dock crash

13
An Important Underlying Professional Difference
  • Safety
  • Assumption of program participation (either
    active or passive), given desire to remain
    healthy safe does not traditionally consider
    nor think like a criminal
  • Security
  • Naturally suspicious thinking like a criminal
    is actually a professional attribute

14
Difference Between Police and Security
  • Security
  • Predominantly preventive or proactive
  • Protect organization
  • Screen hires
  • Screen existing employees
  • Collect information
  • Relay to police for action
  • Organizational emergency response
  • (Private security outnumbers police by a factor
    of 3, and outspends police by 70)
  • Police
  • Predominantly reactive
  • Protect public
  • Engaged upon commission of crime
  • Arrest powers
  • Legal involvement
  • Incarceration
  • Lethal force

15
Safety and Security Both Control Losses, But….
  • Safety
  • Predominantly focused on accidental losses
  • Approaches
  • Policies/procedures
  • Training
  • Surveillance
  • Follow up
  • Emergency preparedness
  • Prevention
  • Security
  • Predominantly focused on purposeful or
    intentional losses
  • Approaches
  • Policies/procedures
  • Training
  • Surveillance
  • Follow up
  • Emergency preparedness
  • Prevention

16
Reliance on Commercial or Private Security
  • Consider legal tender a dollar bill certainly
    one of the most marketable of commodities
  • During creation and destruction, the document is
    afforded federal protections but at all other
    times, it is protected by private entities
  • Examples banks, armored car transfers, retail
    shops, personal use

17
Other Similarities Between Safety Security
  • Consider the RSO of an organization….
  • What is their jurisdiction?
  • Source of power?
  • Source of authority?
  • Reporting relationship?
  • Surveillance activities?
  • Challenge of garnering recognition and resources
    for something that didnt happen

18
Linkages Between Radiation Safety Security in
High Risk Areas
  • Radiation safety professionals who work in
    extremely high security risk environments such as
    commercial nuclear power, nuclear weapons,
    munitions, etc. are necessarily keenly aware of
    the security issues
  • But radiation safety professionals outside of
    these specialized environments may not be as
    attuned to these matters
  • Hence, the genesis of this presentation

19
An Emerging Dilemma
  • Recent professional interactions suggests that
    security issues are beginning to overshadowing
    safety issues in times of resource allocation
  • Important for radiation safety professionals to
    recognize this potential and to
  • Develop an understanding and appreciation of
    systems currently in place
  • Identify areas of cooperation and mutual support
    (e.g. impending safety/security regulatory
    requirements)
  • And eliminate even the notion of duplication of
    efforts.

20
Exercise 1
  • Consider a typical research lab and 10 CFR
    20.1801 1802
  • What would you consider the steps appropriate to
    comply with
  • Security of stored material secure from
    unauthorized removal or access licensed materials
    that are stored in controlled or unrestricted
    areas
  • Control of materials not in storage licensee
    shall control and maintain constant surveillance
    of license materials that is in a controlled or
    unrestricted are and that is not in storage
  • What factors influenced your decisions?
  • How might this differ if you were dealing with
    brachytherapy sources? Soil density gauges?

21
First Step in Security 101 What Does Security
Do?
  • Security surveys
  • Buffer zones, exclusion barriers
  • Access controls
  • Intrusion detection
  • Security lighting
  • Emergency planning
  • General program management
  • Workplace violence prevention
  • Deploy guard staff
  • Information theft/cybercrime
  • Fraud
  • CPTED
  • Legal issues
  • Investigations
  • Deception detection
  • Firearms

22
What Would be of Interest to Radiation Safety?
  • Security surveys
  • Buffer zones, exclusion barriers
  • Access controls
  • Intrusion detection
  • Security lighting
  • Emergency planning
  • General program management
  • Workplace violence prevention
  • Deploy guard staff
  • Information theft/cybercrime
  • Fraud
  • CPTED
  • Legal issues
  • Investigations
  • Deception detection
  • Firearms

23
Design and Evaluation Process for Physical
Protection Systems
Scanned image for educational purposes from
Garcia, ML The Design and Evaluation of
Physical Protection Systems Butterworth
Heinemann, 2001.
24
Underlying Security Program Objectives
  • Define
  • So that uninformed passerby can recognize
    restricted space versus public access
  • Deter
  • Physical, psychological and electronic deterrents
  • Detect
  • Early warning
  • Monitor
  • Ability to observe and monitor perpetrators
  • Intervene
  • Ability to react to intruders or security
    violators
  • Defend
  • Both physically to prevent losses, and legally in
    subsequent legal actions

