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How Does Agricultural Policy Impact Landscape and Human Health?

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Title: How Does Agricultural Policy Impact Landscape and Human Health?


1
How Does Agricultural Policy Impact Landscape and
Human Health?
  • Donald L. Wyse
  • University of Minnesota
  • Center for Integrated Natural Resources and
    Agricultural Management

2
Multifunctional Landscape and Food Systems
the balance that comes closest to meeting all
three goals in the present and for the future.
3
Multifunctional Landscape and Food Systems
4
Current Agricultural Policies Support
Agricultural Systems With Single Outcome----High
Yield
5
Multifunctional Agriculture/Food Systems
6
What can they provide? Ecosystem services!
7
Potential Ecosystem Services Provided by
Multifunctional Cropping Systems
  • Nutrient Cycling, Flood Management, Natural Pest
    Management, Soil Health, Wildlife Diversity,
    Water Quality, Erosion Control, Carbon
    Management, Climate Mediation, Healthy Food

8
Current Status of Crop and Animal/Food Production
Systems
9
High input-simplified production systems
10
with complex consequences
11
Problems cannot be solved at the same level of
awareness that created them.
  • ---Albert Einstein

12
Agriculture and Food PoliciesHave Consequences
Nichols, USDA,NRCS
13
Hansen, MN Exp Sta
14
(No Transcript)
15
Corn and Soybean acreage 11 County South Central
Minnesota
Gyles Randall,2003
16
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17
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18
Minnesota Harvested Soybean and Alfalfa Acreages
19
Not soil conservation
Gasper, USDA, NRCS
20
Gasper, USDAlt NRCS
Gasper, USDA, NRCS
21
Feed Grains
1lb beef protein uses 20X more fossil fuel than
1lb corn protein
3.25 A meat diet 0.33 A plant and dairy
diet 0.20 A plant only diet
Hansen, MN Agr. Exp Sta.
22
Protein efficiency 6 1lb beef 5,214 gal
water 1lb potatoes 24 gal water
23
Protein efficiency 23 1lb Chicken 815 gal
water 1lb potatoes 24 gal water
24
Protein efficiency 14 1lb Pork 1,630 gal
water 1lb Potatoes 24 gal water
25
ETHANOL FROM CORN Dry Milling Process
Grain
Grind, Enzyme Digestion
Distillers Grains
Sugars
Yeast, Distillation
ETHANOL
26
ETHANOL FROM CORN Wet Milling Process
Grain
Oil Syrup Gluten Feed Sugars
Grind, Wet Fractionation
Food, Packaging, Chemicals, Textiles
Starch
Enzyme Digestion, Yeast, Distillation
ETHANOL
( 9 of 2002 corn crop )
27
Food vs Fuel
28
Food Consumption Trends
29
USA per capita N consumption in meat
Source FAO
30
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31
Canadian Per Capita Soft Drink Consumption
32
US Per Capita High Fructose Corn Syrup
Disappearance 1967 2000, Pounds / Year
33
Candy and Other Confectionary Products US Per
Capita Consumption, 1966 2000, Pounds/ Year
34
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35
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36
Introduction of new, larger portions, 19701999.
Number of Large-Size Portions Introduced
Year
37
Human Health Concerns
38
Obesity Trends
  • A problem of both the young and old

39
Figure 1. Prevalence of overweight among
children and adolescents ages 6-19 years
15
15

11
11
7
6
4
5
4
5
  • NOTES Excludes pregnant women starting with
    1971-74. Pregnancy status not available for
    1963-65 and 1966-70. Data for 1963-65 are for
    children 6-11 years of age data for 1966-70 are
    for adolescents 12-17 years of age, not 12-19
    years.
  • SOURCE CDC/NCHS, NHES, and NHANES.

