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HumanComputer Interaction

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Random Access Memory (RAM): this is the internal (working) ... ostrich. salmon. shark. classroom. Other KR Structures. Structured representation: Scripts ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HumanComputer Interaction


1
Human-Computer Interaction
  • The System

2
Input
Storage
Processing
Output
The main functional elements of a computer system
3
Elements of computer systemsProcessing
  • Central processing unit
  • speed of processing
  • bus size
  • instruction set
  • internal architecture.

4
Elements of computer systemsStorage
  • Types of data storage systems
  • Random Access Memory (RAM) this is the
    internal (working) memory of the system.
  • External memory hard-disc drive, floppy drive,
    zip drive, CD-ROM drive etc.
  • Virtual memory use of external memory
    (hard-drive) in lieu of RAM.

5
Elements of computer systemsData Input
  • Main types of data input systems
  • Text input.
  • Pointing devices.
  • Digitizer tablets.
  • Real media input.
  • Body sensors.
  • Data Input.

6
Elements of computer systemsOutput
  • Main types of output systems
  • Visual display systems.
  • Audible outputs.
  • Printing.
  • Mechanical outputs.
  • Data output.

7
A cognitive science perspective
8
Types of KR
  • Propositional representation
  • For concepts, events etc
  • Analogical representation
  • For shapes, pictures etc
  • Procedural representation
  • For doing things etc

9
Knowledge Representation
  • Semantic episodic knowledge
  • Semantic knowledge represents
  • vocabulary items i.e. dictionary knowledge e.g.
    word meaning and
  • descriptive items i.e. encyclopaedic knowledge
    e.g. facts and relationships.
  • Episodic knowledge represents event like items
    i.e. experiential information

10
Semantic Networks
  • Used to represent semantic knowledge
  • In its simplest form, a semantic network is a
    hierarchical class structure
  • It is constructed of nodes, representing concepts
    etc, and links, representing relations etc.
  • Attributes may be inherited from parent classes
  • Knowledge organization by association linking
    different domains of knowledge

11
Table
12
SurfaceTop
Table
has
13
SurfaceTop
Table
has
has
Legs
14
Furniture
Is-a
SurfaceTop
Table
has
has
Legs
15
Furniture
Is-a
SurfaceTop
Table
has
Used for
playing
has
working
Legs
dining
16
animal
human
bird
fish
canary
salmon
man
woman
classroom
john
sue
table
shark
ostrich
books
computer
paper
17
Other KR Structures
  • Structured representation Scripts
  • Proposed by Schank (Cognitive/computer science)
  • Structured representation Frames
  • Proposed by Minsky (Cognitive/computer science)

18
Table Is a Has a Supported by Used
for Used for . . .
19
Table Is a Has a top Supported by Used
for Used for . . .
20
Table Is a Has a top Supported by Used
for Used for . . .
Item of furniture
Squared or rect., made of wood
Legs, usually made of wood
Dining, working, playing etc.
21
Lecture Frame
Subject
Room Location
Range
Default
Start time
Range
Duration
Range
Default
Finish time
Rule (start time duration)
Equipment
Range
Default
Lecturer
Rule (consult lecture schedule given room
location start time)
22
Frames
  • Are a special type of schems, with variable slots
    whose fillers identify an instantiated frame.
  • Similar to schemas, they can be organized in a
    number of different levels.
  • However, unlike schemsa, they do not possess
    active processors
  • They are widely used in knowledge bases
  • They have also been used in task analysis

23
Park Frame


24
Scripts
  • A script is a special type of schema used for
    frequently occurring events
  • Similar to schemas, they have variables roles
    (persons) and props (objects).
  • They also have
  • Entry conditions for activating a script
  • Scenes a particular grouping of activities

25
Lecture Script Props Lecture room, whiteboard,
markers, overhead projector, data projector,
computer, tables, chairs Roles student, lecturer
Point of view lecturer Event sequence 1-
enter room 2- set up unless attendance 0 when
exit room 3- deliver lecture 4- pack up 5-
Exit room
26
Restaurant Script Props tables, chairs,
waiter/waitress, till Roles customer,
waiter/waitress Point of view customer Entry
conditions hungry, socialising, has money Event
sequence 1- enter restaurant 2- be seated by
waiter 3- examine menu 4- order food 5- wait
for food 6- food served by waiter 7- eat
food Exit conditions food consumed, tip paid,
bill paid
27
Knowledge Acquisition
  • Cognitive Stage
  • Associative Stage
  • Autonomous Stage

28
Recall and Recognition
  • Recall is the act of remembering something that
    has been memorized in the past e.g. your ID and
    Password for logging into your system.
  • Recognition is the act of recognizing an item
    when presented to you it means bring back to
    cognition.
  • Recognition is an easier cognitive task than
    recall it is why menus are preferred to script
    commands.

29
Input / Output Systems
30
Elements of computer systemsData Input
  • Main types of data input systems
  • Text input.
  • Pointing devices.
  • Digitizer tablets.
  • Real media input.
  • Body sensors.
  • Data Input.

31
Text Input
  • Mainly used for entering coded text e.g. ASCII
    code.
  • Keyboards, for direct keying of code
  • Qwerty.
  • Chord.
  • Dvorak.