25
Security Surveys
  • A critical on-site examination and analysis of
    security status. Involves
  • Anticipation
  • Recognition
  • Appraisal of crime risk
  • Initiation of action to remove or reduce crime
    risk

26
Security Surveys 9 Key Points
  • General purpose of building
  • Hazards involving the building or its occupants
  • Police or guard security applications
  • Physical recommendations
  • Locks, access control
  • Alarm systems
  • Storage
  • Trespassing
  • Custodians

Note excellent checklist in Appendix B of
Sennewald, CA Effective Security Management
Fourth Edition Butterworth Heinemann, 2003.
27
Security Surveys
  • Each complex has a distinctive personality that
    must be considered in the assessment.
  • For example, consider these facts
  • Building of brick and metal construction,
  • 100 ft by 100 ft,
  • 2 solid core doors
  • and a large tempered glass window in the front
  • Based on this information, how would the
    assessment vary if….

28
Security Surveys
  • The building were a bank
  • Next door to a police station?
  • 10 miles for a police station?
  • A doctors office
  • With extensive fine art collection?
  • With class A narcotics?
  • A convenience store
  • Closes at 6 pm?
  • Sells liquor and open until 2 am?

29
Subsequent Security Decisions
  • Based on the outcome of the security survey,
    decisions about security measures are made
  • Intent is to prevent or reduce crime
  • A key question does a clear regulatory
    requirement exist? Or perhaps something like
    …must employ measures to prevent unauthorized
    removal
  • Another key question what would be an
    acceptable loss?
  • To your organization?
  • To the community or society as a whole?
  • Who should be making the decision for the public?
  • While we try to sort these out, lets discuss
    some of the measures used in the security
    profession

30
Barriers
  • Intended to clearly define boundaries, delay
    unwanted traffic, and direct to proper entrances
  • Designed to prevent penetration by accident,
    stealth or force

31
Types of Barriers
  • Passive
  • Doors, walls, floors, vents, ducts, fences
  • Guards
  • Flexible, continuous coverage
  • Expensive, subject to compromise
  • Dispensable
  • Deployed upon attack
  • Chemical fogs, irritants, smokes, foams
  • Spurious activation, possible harm to
    non-combatant

32
Barriers
  • Helpful hint
  • to aid in alarm assessment and interception of
    intruder, barrier should be encountered
    immediately after activation of detection system

33
Access Controls
  • Measures to restrict access to areas to those
    with bona fide reasons to be there. Examples
    include
  • Signs
  • Guard stations
  • Keys
  • Combination locks
  • Card readers
  • Identification systems

34
Access Controls
  • Classes of signs
  • Directional control traffic flow
  • visitor entrance this way
  • Warning advise of potential hazards
  • caution radioactive material
  • Limitations advise of rule or restriction
  • identification badges must be worn and displayed
    at all times

35
Access Controls
  • Guard Stations
  • Typically positioned at points of ingress and
    egress
  • Typical operations include
  • Review of ID badge display
  • Knowledge of expected visitors
  • Sign in, verification, destination, purpose of
    visit, escort
  • Receipt of deliveries
  • Organizing parking
  • Knowledge of terminated employees
  • Often supplemented by CCTV systems

36
Access Controls
  • Keys and Locking Devices
  • At best, locking devices only prolong the time
    necessary to penetrate a system
  • General rules
  • Keys should be given the highest level of
    protection afforded by the Security Department
    loss or theft can compromise the entire program
  • Keys not in use should be secured
  • Should be stamped with coded numbers not
    identifying location
  • Should be signed for upon issuance
  • Educate about reporting losses make clear that
    there is not recrimination for loss, otherwise
    losses might not be reported
  • Process for collecting upon termination

37
Intrusion Detection
  • Safety professionals are familiar with detection
    systems for fire, smoke, heat, chemical, or
    radiation emissions
  • Intrusion detection systems are just another
    system - intended to detect intruders
  • Three main classes
  • Perimeter protection
  • Area/space protection
  • Object/spot protection

