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Plankton Culture for Feeding Larval Fish and Shellfish

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Plankton Culture for Feeding Larval Fish and Shellfish. LaDon Swann ... Plankton for Shellfish. Broodstock and Spat. Cell Size 10-24 microns. Species. Tetraselmis sp. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plankton Culture for Feeding Larval Fish and Shellfish


1
Plankton Culture for Feeding Larval Fish and
Shellfish
  • LaDon Swann
  • Mississippi-Alabama Sea Grant Consortium
  • Auburn University

2
Shellfish Larval Culture
3
Larval Rearing
  • Trocophore
  • Size 50-60 microns
  • 6-12 hours post-fertilization
  • D-Hinge or Straight Hinge
  • Size 70-80 microns
  • 24-48 hours post-fertilization
  • Bivalve Shell
  • Velum - Swimming and Feeding organ

4
Larval Rearing
  • Veliger or Umbo Larvae
  • Size 80-300 microns
  • Stage last 8-12 days
  • Well defined umbo
  • Pediveliger or Eyed Larvae
  • Size gt300 microns
  • Pigmented eye-spot
  • Muscular foot

5
Phytoplankton Production
  • Feeding Larvae
  • Cell Size 4-8 microns
  • Species
  • Isochrysis galbana
  • Chaetoceros gracilis
  • Nannochloris sp.
  • Chlorella sp.
  • Pavlova lutheri

6
Pavlova lutheri
  • Morphology
  • Golden brown
  • Spherical with 2 flagella
  • 3-6 µm
  • Salinity
  • 8-32 ppt
  • Temperature
  • 11-26 C
  • Culture media
  • Guillards f/2
  • Proximate Analysis
  • 52 Protein
  • 24 Carbs
  • 29 Fat

7
Isochrysis galbana
  • Morphology
  • Tahiti (T-Iso strain)
  • Golden brown
  • Cells spherical with 2 flagella
  • 5-6 µm length, 2-4 µm wide
  • Salinity
  • 8-32 ppt
  • Temperature
  • 23 - 28C
  • Culture media
  • Guillards f/2
  • Proximate Analysis
  • 47 Protein
  • 24 Carbs
  • 17 Fat

8
Chaetoceros gracilis
  • Morphology
  • Golden brown diatom
  • Medium-size 12 µm wide, 10.5 µm long
  • Cells united in chains
  • Salinity
  • 26 - 32 ppt
  • Temperature
  • 28 - 30C
  • Culture media
  • Guillards f/2 with Si
  • Proximate Analysis
  • 28 Protein
  • 23 Carbs
  • 9 Fat

9
Plankton for Shellfish
  • Broodstock and Spat
  • Cell Size 10-24 microns
  • Species
  • Tetraselmis sp.
  • Green
  • Thalassiosra sp.
  • Diatom

10
Tetraselmis sp.
  • Morphology
  • Ovoid green cells
  • 14 to 23 µm L X 8 µm W
  • 4 flagella
  • Salinity
  • 28-36 ppt
  • Temperature
  • 22-26C
  • Culture media
  • Guillards f/2
  • Proximate Analysis
  • 55 Protein
  • 18 Carbs
  • 14 Fat

11
Thalassiosra sp.
  • Morphology
  • Golden brown diatom
  • Cells united in chains
  • Barrel-shaped
  • Non-motile
  • 4 µm
  • Salinity
  • 26 32 ppt
  • Temperature
  • 22-29 C
  • Culture media
  • Guillards f/2 with Si
  • Other characteristics

12
Micro Algae Culture
  • Culture Water
  • Sterilization
  • Nutrient Enrichment
  • Inoculation
  • Cell Counts
  • Harvest and Feeding
  • Stock Culture

13
Culture Water
  • Sources
  • Seawater
  • Saltwater wells
  • Prepared seawater
  • Salinity
  • 26-32 ppt

14
Sterilization
  • Methods
  • Heat Pasteurization
  • 80 C and cool naturally
  • Autoclave
  • Sodium Hypochlorite (bleach)
  • 0.5 ml/L (10 drops)
  • Neutralize 10-15 ml sodium thiosulfate (248 g/L)
    per liter
  • Hydrochloric acid (muriatic)
  • 0.2 ml/L (4 drops)
  • Neutralize Na2CO3 0.4-0.9 g/L

15
Nutrient Enrichment
  • Guillards f/2
  • Part A and B
  • 0.5 ml/L each part
  • Na2Si03 for diatoms

Nutrients Conc. (mg/l Seawater)
NaNO3 75
NaH2PO4.H2O 5
Na2SiO3.9H2O 30
Na2C10H14O8N2.H2O (Na2EDTA) 4.36
CoCl2.6H2O 0.01
CuSO4.5H2O 0.01
FeCl3.6H2O 3.15
MnCl2.4H2O 0.18
Na2MoO4.2H2O 0.006
ZnSO4.7H2O 0.022
Thiamin HCl 0.1
Biotin 0.0005
B12 0.0005
16
Inoculation
  • Culture vessels
  • 1,000 ml flask
  • 18.7 L (5 gal.) Carboy (glass)
  • 178 L (47 gal) Transparent Tank
  • Add enough algae to give a strong tint to the
    water
  • 100,000-200,000/ml
  • Lighting
  • Types
  • Sunlight
  • Fluorescent
  • VHO fluorescent
  • Metal halide
  • Highest Densities 24/7

17
Cell Counts
  • Peak Algae Density
  • I. Galbana
  • 10-12 million cells/ml
  • 10-14 days
  • 2 wk stability
  • T. pseudonana
  • 4 million cells/ml
  • 3 days
  • 5 day stability
  • Hemacytometer
  • Count total in centermost 1 mm
  • Multiply by 10,000
  • Product number/ml

Motile cells should be killed
18
Harvest and Feeding
  • Larvae Density
  • 5-10 larvae/ml
  • Algae Density
  • Wk 1 50,000 cells/ml
  • Wk 2 100,000 cells/ml
  • Onset of spatting 200,000/ml
  • Tank cleared in 24hrs

Liters to feed (TD x V)/CD TD Target
Density (1,000s/ml) V Volume of larval tank
(thousands of L) CD Cell Density
(millions/ml)
19
Harvesting and Feeding
  • Batch
  • Total harvest occurs once or over several days
  • Semi-Continuous
  • Works well with diatoms
  • Part of the algae remains in the vessel
  • New media is added to replenish the algae removed

20
Stock Culture
  • Purchase pure strain
  • Avoid contamination
  • No aeration
  • Half filed container
  • Redundancy
  • Holding
  • Test tubes
  • Conical flasks
  • Transfer
  • 1 drop/wk for T. pseudonana
  • 1 drop/2 wk for I. galbana

21
Marine Fish Larval Culture
  • Relies on zooplankton

22
Marine Rotifer Brachionus plicatilis
  • Culture units
  • 40L plastic bags
  • 40L cone-bottomed tanks
  • Temperature 27-30 C
  • Salinity 26 ppt

23
Rotifers
  • Laboratory production
  • 100 to 200 mm size
  • 2-3 week life span
  • small size suitable as first food

24
Feeding Marine Fish
  • Rotifers
  • Typical first food in hatchery
  • Feed algae or yeast
  • Enrichment needed

25
Artemia
  • Feeding of older larvae

26
Use of copepods
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