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Urban Environmental Management in Lao PDR

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Title: Urban Environmental Management in Lao PDR


1
Urban Environmental Managementin Lao PDR
Welcome
  • Presented by BANG ON SAYARATH

2
City Profile
  • Geography
  • Land area 3920 km2
  • Capital Vientiane
  • Neighboring to Thailand in the west with the
    length of Mekong River is about 170 km
  • Number of district9 ( 4 Urban, 5 suburbs)

3
  • Number of population in Vientiane 616.000 (4
    Urban Dist.
  • Women 51
  • Number of villages 494 (in 4 U dist
  • No of household 105.633

4
Climate
  • A typical monsoon climate with two distinct
    seasons Rainy season and Dry season (Rainy
    season from May to October and dry season from
    November to April).
  • An average annual rainfall is around 1,500 mm
  • The average highest temperature about 35-38ºC and
    lowest temperature about 16-18 ºC

5
Industry
  • Industries Tin, gypsum, mining, lumber,
    textiles, beverages, bricks, tiles, pottery,
    cigarettes and cement.
  • Handicrafts Carvings, silk, cotton, silver,
    pottery, jewelry, traditional musical
    instruments, wicker ware.
  • Lao PDR has a very law industrial development, so
    that industrial pollution issues are at an early
    stage. The main pollution issues are garbage
    disposal and sewage treatment in the cities.
  • 79 industries of whole country (59 in Vientiane,
    18 in Savannakhet, Thakhek, and Pakse, with
    remaining in Borikhamsay.

6
Urban Planning
  • Responsibilities on urban planning decentralized
  • Strengthening urban planning development and
    management
  • Highest priority to rural areas and sustainable
    development
  • Increase in urbanization
  • 1995 17.1 population lives in urban areas
  • 2002 30 -35population lives in urban areas
  • Population density increase in Vientiane
  • 19 persons/km2 to 157,1 persons/sq.km

7
Status Urban Environment
  • The main urban environmental problems in Lao are
    as follows
  • Solid waste management
  • Water Supply and Sanitation
  • Wastewater Management
  • Storm Water Drainage

8
Solid Waste Management
  • Only five major towns have a solid waste
    collection and disposal in Vientiane and four
    Secondary Town.
  • In Vientiane
  • Vientiane Integrated Urban Development Project
    loan (ADB)
  • B. Solid Waste Management System in Vientiane
    Urban Area grant (JICA)
  • The main rational of these projects were to
    improve the urban Environment through
    appropriate urban infrastructure development
  • and effective and sustainable management of
    urban services.

9
Waste Composition in Vientiane
Source Vientiane Urban Department Administrative
Authority (VUDAA), 2002
Average of waste generation in Vientiane is
about o.8 kg/person/day
10
Solid Waste Management (cont.)
11
Solid Waste Management (cont.)
  • Hazardous waste Situation According to the
    Projects activities of solid waste management in
    secondly town has covered the following
    activities
  • Define toxic and hazardous waste in the context
    Lao PDR and prepare a Profile of the sources and
    types of toxic and hazardous waste. Produced and
    dumped and forecast future increases.
  • Established Temporary hazardous waste store
    depots either at the landfill sites or any other
    appropriate site.
  • Conduct feasibility studies on ways to store
    hazardous waste in an environmentally sustainable
    manner.
  • Even though, the Project had been finished since
    June 30, 2002.

12
Old burner for the hospital waste in a military
hospital
Small incineration in urban center of capital
city
  • About 300-400 kg/day of wastes are disposed by
    small incineration on hospital.
  • Low infectious and general wastes are transferred
    to landfill site

13
  • Only one small incineration for infectious waste.
  • The hospital waste collection frequency is twice
    per week

14
Waste Disposal in Landfill Site
  • Non-hazardous and low infectious wastes are
    disposed in sanitary landfill
  • 70 of hospital wastes transferred to sanitary
    landfill

15
The existing situation of sanitary landfill
Waste separation at the sanitary landfill
Savannakhets sanitary landfill
16
Current situation of Sanitary landfill
After sanitary landfill closed
17
Wastewater Management
  • There is only 1 Municipal waste water Treatment
    plant in the Lao P D R, it is Located in Honk
    village, Vientiane city.
  • Beside this there are some industrial wastewater
    treatment plant in Vientiane municipality and in
    the secondary towns such as for the tenure,
    paper, brewery, sugar.
  • The full capacity of this wastewater treatment
    plant is to treat wastewater produced from about
    130,000 inhabitants and it comprises of 6
    stabilization ponds in parallel (210x70m). The
    average inflow rate is 19,200 m3/day the
    influent BOD5 is 226 mg/l and the retention time
    is 7 days. After treatment, the estimated
    effluent BOD5 is 60 mg/l.

