Environmental changes in northern Uganda as a result of the LRA Conflict Andrew Plumptre, Simon Nampindo, Guy Picton Phillipps - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Environmental changes in northern Uganda as a result of the LRA Conflict Andrew Plumptre, Simon Nampindo, Guy Picton Phillipps

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Title: Environmental changes in northern Uganda as a result of the LRA Conflict Andrew Plumptre, Simon Nampindo, Guy Picton Phillipps


1
Environmental changes in northern Uganda as a
result of the LRA ConflictAndrew Plumptre,
Simon Nampindo, Guy Picton Phillipps
2
Consequences of the conflict
  • Conflict with LRA has been ongoing since 1986
  • Several results of the conflict
  • Many people killed or maimed
  • Destruction of villages burnt houses
  • Movement of people from their land to IDP camps
  • Cultivated land reverting to bush/woodland
  • Loss of livestock and less grazing/browsing
    pressure

3
USAID contracted study Impact of conflict on
environment in northern Uganda
  • Compile literature about conservation value of
    areas in northern Uganda
  • To assess the changes in forest cover inside and
    outside protected areas in northern Uganda and
    ground truth with aerial flights
  • Assess potential development and conservation
    options for the region

4
Ugandas Protected Areas
  • Ugandas Protected Area system is primarily in
    west (Albertine Rift) and east (Karamoja)
  • Parks, Community Wildlife Areas and Wildlife
    Reserves managed by UWA
  • Forest Reserves managed by NFA
  • Recent Wildlife Protected Areas system assessment
    led to degazetting of several controlled hunting
    areas that acted as corridors

5
Ugandas Vegetation
  • Langdale-Brown, Osmaston and Wilson created a
    vegetation map based on plant communities for
    Uganda in 1964
  • Used to predict floristic and faunal biodiversity
    in Uganda
  • Vegetation of northern and eastern Uganda is very
    different to the south and west
  • Conservation must include areas in north as well
    as south to conserve all of Ugandas biodiversity

6
Surveys of conservation value
  • Three main surveys of conservation value of
    protected areas in northern Uganda
  • Surveys by Forest Department in Early 1990s
  • Surveys by Makerere University of Karamoja
  • Aerial surveys of large mammals in savanna areas
    of Uganda

7
Forest Department Surveys
  • Surveyed small mammals, birds, plants,
    butterflies and moths
  • Ranked forests based on these 5 taxa
  • Redder forests are more biodiverse
  • Sampling was less intensive in north because of
    security

8
Karamoja Surveys
  • MUIENR surveyed plants, butterflies, reptiles,
    birds and mammals in Langdale-Brown Vegetation
    types
  • Extrapolated biodiversity to Karamoja region
    using vegetation maps of Langdale Brown
  • Darker green has more biodiversity

Map from MUIENR, 1996
9
Large mammal surveys
  • Aerial surveys of large mammals in key areas of
    Uganda R. Lamprey and UWA
  • Large mammals primarily confined to protected
    areas - 40 years ago were widespread
  • Kidepo and Murchison-East Madi are main areas in
    north

Map from Lamprey, 2003
10
Historical Elephant migrations
  • Elephants used to occur throughout most of
    western Uganda up to only 35 years ago
  • Now confined to Protected areas
  • Old elephant corridor existed north of Murchison
    Falls to Sudan and across to Kidepo

Map from Lamprey, 2003
11
Biodiversity Hotspots
  • Eastern Afromontane Hotspot
  • Includes Albertine Rift, Ethiopian Highlands and
    Eastern Arc Mountains
  • N. Uganda Murchison Falls, Nyangea Napore
  • Sudan Imatong Mountains, Dongotona Didinga
    Mountains

12
Key areas for conservation in northern Uganda
  • Parks Kidepo, and Murchison
  • Wildlife Reserves East Madi, Matheniko and
    Bokora
  • Forest Reserves Moroto, Otzi, Nyangea-Napore,
    Era, Mt Kei, Agoro-Agu, Rom, Labwor Hills and
    Morungole

13
Protected Area Conservation value
Kidepo NP Cheetah, Wild Dog, Lion, Elephant, Zebra, Ostrich, Greater Kudu, Brights Gazelle
Murchison NP Lion, Elephant, Hippo, Crocodile, Hartebeest, shoebill
East Madi WR/Zoka FR Kob, Elephant, chimpanzees, Hartebeest
Matheniko- Bokora WR Brights gazelle, Ostrich
Otzi FR Chimpanzees, elephants, 7 trees, 3 butterflies
Nyangea-Napore FR Elephants, 4 trees very species rich, 4 butterflies,
Era FR 3 trees, 1 mammal, 1 moth endemic cycads
Mt Kei FR 7 butterflies, 3 trees, 4 birds,1 mammal, 2 moths
Moroto FR 3 trees, 9 butterflies, 13 birds,3 mammals, 8 moths
Agoro-Agu FR 7 trees, endemic subspecies of bird
Rom FR 3 trees
Labwor Hills FRs 4 trees, 3 butterflies, 1 bird
Morungole FR 8 trees, 2 butterflies
14
Assessment of woody cover change - overview
  • Acquisition and pre-processing of Landsat Imagery
  • Collection of Field Samples
  • Classification of Imagery
  • Change Analysis
  • Determination of Management options

