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Radiation Safety Refresher Training Course

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Title: Radiation Safety Refresher Training Course


1
Radiation Safety Refresher Training Course
  • Welcome to our web-based course for radiation
    safety refresher training. Completing this course
    will fulfill your requirement for this year's
    instruction. After completing the first six parts
    of the course, which are common to all radiation
    source users, you will continue with material
    oriented for either for radioactive material
    users (5 parts) or radiation-producing device
    users (4 parts). Upon finishing either section,
    you'll arrive at a hub of icons leading to the
    following informational sections Radioactive
    Materials, Radiation Producing Devices,
    Iodination Procedures, and Animal Use. The end of
    each section will bring you back to the same hub
    so that you can read all of the sections that
    apply to you. Self-testing questions are posed
    throughout the course for you to check your
    comprehension of the material. If you do not
    understand any information provided, please
    direct your questions to the Radiation Safety
    Office for clarification.
  • When you have read all the sections relevant to
    your work, you must fax the completed
    registration form to attain credit for completing
    the refresher training. Opportunities are
    provided throughout the course to ask questions,
    offer comments, or visit other related sites.  If
    you choose not to complete the web-based
    training, contact the Radiation Safety Officer,
    Dramane Konate 775-2169, to schedule a refresher
    lecture.

2
Radiation Safety Program Administration (Section
1)
  • The Ohio Department of Health (ODH) regulates
    radioactive materials and radiation producing
    devices in Ohio. The Ohio Bureau of Radiation
    Protection (OBRP) is the ODH section that carries
    out this regulatory function. Inspectors from
    OBRP visit the university periodically to ensure
    that use of radioactive materials and
    radiation-producing devices (RPDs) conform to
    Ohio rules (370101-38 and 370101- 66) and the
    university license. University policies (i.e.,
    the Radiation Safety Manual) are established by
    the Radiation Safety Committee and enforced by
    the Radiation Safety Officer. 
  • Users are responsible for complying with Ohio
    rules and university policies. Application of
    these rules, procedures and common sense form the
    foundation for the safety of each individual.
    Should you observe any situation or occurrence
    that in any way violates the objectives of the
    Radiation Safety Program or general safety, you
    must immediately bring it to the attention of
    your laboratory supervisor or the Radiation
    Safety Officer.  The Ohio Notice to Employees
    posted in each lab promotes laboratory safety.
  • Failure to follow safety regulations and the
    provisions of the manual can jeopardize the
    authority of the university to use radioactive
    materials and radiation-producing devices and
    could result in considerable negative impact on
    teaching and research programs, including the
    possible loss of funding. Violators of these
    regulations are therefore subject to penalties
    such as suspension or withdrawal of user status
    by the Radiation Safety Committee. In addition,
    users should be aware that careless or willful
    violation of Radiation Safety regulations may
    subject the perpetrator to civil or criminal
    prosecution.

3
Radiation Safety Manual (Section 2)
  • Authorized and Faculty Users are provided copies
    of the Radiation Safety Manual for use by
    personnel in their laboratories or facilities.
    The manual provides administrative and
    operational procedures for safely using
    radioactive materials and radiation-producing
    devices at the university. Adherence to the
    manual's specifications ensures compliance with
    applicable Ohio rules.
  • The Radiation Safety Manual is also available at
    the Radiation Safety Office web
    sitehttp//www.wright.edu/admin/ehs/RadOffice/ra
    dmanual.pdf .
  • You can easily find information in the manual by
    using the Table of Contents to note the page
    number of the information you're seeking and
    moving the side bar to that page. The formatting
    of the hard copy and web manuals slightly differ,
    but the content is the same. You are invited to
    bookmark the Radiation Safety Office web site and
    the Radiation Safety Manual for future reference.

4
ALARA Action Levels and Dose Limits (Section 3)
  • Any situation where a person receives a radiation
    dose that exceeds an ODH dose limit (see Table
    below) subjects WSU to a violation of ODH rules
    and possible administrative penalties. The WSU
    action levels are used to identify elevated
    personal doses for implementing administrative
    corrective actions. ALARA (an acronym that stands
    for As Low As Reasonably Achievable) represents
    the philosophy of keeping personal radiation
    doses as low as possible, while making use of
    radioactivity and RPDs as valuable research
    tools. 
  • Users of radioactive materials and RPDs should
    try to keep their radiation doses ALARA. By
    reducing personal exposure time, maximizing the
    distance from radiation sources, using
    appropriate shielding, and controlling
    contamination, researchers should receive
    negligible radiation doses. For comparison, each
    person's exposure to background radiation
    exposure in the Miami Valley is about 0.3 rem per
    year.
  •  
  • The ODH dose limit to members of the general
    public is 0.1 rem per year.

