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LECTURE 9 CROP PROTECTION AKA PESTICIDE USE

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Pesticide = a substance that kills a pest (insect, weed, bacteria, nematode... Natural insect enemies lady bugs, lace wings, praying mantis, predatory mites ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: LECTURE 9 CROP PROTECTION AKA PESTICIDE USE


1
LECTURE 9 CROP PROTECTION AKA PESTICIDE USE
2
Some Definitions
  • Pesticide a substance that kills a pest
    (insect, weed, bacteria, nematode…)
  • Herbicide weed killer
  • Insecticide insect killer
  • Rodenticide rodent killer

3
Why are pesticides used in agriculture, society
and the environment?
  • 1. Agriculture
  • a. Use of crop protecting agents improves yield
    and quality of agricultural products, consumer
    preferences
  • b. Prevents the spread of diseases to crops and
    livestock (Pierces Disease)
  • c. The use of pesticides is regulated by the
    E.P.A. (Environmental Protection Agency, state
    law and county ordinances)

4
Why are pesticides used in agriculture, society
and the environment?...continued
  • 2. Society Environment
  • a. Pesticides are used regularly in city parks
    and other recreational areas to control insect
    damage and weeds (ie Disneyland, ball parks,
    schools, etc)
  • b. Pesticides are used to protect humans from
    insect-borne diseases, mosquitoes transmit many
    diseases (Mosquito Abatement Programs) West Nile
    Virus, Malaria
  • c. Rodenticides are used in homes, restaurants
    and hotels to control mice and rats which can
    spread disease, Junta Virus

5
Concerns With Pesticide Use
  • 1. Environmental concerns
  • a. pesticides can kill beneficial insects and
    plants (non selective)
  • b. pollution runoff of herbicides and
    insecticides into irrigation water and then into
    rivers - damages wildlife habitat
  • c. cancer causing agents organophosphates
  • d. disrupt the natural ecosystem and natural
    biodiversity
  • e. creates chemical resistance insects
    particularly

6
Integrated Pest Management (IPM)
  • Pest management that utilizes several strategies
    to control insects and other pests rather than
    strictly relying on chemical control.
  • Four Components…

7
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Components
  • 1. Pest identification important for proper
    pest control
  • Confuse beneficial insects with harmful
  • Pest thats on the plant may not be the one
    causing damage
  • Damage may not even be caused by an insect (toxin
    or nutritional deficiency, weather damage etc.)

8
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Components
  • 2. Surveying for pests systematically check
    for pests and pest damage
  • Pheromone traps
  • Sweeping the field
  • Random leaf, fruit and stem samples

9
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Components
  • 3. Encourage Beneficial Insect/Animal
    Populations
  • Use milder chemicals or selective sprays that
    dont kill beneficial animals.
  • Examples Barn Owl Nesting Boxes rodent
    control
  • Predatory wasp populations fly control in
    poultry and dairy operations
  • Natural insect enemies lady bugs, lace wings,
    praying mantis, predatory mites

10
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Components
  • 4. Control Action Guidelines
  • Application of pesticides only after a certain
    number of pests have been found and there is a
    threat of economic loss.

11
Sociology of Pesticides
  • Rachel Carlson (1962) beginning of the modern
    environmental movement - Silent Spring
  • DDT pesticide Nobel Prize in medicine
  • Insect/disease control - Potent toxin
  • Still used to control mosquitoes in 3rd world
    countries
  • Malaria, Yellow Fever, Dengue Fever spread by
    mosquitoes
  • Yellow Fever nearly prevented the colonies from
    being settled
  • More soldiers were lost in WWII due to mosquitoe
    borne disease than in battle.

12
Sociology of Pesticides continued…
  • Vietnam War used defoliants to clear forests
  • Post War Conditions Refugee camps, many
    diseases
  • Modern Challenge…Disease could be used as a
    weapon (biological and chemical agents)
  • Bubonic Plague infected fleas dropped them on
    China during WWII killed 50,000 people
  • Many people think all pesticides should be
    banned.
  • San Francisco has tried to ban all pesticides
    this would include germ killers like Chlorine

13
Pesticide Routes of Entry
  • Dermal (skin) most common
  • Oral
  • Respiratory
  • Ocular

14
Pesticide Toxicological Tests
  • U.S. food supply is the safest in the world
  • Risk Cup EPA evaluate scientifically the
    level of risk compared to benefits.
  • Fill the cup with all the risks an individual is
    exposed to during their lives.

15
Politics of Pesticides
  • Environmental lobbyists are very powerful in
    Washington D.C.
  • Natural Resource Defense Fund contracted with
    20/20 to break the story on Alar in apples
  • -Alar was banned w/out scientific evidence.
  • -Organo Phosphate, carbonate pesticides
    research based on WWII neurotoxicity studies.

16
Politics of Pesticides continued…
  • Biocides easily manufactured inexpensive
  • Petroleum industry was the generator
  • Pet pesticides flea control, tick control
  • Pharmaceutical industry does much of the
    pesticide research today, patent lasts 17 years
    it takes 10 years to complete research process.
  • How much does this cost?

17
Environmental Issues with Pesticides
  • Pesticides enter the environment through crop
    application.
  • Leach into aquifer
  • Central Valley has potential problems associated
    with continual pesticide chemical.
  • Problem-Bio-magnification

18
Bio-magnification
  • Chlorodane killed lots of bugs, 30 year
    half-life, very stable in soil. Mis-application
    of insecticide caused it to be banned.
  • DDT stays in the environment, organisms pick up
    the molecules and it stays in the animals
    tissues…animals eat animals and it passes
    on…Raptor egg shell thinness
  • Resistance develops kill 99 1 left that are
    resistant. Survivals detoxify chemicals used as
    pesticides low kill-rate. Pesticide treadmill

19
Some Answers to Reducing Pesticide Use
  • Control populations work within ecological
    principles, IPM
  • Pest Control Advisors must use these practices,
    an old idea.
  • Select all the techniques to control pests.
  • Understand the ecological interactions of the
    pests.
  • California has now made laws to regulate
    pesticides.

20
The Future Challenges?
  • IPM requires people to work smarter dealing
    with biology ecology and utilizing…
  • Environmentally Friendly pesticides
  • Mycotoxins aflatoxins naturally occurring
    toxins in peanuts, mushrooms
  • Organic Farming now will be regulated by the
    federal government, fringe element no more.
  • Biotechnology fear of the unknown, no risk is
    acceptable according to anti-biotech groups.

21
Future of Chemicals Pesticides
  • Alternatives will be Key Issue
  • Beneficial insects
  • Mechanical control
  • Chemical controls
  • Hedgerows create a place for native species-
    self perpetuating
  • Cover crops that produce nitrogen…lower
    fertilizer use
  • Cover crops that encourage beneficial insects...
  • Proper irrigation for various crops…reduce runoff
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