15
Landsat 7 ETM Satellite Imagery
  • Mid 1980s and Early 2000s
  • Acquired around September
  • 5 scenes cover Northern Uganda

16
Collection of Field Samples
  • Airborne survey - Landcover observations, GPS
    points, vertical photographs
  • Integrated the data in GIS to facilitate
    supervised classification of the satellite imagery

17
Image Classification
  • For 1980s mid 2000s
  • 4 classes Woody, Grassland, Other Cloud

18
Change Analysis
  • Analysing the 2 classifications together provides
    a map showing the change in woody cover between
    1985 - 2002

19
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22
1985
2002
Change 1985 - 2002
23
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24
1985
2002
Change 1985 - 2002
25
Conservation and development options
  • Need for Landscape Management Planning
  • Supporting protected area management
  • Develop corridors
  • Peace Parks
  • Sustainable natural resource management
  • Rehabilitation / watershed conservation
  • Sustainable woodland management

26
Protected Area Management
  • Key sites for conservation in northern Uganda
  • Many threats because of inability to control
    areas encroachment, fire etc
  • Management needs to tackle threats
  • Options for local community benefits assessed
    UWA/NFA programs extended north

27
Wildlife Corridor
  • Wildlife corridor still possible in part of
    elephant migratory route

28
Potential for Corridors
  • The main corridor area that does not already
    exist is the land between Murchison Falls and
    East Madi Wildlife Reserve former Kilak
    Controlled Hunting Area
  • Potential for game ranching, alternative safaris
    or sport hunting
  • Land is owned by individuals who were given land
    by Amin and much of land is unused at present
    no titles to land though and currently needs
    working out.

Map from Lamprey, 2003
29
Transboundary Protected Areas andPeace Parks
  • 1932 Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
    created
  • Now at least 170 Transboundary PAs
  • Peace parks have to have peace as one objective
    can be promoted by
  • Supporting landscape level management of natural
    resources
  • Building trust between countries
  • Preventing/resolving tension over access to
    natural resources
  • Sharing skills and benefits across borders
  • Promoting equitable and sustainable use of
    Natural resources

30
Three potential Peace Parks
  • Peace Parks must have adjacent protected areas in
    two countries and promote peace. Three possible
    sites in northern Uganda
  • Otzi-Nimule
  • Imatong massif
  • Kidepo landscape

31
Threats to proposed Peace Parks
  • Encroachment (settlement cultivation)
  • Bushmeat Hunting
  • Complex historical land use issues e.g. tea
    plantations
  • Cattle grazing
  • Fire

32
Otzi-Nimule Peace Park
  • Nimule Park 410 km2
  • Created for White Rhino but now extinct
  • Elephant population about 150
  • Hippos 400
  • Otzi Forest Reserve 188 km2
  • Chimpanzees and elephants
  • 261 tree species (top 20 of forests in Uganda)
    168 birds 90 butterflies
  • 92 species found in less than 5 other forests in
    Uganda

33
Imatong massif Peace Park
  • Imatong Forest Reserve 1,032 km2
  • 1959 plant species collected from this area 25
    endemic to mountains
  • 566 bird species, 5 endemic sub-species
  • 154 mammals 13 endemic sub species
  • Agoro-agu Forest Reserve in Uganda 236 km2
  • 254 trees, 76 birds, 66 butterflies
  • Only surveyed for 10 days

34
Kidepo Landscape Peace Park
  • Kidepo NP, Karenga CWR, Nyangea-napore,
    Morungole, Rom and Zulia FRs 3,700 km2
  • top 10 of forests for conservation of tree
    species in Uganda
  • Top 20 for birds
  • Elephants, Lion, cheetah and Wild dogs
  • Kidepo Game Reserve 2000 km2
  • Wild dogs coming fom here to Uganda

35
Natural Resource Management1. Woodland
Rehabilitation
  • Need to encourage treeplanting and management of
    woody resources in areas where it has been lost
  • Watershed protection, agroforestry, plantations
    etc
  • Can supply charcoal from north while plantations
    develop

36
Natural Resource Management2. Sustainable
management of woodland
  • IDPs will return to areas where woody growth has
    increased
  • Management of woodlands for fuelwood supply to
    Lira and Apach
  • Promote sustainable management, soil
    conservation, agroforestry etc

37
Conservation and Development Options
Trans-Boundary Peace Parks
Management of woody biomass
Wildlife corridor
Woodland Rehabilitation
Protected Area Management Support
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