40
Figure 2. Age-adjusted prevalence of overweight
and obesity among U.S. adults, age 20-74 years

64
56
47
31
23
15
Age-adjusted by the direct method to the year
2000 U.S. Bureau of the Census Estimates using
the age groups 20-39, 40-59, and 60-74 years.
41
Diabetes
  • Type ll diabetes associated with obesity in young
    and old

42
United States Trends in Diabetes
43
Health Care Costs
  • Food based diseases create more demands of an
    expensive health care system

44
Cost of Obesity
  • Total cost 75 Billion
  • Taxpayers pay 50
  • 39 Billion
  • 175/person
  • Minnesota 1.3Billion 5 of total HC Cost
  • Type 2 diabetes, Cardiovascular disease, Cancer,
    and Gallbladder disease
  • RTI International, CDCP

45
USA Health Care Annual Expenditures
46
Per Capita Health Expenditures in Dollars
  • France
  • Japan
  • United States

47
Total Health Expenditures Percentage of GDP
  • France
  • Japan
  • USA

48
Environmental Trends
49
Introduction
  • Carbon dioxide in the air

35 greenhouse gasses from agriculture
50
Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico
Rabalais et al. 2000
51

Crawling up the watershed
  • ?????
  • ?
  • ??????????????
  • A world class river sediments, water, size

52

Water quality changes in the Mississippi River
at New Orleans

Turner, R. E., N. Qureshi, N. N. Rabalais, Q.
Dortch, D. Justic', R. Shaw and J. Cope 1998.
Fluctuating silicatenitrate ratios and coastal
plankton food webs. Proc. National Academy of
Sciences (USA) 9513048-13051.
53

(Officer and Ryther 1980 Mar. Ecol. Progr. Ser.
3, 83-91)
Officer and Rythers Hypothesis and
Redfield ratios
(Photo Q. Dortch)
  • SiDin gt 11 SiDinlt11
  • diatoms as prey flagellated algae, incl.
    harmful algal blooms
  • zooplankton as zooplankton reduced predators
  • desirable fish undesirable or reduced
    community fish stocks

Dinoflagellates
54
How does the bottom layer become hypoxic?
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4

  • 5
  • 6

55
Nitrogen fertilizer application
56
A World Class Lake Lake Winnipeg
  • Increased frequency and intensity of algal
    blooms.
  • Toxic algae drinking water, aquatic life,
    wildlife, pets.
  • Oxygen depletion - degraded fish/aquatic life
    habitat, and release of nutrients from bottom
    sediments.
  • Recreational impairment. Beach advisories
    economic impacts through reduced tourism.
  • Impairment of commercial fishing activities (25
    m).
  • Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board

57
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58
Contribution of N P
Flow into L. Wpg. Wpg. R. 45 Sask. R 26 Red R. 11
27 39 5 12 10
7
Lake Winnipeg Stewardship Board
59
Satellite images of vegetative activity.
Areas of annual row cropping
April 20 May 3
Areas of perennial vegetation
May 4 17
60
Satellite images of vegetative activity.
May 18 - 31
June 15 - 28
61
Satellite images of vegetative activity.
July 13 - 26
October 5 - 18
62
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63
(No Transcript)
64
Annual Tile Drainage Loss in Corn-Soybean
Rotation Waseca, 1987-2001
Gyles Randall, 2003
65
Corn and Soybean Nitrate-N Loss Concentrations
  • Tile drainage system
  • U of MN - Lamberton

Gyles Randall, 2003
66
Annual tile flow (inches)
(Randall et al., 1997)
67
Diverse Perennial Landscape Systems
68
N Losses under different land uses (kg km-2 yr-1)
Ground level
Tillage and Cropping treatment N Continuous
bluestem (native cover) 11 Corn,
wheat, clover-rotation 485 Continuous
corn 1,213 Plowed 4 inches (fallowed) 2,172
From Turner and Rabalais, BioScience 2003
69
Diversification of Agricultural Landscape Systems

Chippewa River
Wells Creek
70
80 in cultivation and includes a portion of
Montevideo
Cultivated Land
Grassland
Deciduous Forest
Urban
Catchment size 17,994 ha
71
Four Scenarios
A Extension of current trends Increased
field size, focus on annual crop production B
Adoption of best management practices
Shift to conservation tillage, use recommended
nutrient application rates,30 m riparian
buffers C Expand diversity Five year crop
rotation, more grazing Wetland restoration
D Managed year-round vegetative cover Cover
crops, increased managed grazing, prairie
restoration, 90 m buffers
72
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73
Benefits to Bird Populations
Bird responses to habitat changes (sightings per
160 acres)
  • Tilled row crops gt 18 species
  • Tilled row crops, herbaceous fencerow, grass
    waterway, alfalfa and pasture gt 25 species
  • Tilled row crops, herbaceous fencerow, grass
    waterway, pasture, alfalfa, and marsh gt 52
    species
  • Tilled row crops, herbaceous and wooded
    fencerows, grass waterway, pasture, alfalfa,
    marsh, and farmstead shelterbelt gt 93 species