32
QWERTY arrangement not optimal for typing
layout due to typewriters.
33
Dvorak common letters under dominant fingers
biased towards right hand common combinations
of letters alternate between hands 10-15
improvement in speed and reduction in fatigue
But - large social base of QWERTY typists produce
market pressures not to change
34
Chord keyboards only a few keys - four or 5
letters typed as combination of keypresses
compact size - ideal for portable applications
short learning time - keypreses reflect shape of
desired letter fast But - social resistance,
plus fatigue after extended use
35
  • Other methods for text input
  • Speech recognition use of speech recognition
    tools to convert real media (speech) into coded
    text.
  • Handwriting recognition use of HWR tools to
    convert handwriting signals (from digitizer
    tablets) into coded text.

36
Pointing devices
  • Mainly used with GUI systems (Graphical User
    Interface).
  • Arrow Keys (on keyboard).
  • Mouse
  • Mechanical.
  • Optical.
  • Tracker Ball.
  • Joy Stick.
  • Digitized surfaces
  • touch pad
  • touch screen
  • digitizer tablet
  • Light Pen.

37
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40
Digitizing Surfaces
  • Mainly used with hand-related media e.g.
    handwriting, free hand drawing, CAD drawing etc.
    or for pointing actions.
  • Digitizer tablets a board based transducer
    driven by a corded or cordless pens.
  • Touch screen a transparent transducer, usually
    placed on top of CRT or LCD display unit. The
    LCD option is becoming more popular in PDAs and
    Tablet PCs, as an electronic note-pad.
  • Touch Pad mostly used in mobile computing
    (notebooks).

41
Real media input 1
  • Used for the acquisition of audio, video and
    print media..
  • Audio cards connects to an audio source e.g.
    microphone or line input. It then applies
    analogue-to-digital conversion followed by some
    suitable encoding process e.g. ADPCM, to feed the
    computer system with the corresponding data
    stream.
  • Video capturing cards also connects to video
    sources e.g. video cam, VCR. It then applies A/D
    conversion followed by some suitable encoding
    process e.g. MPEGII, to generate the data stream.

42
Real media input 2
  • Used for the acquisition of audio, video and
    print media..
  • Digital video more recently, digital video
    sources are becoming available, e.g. video cam
    etc., which directly generates suitable data
    streams.
  • Print media is usually acquired through scanners.
    Optical scanning is the basis of optical
    processing of documents, which uses character
    recognition technology to convert scanned
    content, usually in GIF or TIF graphic format to
    encoded text e.g. ASCII.

43
Data input
  • This area addresses machine to machine
    communication, where data is usually received
    through data ports for processing, storage ..
    etc.
  • Types of data ports usually available on
    computers include
  • parallel communication ports e.g. for printing
    etc.
  • serial communication ports, e.g. for modems,
    network interfacing etc.
  • universal synchronous ports (USB) for any of the
    above.
  • Infra-red communication ports, e.g. for
    communication with mobile phones etc.

44
Elements of computer systemsOutput
  • Main types of output systems
  • Visual display systems.
  • Audible outputs.
  • Printing.
  • Mechanical outputs.
  • Data output.

45
Visual display systems
  • This is the most widely used form of output.
  • Its early use was in the form of VDUs (visual
    display units). These are CRT based monitors,
    that uses raster scan, for the display of text
    output.
  • Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs) was later
    developed, which became the basis of the WIMP
    system (windows, icons, menus and pointers).
  • Vector display monitors, based on CRT, are also
    available, but used mainly for CAD systems etc.
  • More recently, LCD systems are now growing out of
    the mobile computing sector to replace the
    desk-top display units.

46
Audible outputs
  • With the developing media capability of machines,
    audible outputs are now becoming a norm.
  • Types of audible outputs include
  • speech, in text-to-speech synthesis systems.
  • Earcons, which are short audible codes used to
    alert the user e.g. when it is not possible to
    successfully complete an operation, or to confirm
    some completed action.
  • Compound sounds, e.g. MIDI output.

47
Printing
  • This is the oldest method of human-computer
    communication, even before VDUs came into use.
    Early computers used to receive instructions
    through punched cards and tapes and produce
    responses by printing them on paper.
  • After VDUs and keyboards became the primary
    communication interface with computers (computer
    workstations), printing was confined to the
    production of hardcopy output e.g. letters,
    reports, receipts, books etc.

48
Mechanical output
  • Used for the mechanical manipulation of physical
    objects. There are two categories of mechanical
    outputs
  • as an interface to the tactile and haptic
    perceptions of human users e.g. in virtual
    reality environments etc.
  • for the production of mechanical force, e.g.
    activation of solenoids, electric motors,
    hydraulic manipulators etc. This category is
    widely used in industrial applications, including
    robotic control etc.

49
Data output
  • This area addresses machine to machine
    communication, where data is usually sent to
    other machines through data ports for processing,
    storage .. etc.
  • Types of data ports usually available on
    computers include
  • parallel communication ports e.g. for external
    storage etc.
  • serial communication ports, e.g. for modems,
    network interfacing etc.
  • universal synchronous ports (USB) for any of the
    above.
  • Infra-red communication ports, e.g. for
    communication with mobile phones etc.
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