18
Storm Water Drainage
  • Storm water drainage in most urban areas consists
    of roadside drains leading to natural streams or
    rivers.
  • Drain are generally not inter connected and donut
    from a new work, in the large Towns, drains are
    lined in the town center areas and covered in
    front of commercial establishments.
  • Water in the drainage system is contaminated with
    effluent from septic tanks and latrines,
    presenting a very direct health risk.
  • The absence of overall drainage plans with a
    functioning integrated network and lack of clear
    arrangements for maintenance, combine to cause
    flooding and stagnant water in the most parts of
    the urban

19
The main issues of UEM
  • Water supply, sanitation, and drainage Village
    are still small population densities are louse,
    private caroler ship is still minimal and
    industrial activity is onto emerging in some of
    the largest towns.
  • Drainage stagnant polluted waste water in open
    road side drains.
  • Sanitation the present systems of on site
    disposal of human waste need improving
  • Solid waste solution to the growing problem waste
    in the larger town
  • Dust growing use have motorized vehicles on
    unpaved roads

20
Urban water supply existing urban water supply
system generally in poor condition, due to the
virtual absence of maintenance and inadequate
investments during the past two decades. This has
resulted in significant water leakage, in
filtration, and contamination of inadequate
funding and limited technical skills of water
supply operators and supply technicians.
The main issues of UEM (cont.)
21
The main issues of UEM (cont.)
  • Storm water drainage is also a serious issue in
    Vientiane, and to a lesser extent in pakse and
    savannakhat
  • Wastewater problem in Vientiane is being seduced
    to some extent in sesames to construction of a
    treatment facility in the lung area.
  • Water tested from along the Mekong riverbank
    wells in the past found to be polluted with high
    fecal Streptococcus counts.
  • Operations in both water supply and sanitation
    are further more seriously constrained by the
    lack of equipment, supplies and operational
    budgets.

22
1. Urban infrastructure
  • Government strategies on the development and
    maintenance of urban infra structure are based on
    achieving sustainable and affordable
    environmental improvement of its main 58 two ADB
    projects have been active in upgrading the water
    supply system in Vientiane and in several
    southern provincial capitals.
  • Urban developement planning should be aimed at
    bringing Phys sisal improvements to the present
    situation.
  • It should also introduce institutional and legal
    changes that can protect the urban environment in
    the future.

23
2. Water supply
  • Urban water supply coverage from present 48 to
    55 by the end of the deceit it also aims at
    providing pipe water supply to all 17 provincial
    capitals by the early 2005.
  • Development programs house connection to 80 of
    urban populations in all urban with a total
    population over 5.000.

24
3. Drainage
  • A functioning urban drainage net work is sugared
    as the basis for improving the urban environment
    and living conditions.
  • Drainage master pals for the urban areas,
    covering all urban catchments shall be prepared.
  • Plans shall emphasize the need for creating and
    maintaining functioning drainage network,
    including identification of final points of
    discharge.

25
4. Wastewater Management
  • In the absence of waste water collection and
    centralize treatment systems in the country. The
    Gold intends to formulate a loony-term national
    wastewater strategy to quire any future
    investment.
  • Governments focus is on improving the
    functioning on-site systems for human waste
    disposal through
  • 1. Community education programs, 2.
    Incentives for self-help improvement of private
  • 3. Introducing and enforcing building
    regulation and
  • 4. Providing facilities for improved
    maintenance of on-site systems.

26
5. Solid waste management
  • All cantata management system shall be based on
  • Full coverage of the urban areas
  • Full fee paying
  • A minimum investment in mechanical equipment.
  • An emphasis on organization and community
    mobilization
  • Government aims at seducing the volume of waste
    by encouraging a waste seduction at source and by
    encouraging farmland informal se-cycling by
    communities.

27
Organization Involved in UEM
  • 1. Macro level Management
  • Ministry of Communication Transport Post and
    Construction and its Department of Housing and
    Urban Planning
  • Science Technology and Environment Authority
  • Ministry of Public Health
  • Ministry of Industry
  • Ministry of Education
  • 2. Micro level Management
  • Division of Communication Transport Post and
    Construction, Division of Public Health, Division
    of Industry, Division of Education and Science
    Technology and Environment Office that belong to
    the Provincial Governor

28
Environment Regulatory Framework and National
Policy Structure
  • The Lao PDR has been realized that Environmental
    pollution is not only the international problem,
    which requires a common response, but it was also
    the national problem and it is necessary to
    prevent and control the problem in early.
  • The Governments Policy is to integrate
    Environmental concerns into other development
    planning, particularly the national
    socioeconomic development plan and developed
    strategies to protect environment. There are
    numbers of legislation which are either directly
    or indirectly associated with atmospherics
    pollution and natural resource management in Lao
    PDR.

29
Environment Laws and Regulations
  • Industrial waste water Regulation. Ministry of
    Industry and Handicraft, 1995.
  • Environmental Protection Law (adopted April 3,
    1999)
  • Law on water and water resources (promulgated in
    1996)
  • Domestic Waste Water Regulation (STEA), May, 1998
  • Regulations on Solid Waste Management at
    Hospital, Health Center and Private Clinic
    (drafting March 2003, MPH)
  • Technical Standards for Solid Waste Disposal
    Sites (drafting April 2003, MCTPC)
  • Environmental Standards (drafting June 2002 by
    Environment Research Institute, Environment
    Quality Monitoring Center. STEA)
  • Regulation on Waste Collection Management in
    Urban Areas (drafting July 2003, MCTPC)

30
Urban environment problems are growing day by day
especially in urban areas of the country. The
Poor management of urban environment has negative
impacts in the environment of location as well as
associated health rinks. There is lack of
reliable data on these issues even in urban areas
of Lao P D R.More over, the community awareness
is important for managing of urban environment,
at the same time, the rules and regulations
should also be developed accordingly.
Conclusion
31
Thank you for your attention
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