Best, L. et al. 1995. A Review and synthesis of
Habitat Use by Breeding Birds in
Agricultural Landscapes of Iowa. The American
Midland Naturalist, 1341
74
The Annual Distribution of Yellow Warblers
75
Band Recoveries of Blue-winged Teal Hatched in
Minnesota
76
Prairie Pothole Region Marbled Godwit
77
Potential Ecosystem Services Provided by
Perennial Cropping Systems
  • Nutrient Cycling, Flood Management, Natural Pest
    Management, Soil Health,Wildlife Diversity, Water
    Quality, Erosion Control, Carbon Management,
    Climate Mediation, Healthy Food

78
What Is Needed To Make These Systems Possible?
79
Potential End Use Products from Perennial
Cropping Systems
  • Grain, Fruit,Vegetables, Fiber, Biomass,
    Decorative Plants, Meat, Milk, Glucose, Liquid
    Fuels, Industrial Solvents, Fatty Acids,
    Plastics, Paints, Antioxidants, Proteins,
    Essential Oils, Antifungal Compounds,
    Antibacterial Compounds, Energy Products

80
Grazing
81
Grazing Systems
  • Perennial ryegrass
  • Winter hardiness, Seed production, Rotational
    grazing
  • Illinois bundleflower and other native legumes
  • Mixed warm season grass-rotational grazing
    systems

82
Energy crops
Moore Collins, Forages
83
Energy Crops
84
Biomass Energy
  • Develop and evaluate diversified perennial forbs
    and grass systems for biomass energy
  • Develop woody plant systems for biomass energy
    production
  • Develop local small scale energy production
    systems
  • Develop co-product biorefinary-bioenergy systems

85
Biomass Energy
  • Willows, Salix sp.
  • Alfalfa, Medicago sativa, JoAnn Lamb USDA-ARS St.
    Paul
  • Perennial sunflower, Helianthus sp.
  • Perennial flax, Linum perenne
  • Native legumes, False indigo, Amorpha fruticosa

86
Perennial Monoculture Biomass Study
87
Perennial Monoculture Biomass Study--Outcomes
  • Determine the biomass production potential of 23
    woody and herbaceous perennial species at three
    sites.
  • Measure water use and soil carbon sequestration
    of monoculture biomass systems.
  • Determine yields of a wide range of biomaterial
    products from biomass crops.

88
Woody Species
  • Lilac Syringa vulgaris Late
  • Lilac Syringa vulgaris Common
  • False Indigo Amorpha fruticosa Bio 16
  • False Indigo Amorpha fruticosa Bio 19
  • Hazelnut Corylus americana x C. cornuta x C.
    avellana Hybrid Precocious-Oikos
  • Hazelnut Corylus americana x C. cornuta x C.
    avellana Hybrid 1-0 Forest Ag
  • Willow Salix spp.

89
Willow (Salix spp.) Waseca 11-8-07
90
Perennial Grasses
  • Miscanthus Miscanthus x giganteus
  • Miscanthus sinensis Goliath
  • Switchgrass Panicum virgatum Cloud nine
  • Switchgrass Panicum virgatum Northwind
  • Switchgrass Panicum virgatum Sunburst
  • Indian grass Sorghastrum nutans Sioux blue
  • Varigated cordgrass Spartina pectinata
    Aureomarginata
  • Cordgrass Spartina bakeri
  • Prairie Cordgrass Spartina pectinata Red River
  • Reed Canary Grass Phalaris arundinacea Chieftan
  • Reed Canary Grass Phalaris arundinacea Vantage
  • Big bluestem Adropogon gerardii Bonnilla
  • Big bluestem Adropogon gerardii Bison

91
Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Cloud Nine
Waseca 11-8-07
92
Prairie Cordgrass (Spartina pectinata) Red
River Waseca 11-8-07
93
Perennial Forbs
  • Rigid Goldenrod Solidago rigida
  • Giant Goldenrod Solidago gigantean
  • Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosus
    Confection
  • Jerusalem artichoke Helianthus tuberosus Wild
  • Prairie mix (35 species)

