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AMINO ACIDS

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AMINO ACIDS. Amino Acids are the building blocks of Proteins. Composed of ... Glycine has just a hydrogen for the 'R' NOT essential, except for the baby chick ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AMINO ACIDS


1
AMINO ACIDS
2
Amino Acids are the building blocks of Proteins
  • Composed of C, H, O, N usually S, P
  • Always has a NH2

3
General Structure
  • All amino acids start with this structure
  • The R stands for anything

4
Glycine
  • Glycine has just a hydrogen for the R
  • NOT essential, except for the baby chick

5
Alanine
  • Alanine has a methyl group for the R
  • Has 3 carbons (glycine had just 2)
  • NOT essential

6
Serine
  • NOT essential

7
Threonine
  • Essential

8
Valine
  • Essential
  • Valine is a branched chain amino acid.
  • An "ideal protein" would contain 70 as much
    isoleucine as lysine.

9
  • A rare, inherited metabolic disease in which
    there is a failure of oxidative decarboxylation
    (breakdown) of valine, leucine and isoleucine
    results in maple syrup urine disease, named
    because of a characteristic odor of the urine.

10
Leucine
11
  • Leucine is abundant in corn protein and many
    other grain proteins, and is not therefore a
    concern to supplement. Only the L isomer has
    biological value. "Ideal protein" would contain
    100 as much leucine as lysine.

12
Isoleucine
13
  • Isoleucine is a branched chain amino acid. An
    "ideal protein" would contain one-half as much
    isoleucine as lysine.
  • A rare, inherited metabolic disease in which
    there is a failure of oxidative decarboxylation
    (breakdown) of valine, leucine and isoleucine
    results in maple syrup urine disease, named
    because of a characteristic odor of the urine.

14
Phenylalanine
15
  • Phenylalanine is not tolerated by people with
    inborn errors of PHE metabolism so they must
    avoid it. Babies are given a PKU
    (phenylketonuria) test at birth to detect
    phenylalanine metabolites in the urine, so they
    can be treated in order to avoid a dangerous
    condition.

16
  • PHE is combined with ASP (aspartic acid, another
    amino acid) in the common non-nutritive sweetner
    aspertame. Equal is another trade name.

17
Methionine
  • Methionine is a sulfur-containing amino acid.
  • A portion of the methionine requirement can be
    met from cystine, another sulfur-containing amino
    acid.

18
  • An "ideal protein" would contain one-half as much
    methionine cystine as lysine.
  • Unlike most amino acids, both the d and l isomers
    of methionine are biologically active.
    Consequently, it has been synthesized and can be
    economically purchased for adding to diets.

19
  • Methionine participates in acting as a methyl
    donor, and is involved in the synthesis of many
    important compounds in the body, including
    epinephrine and choline.

20
Cysteine
Cystine
21
Tryptophan
  • Tryptophan is the second most limiting amino acid
    in corn diets for pigs.

22
  • Tryptophan can be used to from the Vitamin niacin
    but since feeds are usually low in tryptophan and
    the synthesis is insufficient to meet daily
    needs, it is not relied upon to meet the animal's
    need.

23
  • Useful in aiding sleep, tryptophan supplements
    have been banned by FDA as dangerous.
  • Skatole and indole can be formed from its
    breakdown in the large intestine by bacteria,
    producing foul odors.

24
Arginine
  • Arginine is a precursor of urea in the body. Urea
    is the form in which nitrogen is removed from
    mammals, so normal breakdown of protein and
    deamination of amino acids will result in urea
    formation, requiring arginine.

25
Histidine
  • Histidine contains an imidazole group. It is a
    precursor of histamine. An "ideal protein" would
    contain 33 as much histidine as lysine.

26
Lysine
  • Lysine is the most limiting amino acid in corn
    and most grains for swine and poultry.

27
  • Diets balanced for lysine will contain most of
    the other amino acids in excess of requirement if
    natural sources of good quality proteins are
    used.
  • It can be supplemented in the synthetic form and
    this is often economical, replacing a portion of
    the protein needed.
  • Only the L isomer is biologically active.

28
Essential Amino Acids Clue to remember PVT TIM
HALL
  • Phenylalanine
  • Valine
  • Threonine
  • Tryptophan
  • Isoleucine
  • Methionine
  • Histidine
  • Arginine
  • Lysine
  • Leucine

29
How do the amino acids differ from what is in DNA?
  • DNA is composed of nucleic acids (purines and
    pyrimidines)
  • Purines
  • adenine, guanine
  • Pyrimidines
  • cytosine, thymine

30
  • Adenine

Guanine
PURINES
Cytosine
Thymine
PYRIMIDINES
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