5
Radiation Dose Monitoring (Section 4)
  • Dosimeters are used to monitor the external dose
    of persons exposed to high energy X, gamma, or
    beta radiation. They may be obtained through the
    Radiation Safety Office  by completing a
    dosimetry issuance card. The dosimeters are
    issued quarterly, with the cycles closing at the
    end of March, June, September, December.  Please
    make them available for pickup by Radiation
    Safety Office personnel. Persons who use only 3H,
    14C, 35S, or small amounts of 125I are not issued
    dosimetry because the dosimeters don't
    effectively measure low energy beta or gamma
    radiation.
  • You should wear your dosimeter any time you may
    be exposed to radiation sources at WSU. The two
    types of personal dosimeters used here are
  • OSLDs. Optically-stimulated luminescent
    dosimeters (OSLDs) monitor your whole body dose,
    eye dose, and skin dose. They are worn on the
    front of the body between the collar and the
    waist with the label facing outward. The OSLD
    consists of a crystal that emits light when
    stimulated by a laser or diode light beam. The
    amount of light emitted is proportional to the
    person's radiation dose.
  • Finger rings. Finger rings are used when hands
    can be placed in or near intense radiation
    sources. They are worn on the hand predominantly
    exposed to radiation and under any protective
    gloves worn by the user. The label must face
    toward the radiation source to provide meaningful
    information.
  • Report to the Radiation Safety Office when a
    dosimeter has been lost and cannot be found, or
    if you suspect that your dosimeter has been
    tampered with or exposed to electrical shock,
    caustic chemicals, or excessive heat. Do not wear
    your dosimeter when exposed to radiation for
    medical or dental purposes.
  • You may request to review your dosimetry
    information any time. Each person issued a
    dosimeter will receive a copy of their results
    each year.

6
Radiation Biological Effects (Section 5)
  • Ionizing radiation at very large doses is known
    to increase the incidence of cancer and birth
    anomalies. At low levels (less than 10 rem),
    these effects are either very small compared to
    the natural incidence or nonexistent, depending
    on the biological model used for estimating the
    potential risk. Regulatory agencies assume that
    radiation effects observed in people exposed to
    very high doses can be linearly extrapolated to
    background levels. This model is called the
    "linear no-threshold theory" because the modeled
    effects are linear with dose and no threshold is
    assumed. The linear model most likely
    over-estimates harmful biological effects because
    it does not account for the body's ability to
    repair damage.
  • Appendix C (Biological Effects of Ionizing
    Radiation) of the Radiation Safety Manual
    synopsizes the range of biological effects,
    including more information on background
    radiation, low dose effects, genetic and prenatal
    effects, and effects from very large doses.
  • Background Radiation Doses People living in the
    Miami Valley area receive about 300 mrem per year
    from natural radiation sources in the
    environment, such as
  • Cosmic Rays
    30 mrem Uranium, thorium,
    radium in the soil 30
    mrem Radon
    200 mrem
    Isotopes in the body (such as 40K, 210Po, 14C,
    3H) 40 mrem
  • Most of the sources that contribute to background
    radiation dose to the US population vary
    considerably by location. This dose per annum
    ranges from about 100 mrem to about 1000 mrem.
    Other sources of radiation dose (per year)
    include
  • Medical and dental diagnostic exams
    55 mrem Consumer Products (TV sets,
    smoke detectors, etc.) 10 mrem Smoking (lung
    dose, tobacco contains 210Po) 8000
    mrem

7
Radiation Detection Equipment (Section 6)
  • Survey meters are used for to monitoring for
    contamination of personnel and work areas
    whenever high energy beta and gamma emitters are
    used. The effectiveness of most instruments for
    detecting beta contamination varies considerably.
    For example
  • You should ensure the survey meter operates
    properly before you use it by
  • Checking the battery. If it is low, replace the
    batteries or contact the RSO.
  • Checking the calibration to be sure the
    instrument has been calibrated within the past 12
    months.
  • Checking the meter's response to a check source
    on the side of the instrument.
  • Do not use a survey meter that is not working
    properly or is out of calibration.

