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Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata

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Sessile marine animals, 'Tadpole-like' larva -Pharynx enlarged ... Platypus and Spiny Anteater. Oviparous. Reptile-like Egg. Hair. Milk Produced by Specialized ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata


1
Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum Chordata
  • Subphylum Urochordata
  • Subphylum Cephalochordata
  • Subphylum Vertebrata

2
Biology 172Chapter 34
  • Chordates

3
Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum Chordata
  • Dorsal Hollow Nerve Cord
  • Derived from neural tube, from dorsal ectoderm
  • Unique to Chordates
  • Notochord
  • Longitudinal, flexible supporting rod
  • Large fluid filled cells, enclosed in Stiff
    fibrous tissue

4
Kingdom AnimaliaPhylum Chordata
  • Pharyngeal Slits
  • Allows water to pass through slits
  • Function in suspension feeding
  • Later adapted to gas exchange
  • Muscular Postanal Tail
  • Contains skeletal elements and muscle
  • Provides propulsive force for aquatic forms

5
Chordate Characteristics
6
Subphylum Urochordata Tunicates and Larvaceans
-2500 species -Sessile marine animals,
Tadpole-like larva -Pharynx enlarged into a
pharyngeal basket -Water enters incurrent siphon,
passes through pharyngeal slits, to atrial
cavity, excurrent siphon -Atrial cavity
surrounded by a cellulose-like tunic -Related to
Chordate ancestry -Filter feeder, using a mucus
net
7
Tunicates orSea Squirts
8
Figure 33.x2 Salp chain
9
Subphylum Cephalochordata Lancelets
-Fish like, retain all chordate
characteristics as adults -Only a few cm in
length - Live buried in soft marine sediments
-Filter feeders, mucus net around around
pharyngeal slits - Chevron shaped serially
arranged muscles, somites
10
Subphylum Cephalochordata Lancelets
11
Craniate Divergence
  • Two Sets of Hos Genes vs. One
  • Neural Crest
  • Teeth, Bone/Cartilage, Facial Dermis,
    Neurons, Sensory Capsules
  • Skeletal elements
  • Pharyngeal Clefts
  • Carnium and vertebral column
  • Closed Circulatory system 2 Chambers
  • Kidneys

12
Neural Crest
13
Primitive Craniates
14
Class Myxini - Hagfish
  • Hagfishes Scavengers
  • Feed on dead of dieing fish or worms
  • Slime glands
  • Cranium Thus Craniata
  • Notocord, no vertebra
  • Only Craniate that is a true osmoconformer.

15
Hagfish
16
Evolution of Vertebrates
  • Gene Duplication in Dlx Family
  • Innovations in Nervous and Skeletal System
  • More Extensive Skull
  • Vertebra Simple to Complex
  • Dorsal, Ventral and Anal Fins with Rays
  • More Efficient Gas Exchange in Gills
  • First vertebrates 500 mya

17
Early Vertebrates
  • Conodonts Barber hooks mineralized
  • dental tissue.
  • No paired fins
  • Abundant for 300 million years
  • More Advanced Paired Fins
  • Ostracoderms Very Diverse
  • Still Jawless

18
Early Vertebrates
19
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Cephalaspidomorphi Lampreys
  • Jawless
  • Lamprey Blood Sucking Parasit
  • Scaleless
  • Lacking Paired Appendages
  • Suspension Feeding Larva in Lamprey

20
Class CephalaspidomorphiLampreys
  • Cartilage Skeleton but no Collagen
  • Retain Notochord enveloped with cartilage
    pipe.
  • Paired Cartilage Projections from Pipe
  • Cranium and Primitive vertebra
  • Partially enclosed dorsal nerve cord
  • Life Cycle

21
Lamprey
22
Superclass GnathostomataThe Fishes
  • Jaws from anterior pharyngeal slits
  • Duplication of Hox genes for four sets
  • Enlarged forebrain Vision and Smell
  • Lateral Line
  • Ancestors Showed a Mineralization of the
    Endoskeleton
  • Paired Appendages

23
Fossil Gnathostomes
  • 470 mya
  • Adaptations for Success
  • Paired Fins and Tail Fin
  • Jaws
  • Placoderms - Armored
  • Acanthodians Fresh Water and Marine
  • Related to Bony Fishes

24
Superclass GnathostomataThe Fishes
  • Class Chondrichthyes Cartilage
  • Skeleton Sharks, Skates, Rays
  • Osteichthyes The bony fish
  • Class Actinopterygii Bony Ray-finned
  • fish
  • Class Actinistia Lobe-finned fish
  • Class Dipnoi Lung fish

25
Origin of Jaws
26
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Chondrichthyes Sharks, Skates, and Rays
  • 750 Species
  • Cartilaginous Skeleton
  • Asymmetrical Caudal Fin
  • Placoid Scales
  • Teeth
  • Two Chambered Heart
  • Electroreceptors, hearing,
  • chemoreception, sight

27
Class Chondrichthyes Sharks, Skates, and Rays
  • Lateral Line Present
  • Water Pressure and Vibrations
  • Spiral Valve Increases Surface Area
  • Most are Continuous Swimmers
  • No Swim Bladder
  • Buoyancy Provided by Oil
  • Oviparous, ovoviviparous, viviparous

28
Class Chondrichthyes Sharks, Skates, and Rays
29
Superclass GnathostomataOsteichthyes Bony Fish
  • 30,000 species
  • Ossification
  • 3 Classes
  • Flattened bony scales
  • Mucus glands
  • Lateral line
  • Operculum
  • Swim Bladder
  • Maneuverable
  • Devonian and Carboniferous Diversification