38
Intrusion Detection
  • Perimeter protection
  • Devices installed on access points such as doors,
    windows, vents, skylights, or other openings
  • Advantage 80 of all break-ins occur via these
    routes
  • Disadvantage if criminal comes in another way,
    or remains in facility after closing, the system
    is useless

39
Intrusion Detection
  • Examples of perimeter protection mechanisms
  • Door switches
  • Metallic foils
  • Door laces and paneling

40
Intrusion Detection
  • Area/space protection
  • Protects interior of building
  • Should be used in addition to perimeter
    protection
  • Types
  • Photoelectric
  • Ultrasonics
  • Microwaves
  • Infrared
  • Pressure mats
  • Sound sensors

41
Intrusion Detection
  • Challenges with area/space systems
  • Alarms due to detection of non-intruder false
    alarms
  • Systems may be sensitive to movements such as
    animals, curtains moving due to air currents, or
    event water in pipes

42
Intrusion Detection
  • Object/Spot protection
  • Final stage of security in depth
  • Used for objects such as specific filing
    cabinets, safes, art objects, expensive equipment
  • Two main types
  • Capacitance/proximity detectors
  • Vibration detectors

43
Intrusion Detection
  • Addressing alarms
  • Local alarms
  • Relies on a local ability to respond to alarm
  • Central station systems
  • Single server or multiple service providers
  • Typically transmitted via telephone lines
  • Notifications directed to designated responders -
    police

44
Security Lighting
  • Purpose
  • Create a psychological deterrent to intrusion
  • To enable detection of intruders
  • Violent and property crime, disorder and
    accidents occur disproportionately at night or in
    poor lighted areas

45
Security Lighting
  • Essentially three levels of lighting
  • Bright light enables offenders to work, but
    also enables observation
  • Darkness intruder unable to work, also unable
    to observe
  • Dim light enough light to operate but perhaps
    not enough to observe
  • The age old challenge effectiveness of lighting
    systems versus costs to operate

46
Security Lighting
  • Illuminance the intensity of light falling on a
    surface.
  • Measured in foot candles (FC) or lux
  • 1 lux 0.0929 FC
  • To provide a conceptual reference
  • Bright clear day 10,000 FC
  • Overcast day 100 FC
  • Full moon 0.01 FC

47
Security Lighting
  • Levels recommended by the Illuminating
    Engineering Society of North America
    (www.iesna.org)
  • Self parking area 1 FC
  • Covered parking area 5 FC
  • Active pedestrian entrance 5 FC
  • Building surroundings 1 FC
  • Office 50 FC
  • (note all horizontal readings)

48
Security Lighting
  • Lamp considerations
  • Amount of illumination produced
  • Color of light produced
  • Bright white versus yellow
  • Compatible with CCTV system?
  • Operating efficiency
  • Life span
  • Incandescent bulbs 1,000 2,000 hours
  • High pressure sodium 20,000 hours
  • Strike and re-strike times
  • Starting and re-starting

49
Security Lighting
  • Illumination of both sides of facility barriers
  • Direct light down and away from structure,
    causing glare for intruders
  • Dont leave dark spaces
  • Provide protection of lighting system

50
Workplace Violence
  • Not limited to workplace homicides so widely
    covered in the news
  • Defined as
  • an act against an employee that creates a hostile
    work environment and which negatively affects the
    employee, either physically or psychologically.
    These acts include all types of physical and
    verbal assaults, threats, coercion, intimidation,
    and all forms of harassment
  • Workplace Violence Research Institute

51
Workplace Violence
  • How extensive is the threat?
  • 1 of 4 employees harassed, threatened, or
    attacked on the job
  • Northwestern Life Insurance Co.
  • 50 of companies surveyed reported experiencing
    workplace violence in last 4 years
  • American Management Association
  • Average of 1,100 workplace homicides annually
  • U.S. Department of Justice

52
Workplace Violence Prevention Program Elements
  • Form a management team
  • Assess current conditions controls, culture,
    etc.
  • Prepare and implement policies
  • Establish confidential means for collecting
    information (a hot line)
  • Develop a training program for all employees
  • Provide supervisor and managers with conflict
    resolution training
  • Review pre-employment screening practices
  • Review termination process
  • Prepare a crisis response plan
  • Test and update program regularly

53
Workplace Violence Prevention
  • How might radiation safety help in this
    particular area?
  • Participation in workplace surveillance
    activities
  • Solicitation of worker concerns
  • Increasing awareness, reporting concerns to
    proper authorities
  • Participation in crisis response planning,
    actions
  • Security of items post termination?

