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Title: LHC%20Physics,%20Experimental%20Methods%20and%20Measurements


1
8.882 LHC Physics Experimental Methods and
Measurements Introductory Lecture Lecture 1,
February 4, 2009
2
Physics
Colloquium Series
09
Spring
The Physics Colloquium Series Thursday, February
5 at 415 pm in room 10-250 Paul Canfield Iowa
State University "Ending of the Tyranny of
Copper  Intermetallic Superconductivity in the
Post Copper-oxide Age"
For a full listing of this semesters colloquia,
please visit our website at
web.mit.edu/physics
3
Lecture Outline
  • Introduction of Course Personnel
  • Objective of this Course
  • Organization of the Lectures
  • Prerequisites
  • Schedule lectures and recitations
  • Course grade
  • Course Content Overview
  • Overview of LHC Project and Physics

4
The Lecturer
  • Christoph Paus
  • physics career
  • started PhD 1992 at L3 (ee--, LEP, CERN)?
  • in 1998 moved to CDF (pp, TeVatron, FNAL)?
  • since 2006 mostly CMS (pp, LHC, CERN)?
  • physics measurements
  • precision electroweak (Z boson mass width, EWK
    parameters)?
  • B physics directly related to CKM matrix
    (Standard Model)?
  • Standard Model Higgs boson search
  • contact interactions, magnetic monopoles,
    pentaquarks, excited onia

5
Objective of this Course - 8.882
  • Course focus
  • introduce experimental methods
  • perform typical measurements at the LHC and
    TeVatron?
  • Not the purpose of this course
  • provide fully fledge theoretical background
  • quantum field theory courses good for that
  • also nuclear and particle physics standard
    g raduate courses
  • provide in depth discussion of how detectors work
  • nuclear and particle physics standard graduate
    courses
  • maybe specialized course for detector design and
    construction
  • Goal in practical terms
  • learn how to do research as an experimentalist at
    LHC
  • be prepared to go to CERN and start an analysis
  • .. or at least know how experimentalists try to
    do their job

6
Organization of the Course
  • Prerequisites
  • special relativity, quantum physics
  • good to have heard particle physics 12 but not
    needed
  • Dates
  • Monday,Wednesday 100pm 230pm (Kolker room)?
  • it seems Monday/Wednesday 200pm 330pm fits
    better
  • recitation to be arranged with recitation
    instructor, TBA?
  • office hours to be arranged (appointment per
    e-mail)?
  • video office hours very useful and easy to setup?
  • Execution
  • most lectures will be taught over video
  • third time done at MIT, nevertheless nothing is
    set in stone
  • open to changes of course setup according to your
    comments

7
Organization of the Course
  • Execution continued
  • participation from outside MIT/CERN welcome (see
    FNAL)?
  • lecture slides will be available from the Web
  • core of the course are four analyses, performed
    by you
  • 3 use real CDF data (Ebeam 1 TeV)?
  • 1 uses Monte Carlo simulation of CMS detector
    (Ebeam 5-7 TeV)?
  • recommended to pair up and work together
  • analyses have to be handed in as short notes
  • conference at the end of the course, one topic
    per student
  • Course grade
  • basis 3 analyses notes and final project
    presentation

8
Technicalities
  • Access to computers
  • get account at MIT Tier 2 center
  • request account http//www.lns.mit.edu/compserv/
    cms-acctappl.html
  • Access to course documentation and log book
  • we use a TWiki to run and document the course
  • try it as your personal log book
  • example user ChristophPaus (yours will be
    equivalent)?
  • Video tools
  • for remote participants use EVO at
    evo.caltech.edu
  • register and follow instructions to start EVO
    tools
  • before we used VRVS, EVO is still new, but worked
    quite well
  • details explained on the course TWiki

9
Course Content
  • Five big blocks
  • introduction and overview
  • charged track multiplicity measurement
  • upsilon cross section measurement
  • B meson lifetime measurement
  • Standard Model Higgs searches
  • Lecture plan not exactly cast in stone
  • if you have special wishes let me know

10
Course Content First Block
  • Introduction and overview
  • introductory lecture
  • accelerators
  • particle detectors overview

11
Course Content Second Block
  • Charge track multiplicity measurement
  • heavy ion physics overview
  • charge multiplicity measurements
  • data analysis strategies and essentials
  • detectors tracking
  • track reconstruction and fitting
  • analysis tips charge multiplicity

12
Course Content Third Block
  • Upsilon cross section, production fractions
  • onia as probes in heavy ion physics
  • secondary particle production
  • detectors electrons, muons and particle Id
  • analysis tips bottomonia cross section
  • resonances production, decay and reconstruction
  • search strategies and observations
  • efficiency and acceptance

13
Course Content Fourth Block
  • B meson lifetime measurement
  • high energy physics overview
  • b hadron lifetimes and other essentials
  • B physics trigger studies
  • proper time reconstruction
  • sophisticated selections likelihood/neural
    networks

14
Course Content Fifth Block
  • Standard Model Higgs searches
  • Higgs search and other essentials
  • detectors calorimetry
  • jets and missing energy
  • B tagging
  • review

15
Interesting Material
  • Videos academic lectures and presentations
  • CERN http//webcast.cern.ch/home/pages/archive_cd
    s.php
  • SLAC http//www-conf.slac.stanford.edu/ssi
  • FNAL http//www-visualmedia.fnal.gov/ check
    the archives
  • Wikipedia
  • LHC http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Large_Hadron_Col
    lider
  • CMS http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compact_Muon_Sol
    enoid
  • CDF http//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Collider_Detecto
    r_at_Fermilab
  • also try google, YouTube etc.
  • fantastic documentation on the Web though, read
    with care
  • References will be provided throughout the course