30
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Actinopterygii Ray-finned Fish
  • 30,000 Species, Most Diverse
  • Freshwater and Marine
  • Bony Skeleton
  • Swim Bladder
  • Operculum
  • Fresh Water Origin

31
Class Actinopterygii
  • Scales, Skin Glands
  • Lateral Line
  • Two Chambered Heart
  • Most oviparous with external
  • fertilization
  • Some ovoviviparous or viviparous with internal
    fertilization

32
Class Ostichthyes Bony Fish
33
Class Ostichthyes Bony Fish
  • Trout

34
Class ActinistiaLobe-finned Fishes
  • Fleshy, Muscular Fins, With Well Developed
    Bones
  • Paired Fins Used to Walk on Bottom
  • Modern Molecular Evidence Suggest That Other
    Lung Fishes May Have Given Rise to Amphibians.
  • Only Extant Species is Marine with no Lungs
  • Coelocanth

35
Coelocanth
36
Class DipnoiLung Fishes
  • Second line of lobe-finned fishes
  • Lungs connected to pharynx
  • Southern hemisphere today
  • A third line of lobe-finned fishes
  • gave rise to tetrapods.
  • Gave rise to terrestrial vertebrates
  • Tetrapods from specialized fish

37
Figure 34.15 The origin of tetrapods
38
Figure 34.16 Skeleton of Acanthostega, a
Devonian tetrapod fish
39
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Amphibia Frogs, Toads, Salamanders
  • Early Amphibians Up to 4m
  • Appeared 365 Million Years Ago
  • Started Declining 245 mya
  • 4,800 Extant Species
  • H2O Needed for Reproduction

40
Class Amphibia Frogs, Toads, Salamanders
  • No External Ears
  • Tympanic Membrane
  • Smooth Skin
  • Poikilothermic/Ectothermic
  • External Fertilization
  • Three Chambered Heart
  • Undergo Metamorphosis

41
Orders of Amphibia
  • Order Anura - Frogs, Toads
  • Order Urodela - Salamanders
  • Order Apoda - Legless

42
Class Amphibia Frogs,
43
Class AmphibiaSalamanders
44
Frog Life Cycle
45
The Amniotes
  • The Amniotic Egg
  • Extraembryonic Membranes
  • Chorion
  • Allantois
  • Yolk sac
  • Amnion Amnionic fluid
  • Waterproof skin
  • Rib ventilation

46
Amniotic Egg
47
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Reptilia Snakes, Lizards, Geckos,
Skinks Turtles, Crocodilians and Birds
  • Amniotic Egg
  • Scales
  • Oviparous or Ovoviviparous
  • Produce Uric Acid
  • Generally Carnivores
  • Three Chambered Heart in Most

48
Class Reptilia Snakes, Lizards, Geckos,
Skinks Turtles, and Crocodilians
  • Well Developed Lungs
  • Ectotherms
  • Poikilothermic/Exothermic
  • Aposematic Coloration
  • Use Less that 10 of Calories of mammals

49
Dinosaurs
  • Dinosaurs and Pterosaurs
  • Many Varieties
  • Cretaceous Extinction

50
Class Reptilia - Snakes
  • Loosely Jointed Jaws
  • Jacobsons Organs
  • Vestigial Pelvic and Limb Bones in some
  • Pit Vipers
  • Toxins

51
Snakes
52
Class Reptilia Snakes, Lizards, Geckos,
Skinks Turtles, and Crocodilians
53
Subphylum Vertebrata
Class Reptilia Birds
  • 8,600 Extant Species
  • Honeycombed Bones
  • Some Organ Systems Reduced
  • No Teeth, Keratin Bill
  • Efficient Circulatory and Respiratory System

54
Class Reptilia Birds
  • Homeothermic/Endothermic
  • Often show Sexual Dimorphism
  • Four Chambered Heart
  • Fused Bones in Wings
  • Large Sternum Flight Muscles
  • Feathers - Keratin
  • Air Sacs
  • Scaled Legs

55
Archaeopteryx
56
Class Reptilia Birds
57
Class Reptilia Birds
58
Subphylum Vertebrata Class Mammalia
Diversification after Cretaceous Extinction 5,000
Extant Species Hair - Keratin Mammary
Glands Homeothermic/Endothermic
59
Subphylum VertebrataClass Mammalia
Diaphragm Four Chambered Heart Highly
Differentiated Teeth Large Brains Considerable
Parental Care
60
Subphylum VertebrataClass Mammalia
  • First Fossils 220 mya
  • Coexisted with Dinosaurs
  • Adaptive Radiation During Cenozoic
  • Three Lines of Evolution
  • Monotremes
  • Marsupials
  • Eutherians (Placental)

61
Monotremes
  • Platypus and Spiny Anteater
  • Oviparous
  • Reptile-like Egg
  • Hair
  • Milk Produced by Specialized Glands on the
    Belly
  • Australia and New Guinea

62
Class Mammalia
  • Duckbill Platypus

63
Marsupials
  • Opossum, Kangaroo, Koalas
  • Young Develop in a Marsupium
  • Young Born at a Very Early Stage of
    Development
  • Australia and South America

64
Australian Mammals
65
Eutherians (Placental)
  • Placental Mammals
  • Diverged 80 to 100 mya
  • Adaptive Radiation 70 to 45 mya
  • Most Diverse

66
Class Mammalia Placental Mammals
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