54
CPTED
  • Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design
  • Concept developed from work in public housing
    projects and schools
  • Looks at an environment from a different
    perspective
  • Objective is to design space in a way to reduce
    crimes and losses

55
9 Major CPTED Strategies
  • Provide clear border definition
  • Provide clear marked transitional zones
  • Relocation of gathering areas
  • Place safe activities in unsafe locations
  • Place unsafe activities in safe locations
  • Redesignate the use of space to provide natural
    barriers
  • Improve the scheduling of space
  • Redesign space to increase perception of natural
    surveillance
  • Overcome distance and isolation

56
CPTED Application Example Shipping Receiving
  • Poor design example
  • Confused and deep access for external vehicles
  • Easy mix of external vehicles and staff
  • Multiple access to employee vehicles
  • Shipping and receiving in same location
    legitimizes packages coming and going
  • Full time monitor required to screen access and
    packages

Scanned image for educational purposes from
Fennelly, LJ Effective Physical Security
Third Edition, Elsevier, 2004
57
CPTED Application Example Shipping Receiving
  • Improved design
  • Parking segregated from external delivery upon
    vendor vehicle access to property
  • Employee and visitor parking clearly visible form
    buildings
  • Shipping and receiving separated by distance,
    reducing ranges of excuses
  • Legitimate behavior narrowly defined by location
  • Transitional definition of movement is clear

Scanned image for educational purposes from
Fennelly, LJ Effective Physical Security
Third Edition, Elsevier, 2004
58
Interesting Tricks of the Trade
  • To find breaches in security, follow the smokers
  • Visit the workplace after dark
  • Are locks closed on hasps or chains while means
    of access opened?
  • How many locks are on the chains?
  • What happens when the fire alarm pull station is
    pulled? Or when the power goes out?
  • Testing of safety bolts on door bolts to
    prevent shimming
  • If I were a thief programs
  • Cross referencing simple personal history
    information example - whats the first three
    digits of your SSN?
  • Making terminations known to re-enforce security
    awareness

59
Putting Security Awareness to Work
60
Radiation-related Crime Statistics?
  • Interestingly, many security decisions are based,
    in part, on the review of past events
  • The radiation safety profession is largely devoid
    of data on such events (a few disjunct case
    reports MIT, Brown, NIH, NC)
  • We now have the preliminary data of reported
    stolen source events in Texas over the past 45
    years
  • Data provides first glimpse into this issue
  • Lets see what it might tell us…

61
Fig. 3 Number of reported stolen source events in
Texas, 1956 to 2000 by year (n113)
62
Fig. 2 Number of reported stolen source events in
Texas, 1956 to 2000 by year and nuclide (n113)
63
Fig. 3 Rate of reported stolen source events per
active radioactive material license issued in
Texas, 1956 to 2000 by year (n113)
64
Stolen Source by Nuclide
65
Fig. 5 Reported stolen source events in Texas,
1956 to 2000 by radioactivity (n113)
66
Fig. 6 Reported stolen source events in Texas,
1956 to 2000 by portability status (n113)
67
Fig. 7 Reported stolen source events in Texas,
1956 to 2000 by theft location (n113)
68
Fig. 8 Reported stolen source events in transit
in Texas, 1956 to 2000 (n64)
69
Fig. 9 Reported stolen source events in Texas,
1956 to 2000 by transporter (n64)
70
Fig. 10 Temporal characteristics of reported
stolen source events in Texas, 1956 to 2000
(n113)
71
Fig. 11 Recoverability status of reported stolen
source events in Texas, 1956 to 2000 (n113)
72
Fig. 12 Media contact status of reported stolen
source events in Texas, 1956 to 2000 (n113)
73
Fig. 13 Citation issuance status of reported
stolen source events in Texas, 1956 to 2000
(n113)
74
Other Issues to be Investigated
  • Statistical influence of
  • Portability as a risk factor?
  • Setting type as a risk factor?
  • Temporal analysis as a risk factor?
  • Rate of events as compared to number of licenses
    issued and local crime rate?
  • Attributable factors to recovery?
  • Influence of media contact on recovery rate?

75
Exercise 2
  • Given the information provided,
  • What appear to be the key characteristics
    associated with reported stolen source events?
  • What interventions might be utilized to further
    reduce or prevent such acts?
  • What physical security measures might you
    propose?
  • Where might we go for additional help?