94
Sunflower x J Artichoke Hybrid (H. annuus x H.
tuberosus) Waseca 11-8-07
95
Dry Biomass (Tons/Acre)


Lamberton St. Paul Waseca Mean
Switchgrass (Cloud 9) 5.1 4.2 5.2 4.8
Switchgrass (Northwind) 3.4 5.5 4.1 4.3
Switchgrass (Sunburst) 4.3 4.9 6.1 5.1
Miscanthus (Giganteus) 4.3 4.8 5.6 4.9
Miscanthus (Goliath) 4.5 5.0 4.0 4.5
Cordgrass (Aureomarginata) 4.9 7.7 7.5 6.7
Cordgrass (Red River) 4.4 6.8 7.1 6.1
Reed Canarygrass (Chiefton) 5.7 2.2 5.2 4.4
Reed Canarygrass (Vantage) 5.5 3.4 5.0 4.7
Indiangrass (Sioux Blue) 4.6 4.0 5.0 4.5
Big Bluestem (Bonnilla) 3.0 3.6 3.3 3.3
Big Bluestem (Bison) 2.1 3.2 3.0 2.8
Goldenrod (Stiff) 5.5 3.5 6.1 5.0
Goldenrod (Late) 4.1 2.7 3.7 3.5
J. Artichoke 2.9 2.3 2.5 2.6
Sunflower Hybrid 2.8 3.2 2.3 2.7
Prairie Mix 2.3 1.3 2.0 1.9
LSD.05 2.2 1.7 1.5 1.8
96
Willow Biomass Plantings
97
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98
  • Biomass-Type Alfalfa
  • Up-right, non-lodging growth habit
  • Large yields of leaves and stems
  • Retains leaves even when mature

99
Agroforestry Buffered Landscape
100
Trees and Shrubs
  • Willows, Salix sp.
  • Decorative and energy
  • Hybrid popular, Populus sp.
  • Energy and fiber
  • Hazelnuts, Corylus avellana x C. americana and C.
    cornuta
  • Oil, confectionary, and energy

101
American Hazelnuts
102
Woody Floral Yields
103
What Are Woody Decorative Florals?
104
Native Perennial Legumes
  • Forage
  • Biomass
  • Grain

105
Perennial Native Legumes
  • 50 species preliminary evaluation
  • Winter hardiness
  • 10 species more detailed studies
  • Production and selection
  • Feeding trialsswine
  • AntioxidantsFood, fuel, feed and cosmetics
  • AntimicrobialFood, cosmetics and feed

106
Evaluation of Diversity Among Ecotypes of Amorpha
fruticosa and Desmanthus illinoensis (Lee DeHaan)
  • 20 Ecotypes of each species
  • Three locations
  • Three years
  • Measured traits seed yield, biomass yield,
    height, width, maturity, winter survival, leaf
    width, leaf length, insect resistance number of
    stems
  • Most traits influenced heavily by location
    (environment) and ecotype

107
Oil Seed Crops
  • Perennial flax, Linum sp.
  • Perennial sunflower, Helianthus sp.

108
Perennial Sunflower and Flax Development
109
Advantages of Perennial Grain Crops
  • Low input
  • Little or no tillage
  • Nitrogen fertility could be conferred with
    biculture with legumes
  • Plant only once for many years
  • Positive effects on agroecology
  • Less wind / water erosion
  • Better nutrient cycling and management
  • Better energy balance

110
Advantages of Perennial Crops
  • Agronomics
  • Can survive perils of weather hail, drought
  • Longer growing season increases photosynthesis
    and total growth per season
  • Some could be harvested multiple times per
    season, like alfalfa

111
Advantages of Perennial Sunflower and Flax
  • Demand for sunflower is increasing because of the
    new high-oleic and mid-oleic oil traits
  • Resistance to white mold has also improved in
    sunflower
  • Demand for flax seed is also increasing because
    of the high concentration of omega-3 fats in that
    crop

112
Perennial Sunflower
  • Work began in 2001 with collection of wild
    perennial sunflowers

113
Perennial Sunflower
  • 2003 first F1 hybrids between Helianthus
    tuberosus and H. annuus were formed
  • H. tuberosus is hexaploid (6x) and H. annuus
    diploid (2x)
  • Used USDA restorer lines as annual parent
  • F1 plants were tetraploid (4x)

114
Perennial Sunflower
  • 2005-2006
  • PLAN B for backcrosses
  • Problem 4x by 2x cross gives 3x progeny
  • Solution Use colchicine-doubled annual inbred
    lines as backcross parent
  • 4x by 4x cross gives 4x progeny