16
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC)?
  • Most important features
  • proton-proton collider Ebeam 7 TeV (TeVatron
    1 TeV)?
  • heavy ion (Pb, Ca) collider Ebeam 5.5 TeV
  • instantaneous luminosity 1034 cm2s-1 (TeVatron
    1032cm2s-1)?
  • bunch spacing 25 ns (TeVatron
    396 ns)?
  • Main physics goals
  • discover the Higgs or falsify the Standard Model
  • search for direct signals of New Physics
  • LHC party line schedule (delays still quite
    possible)?
  • Aug 2009 single beam run at Ebeam 7 TeV
  • Sep 2009 first collisions at Ebeam 7 TeV, low
    lumi 15x15
  • last year Sep 2008 all was ready but an incident
    stopped
  • running the machine?

17
(No Transcript)
18
The LEP/LHC Tunnel Setup
Tunnel is 27 km long
50-150m below ground
19
The LEP/LHC Tunnel Setup
Tunnel is 27 km long
50-150m below ground
20
LEP Tunnel before LHC
21
Empty Tunnel LEP Disassembled
22
The LHC Dipoles
23
LHC Pictures Simulation
24
LHC Pictures Real Dipoles
25
LHC Pictures Tunnel with Beamlines
26
LHC Experiments
  • Two omnipurpose detectors
  • Atlas
  • CMS
  • One dedicated B physics experiment
  • LHCb
  • One dedicated heavy ion experiment
  • Alice
  • omnipurpose do heavy ion and B physics as well

27
The LHC Experiments
28
Alice The Mission Statement
  • The ALICE Collaboration is building a dedicated
    heavy-ion detector to exploit the unique physics
    potential of nucleus-nucleus interactions at LHC
    energies.
  • Our aim is to study the physics of strongly
    interacting matter at extreme energy densities,
    where the formation of a new phase of matter, the
    quark-gluon plasma, is expected.

today we know the fireball (plasma) behaves
more like a fluid than a gas
29
Alice Detector Sketch
old L3 magnet
particle physicists do recycle
30
Alice December 2006
April, 2007
31
Atlas/CMS Motivation
  • LHC is a new energy regime uncharted territory
  • The guaranteed mission (seek and destroy)?
  • find the Standard Model Higgs completes SM, for
    now
  • do not find the SM Higgs falsify the model
    because machine fully covers available phase
    space
  • The case for beyond the Standard Model
  • new energy regime opens new doors
  • anything beyond the Standard Model is a sensation
  • be it SUSY, extra dimensions, leptoquarks, Z',
    .... or even better the completely unexpected

32
Atlas Detector Sketch
the biggest collider detector ever, by far eye
catcher central air core toroid magnet
7,000 ton weight, 25 m diameter, 45 m long
light weight construction if wrapped in plastic
it floats on water (22,000 m3)? still, weights
more than half the Eiffel tower
33
Atlas Real Installation
34
CMS Compact Muon Solenoid
12,500 ton weight, 15 m diameter, 22 m long
compact does not mean small volume smaller than
Atlas by 5.6, but weights 30 more than the
Eiffel tower eye catcher brilliant design in
separately removable slices
35
CMS Installation
36
LHCb Mission and Sketch
  • The Large Hadron Collider beauty experiment
  • for precise measurements of CP violation and rare
    decays

37
LHCb At the Interaction Point
38
CDF Sketch
39
CDF Detector Pictures
Dimension 12mx12mx16m
Dimensions
40
CDF Time Of Flight Detector
scintillation bars
holders
photomultiplier
happy MIT folks
cone
pre-amp
41
CDF Central Outer Tracker
42
CDF Central Outer Tracker
43
CDF Silicon Detector
44
CDF Silicon Vertex Detector
45
Pointers to Interesting Video Material
  • Overview of the engineering design of CMS
  • http//cmsinfo.cern.ch/outreach/CMSmedia/CMSmovies
    .html
  • gtgt http//cmsinfo.cern.ch/outreach/CMSmedia/Movies
    /CMSTheMovie.mpg
  • gtgt http//cmsinfo.cern.ch/outreach/cmseye/yb0_lowe
    ring.htm

46
Conclusions
  • Instructions for course
  • get registered for a user account on the
    computing center
  • try out your TWiki account
  • think about good time for Recitation Sessions
  • check out the Web site
  • Course overview
  • it is going to be an exciting course
  • please be interactive
  • the last two years the course was a full success
  • still, we need your help us make it best for this
    year

47
Plan for Next Lecture
  • Accelerators
  • basic physics of accelerators
  • design parameters of accelerators
  • hadron versus electron colliders
  • examples of accelerators today
  • what is the future of accelerators?

48
Last Year's Recitation Instructor
  • Michael Miller
  • physics career
  • started at MSU
  • next Yale (heavy ion RHIC, STAR)?
  • now MIT (heavy ion STAR, neutrino SNO)?
  • physics measurements
  • jet quenching (STAR)?
  • gluon helicity distribution in pp collisions
  • jet cross sections in pp collisions
  • total solar neutrino flux
  • He is faculty in Seattle now....
  • if you can find him he is very knowledgeable
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