76
Exercise 3
  • Do other models exist?
  • How about biosecurity?
  • Interesting that in the CDCs Biosafety in the
    Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratory (BMBL)
    Appendix F on security, at least 3 of the 9
    citations are on security events associated with
    radioactive materials
  • What are the elements in the BMBL Appendix F?
  • Are they proscriptive or performance based?

77
Professional Organization for Security
Practitioners
  • American Society for Industrial Security (ASIS)
  • asisonline.org

78
Certifications
  • Physical Security Professional (PSP)
  • Primary focus on security of facilities
  • Professional Certified Investigator (PCI)
  • Primary focus on investigations
  • Certified Protection Professional (CPP)
  • Focus on the breadth and management of security
    issues

79
Certified Protection Professional (CPP)
  • Qualifications
  • 9 years experience in security related matters, 3
    years in management
  • With bachelors of higher, 7 years experience, 3
    years in management
  • Exam computer based, 225 multiple choice exam,
    provided at Sylvan Testing Centers
  • Passing 183/225 (70)
  • Fees member 300 (non member 350)
  • Recertification at 3 yr intervals, 16 CEUs

80
CPP Exam Topic Areas
  • Security management 38
  • Physical security 19
  • Investigations 15
  • Personnel security 9
  • Legal aspects 7
  • Protection of sensitive information 6
  • Emergency management 6

81
Summary
  • The safety and security professions are both
    forever changed because of the attacks of 9/11
    and the new threat of terrorism
  • The expectations of major stakeholders are also
    forever changed now expect safe and secure
  • The public safety (police) function in this
    country is largely reactionary, whereas security
    function (predominantly proprietary) is focused
    on prevention.
  • Private security far outweighs public safety in
    resources and staffing.

82
Summary
  • Security functions may be receiving a higher
    priority when finite loss control resources are
    being allocated
  • A basic understanding of the security profession
    can aid the safety profession by identifying
    areas of cooperation and synergy
  • The areas most ripe for collaboration include
  • Security surveys
  • Buffer zones, exclusion barriers
  • Access controls
  • Intrusion detection
  • Security lighting
  • Emergency planning
  • General program management
  • Workplace violence prevention
  • CPTED

83
Summary
  • Safety can easily demonstrate its involvement in
    assisting the security program providing basic
    security orientation to the safety staff and
    documenting as part of its routine safety
    surveillance aspects such as
  • Badge use
  • Door latch function and exposed hinges
  • Conduct a safety assessment after dark
  • Assessment of lighting conditions
  • Evaluation of transport pathways
  • Increased level of awareness
  • Active inquiry of workers any safety or
    security concerns?

84
Summary
  • Formal security education will likely become a
    core training competency for the safety
    professions in the future
  • Opportunities exist in the security profession to
    educate practitioners on safety issues so that
    prudent measures are employed based on sound
    health risk assessments
  • By working together, we can ensure a safe and
    secure working environment for the employees we
    serve and the communities in which we live

85
Useful References
  • Berger, DL Industrial Security Second edition,
    Butterworth Heinemann 1999.
  • Broder, JF Risk Analysis and the Security
    Survey Second edition, Butterworth Heinemann
    2000.
  • Fennelly, LJ Effective Physical Security Third
    Edition, Elsevier, 2004
  • Garcia, ML The Design and Evaluation of Physical
    Protection Systems Butterworth Heinemann, 2001.
  • McCrie, RD Security Operations Management
    Butterworth Heinemann, 2001.
  • National Industrial Security Program Operating
    Manual DOD 5220.22-M
  • Protection of Assets Manual, POA Publishing,
    2025 Hyperion Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90027,
    info_at_protectionofassets.com or asisonline.org
  • Purpura, P Security and Loss Prevention Third
    Edition, Butterworth Heinemann, 1998
  • Security Management, published monthly by ASIS,
    2000 K St. NW, Suite 651, Washington, DC 20006
  • Sennewald, CA Effective Security Management
    Fourth Edition Butterworth Heinemann, 2003.

86
Epilogue
The Universe of Personnel and Property Loss
Potential
87
Insurance Risk Management
Security
Physical Safety
Chemical Safety
Radiation Safety
Biological Safety
Hazardous Waste
88
ARM
CPP
CSP
CIH
CHP
RBP
CHMM
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