115
X
V
F1 hybrid (4x)
H. annuus (4x)
BC1F1 hybrid (4x)
116
Perennial Sunflower
  • BC1F1(4x) populations in field this summer
  • Better vigor plants are about the size of
    annual parent
  • Better pollen production / female fertility
  • Rhizomes apparent on some plants
  • Winterhardy do not know yet

117

BC1F1(4x) populations
Sunflower inbred parents
118
Field nursery of reciprocal F1 plants, summer 2006
119
Perennial Flax
  • Began in 2001 with observation blocks of wild
    perennial flax from the USDA-GRIN system and
    Black Hills State University (South Dakota)
  • Germplasm included two genomic groups, x9
    (self-incompatible) and x15 (largely
    self-pollinated)
  • Hybridization began in 2004 within and between
    these groups

120
Perennial Flax
  • Goals of perennial flax improvement
  • Increase seed size
  • Improve wintering ability
  • Select for ability to produce 2 crops per year

Regrowth of nursery plant 1 month after harvest
121
Linum perenne-Lipid profile
122
Broad-based population in polycross
123
(Linum perenne hybrids)
124
Wetland Restoration
125
Wetland Restoration
  • Willow, Salix sp.
  • Nitrogen harvesting, energy, water retention,
  • Native wetland species
  • Unique industrial chemicals, wildlife
    habitat-hunting

126
Cover Crops
April 30, 1999
127
MN Cover Crop Team
  • Identify, develop and evaluate cover crops for
    use in agricultural and agroforestry systems
  • Evaluate impact of perennial cover crops on
    soybean cyst nematode, weeds, water use, and
    nutrient cycling
  • Evaluate environmental and economic impact, and
    risk associated with cover crops

128
Cover Crops
  • Red clover, Trifolium pratense
  • Winter rye, Secale cereale
  • Brassica sp.
  • Alfalfa, Medicago sativa
  • Birdsfoot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus
  • Hairy vetch
  • Winter pea

129
(No Transcript)
130
Vision
  • To improve water quality, habitat, and rural
    economic vitality through development of
    continuous living cover systems in the Upper
    Mississippi River Basin and Great Lakes
    landscapes

131
Objectives
  • Build Capacity of stakeholders regarding
    perennial cropping systems through the
    development of learning groups
  • Identify, develop, and implement economically
    viable enterprises
  • Identify and advocate for supporting policy
    changes

132
Strategies
  • Build a working coalition of land-grant
    institutions, NGOs and government agencies in the
    Upper Mississippi Basin and Great Lakes Basin
  • Gain broad-based support from nontraditional
    groups
  • Focus and leverage existing resources
  • Tap into new funding sources to drive change

133
Structure and Administration
  • Multi-state consortium of partners
  • Land-grants, NGOs, and government agencies
  • Responsible for overall planning, monitoring and
    budget oversight
  • Coordinating Committee in each state
  • Representatives from learning groups and the
    consortium
  • Responsible for planning, implementing and
    monitoring in that state

134
Program Approach
  • Utilize an integrated, systems-level approach
    that focuses on science, technology, and policy
  • Organize at the basin scale, develop options and
    implement at the watershed level

135
Program Approach contd
  • Initially focus on two strategic watersheds per
    state
  • Target a small portion of the most
    environmentally sensitive land in the most
    impaired watersheds, resulting in
    disproportionately large impact

136
Program Approach, contd.
  • Develop infrastructure to increase perennials on
    the landscape
  • Technical Social
  • Market Human
  • Financial Policy

137
Developing Viable Enterprises
  • Strengthen markets for and increase adoption of
    existing perennial systems
  • Discover and develop new uses and new markets for
    existing perennial plants
  • Select and develop perennial plant germplasm and
    associated production, harvesting, and processing
    technologies to meet market needs

138
Ten-Year Outcomes
  • Increase the utilization of perennial cropping
    systems in the Upper Mississippi Basin and Great
    Lakes Basin
  • Reduce N loading into the Mississippi from
    participating states by 30
  • Increase migratory waterfowl and neo-tropical
    songbird populations in the participating
    watersheds by 30 to 50
  • Shrink the hypoxic zone from its 2002 level

139
Budget
  • 205 million over ten years
  • Includes 100 million for the LTER potentially
    from
  • NSF
  • EPA (TMDLs)
  • DOE and NOAA (carbon and other greenhouse gases)
  • USGS (Upper Mississippi River Basin)
  • USDA-NRCS, USDA-FS
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