8
Contamination Surveys (Section 7)
  • Surveys for contamination demonstrate that no
    contamination is present or identify contaminated
    surfaces so that they can be cleaned before
    contamination spreads. The Radiation Office will
    perform contamination surveys when requested by
    the user. Surveys for removable contamination
    (swipe or wipe surveys) are performed according
    to usage.
  • Work areas and equipment should be kept free of
    contamination as practical. The action level for
    decontamination for beta and gamma emitters is
    200 dpm / 100cm² or 3 times background.

9
Personal Protection (Section 8)
  • Wear standard laboratory protective clothing when
    handling unsealed radioactive materials . A lab
    coat and gloves will help prevent your hands or
    your clothes from inadvertent contamination.
    Safety glasses should be worn if you are handling
    dispersible or volatile chemicals.
  • Do not eat, drink, smoke, chew gum, or apply
    cosmetics in areas where radioactive materials
    are handled.
  • Monitor the work area and gloves regularly to
    identify contamination and prevent its spread.
  • Minimize the time of your exposure. Practice new
    procedures without radioactivity first. Don't
    rush. Rushing through procedures can lead to
    spills and may actually\ increase your dose.
  • Maximize your distance from the source.
  • Use shielding. Lead works well to shield gamma
    ray emitters. Plastic  is effective shielding
    material for phosphorus-32, as well as other high
    energy beta emitters.
  • Procedures that produce contaminated aerosols,
    dusts, or gases shall be conducted in an approved
    fume hood.

10
Control of Radioactivity (Section 9)
  • Purchasing Radioactive Materials. A coordinated
    process of ordering and receiving radioactive
    materials provides the initial step for
    controlling these materials at the university.
    The materials may be ordered by purchase orders
    or credit cards. The order requires approval from
    the Authorized User and the Radiation Safety
    Office to ensure the Authorized User is permitted
    to have the material and that possession limits
    are not exceeded. The information needed for
    approval is (a) the Authorized User, (b) isotope,
    (c) activity, and (d) chemical composition.
    Approval from the Radiation Safety Office can be
    obtained by email to the RSO and Radiation Safety
    Technician or by a phone call to either.
  • Security. In this era of potential terrorism,
    security of laboratory spaces and radioactivity
    is essential. Loss or theft of radioactive
    material can result in a violation of the ODH
    license, personal injury, and/or negative
    publicity. Radioactivity must be secured against
    tampering, loss, unauthorized removal, and theft.
    Lock the room where materials are used or stored
    whenever responsible lab personnel are not
    present. Radioactive materials and waste secured
    in a locked container achieve this requirement
    when the above measures cannot be met.
  • Radiation Warning Signs and Labels  Radiation
    signs heighten the awareness of persons who may
    enter the lab.  Labels identify areas and
    equipment that may be contaminated and provide a
    reminder for lab personnel, students, custodians,
    and maintenance workers to exercise caution. 
    Labeled equipment may not be removed from a
    restricted area to an unrestricted area for any
    purpose (including repair, maintenance, disposal,
    or resale) until radiation safety personnel
    verify the item is free of contamination and
    removes the radiation warning labels. The
    surveyor affixes a certificate to the equipment
    that shows the equipment has been cleared.

11
Spill Response (Section 10)
  • A spill is an uncontrolled release of radioactive
    material. The procedures for responding to a
    spill of radioactive materials are
  • Warn other persons in the area that a spill has
    occurred. Restrict uninvolved persons from
    entering the area.
  • Prevent the spread of contamination by covering
    the spill with absorbent paper or establishing a
    boundary to the spill site
  • Wearing protective clothing, clean up the spill
    with absorbent paper, soap and water, or a
    commercial decontamination agent. Place
    contaminated materials in radioactive trash.
  • Survey the area. Check hands, clothing, and shoes
    of potentially-contaminated persons.
  • Report the spill to the Authorized User and RSO.
    See the cover page of the Radiation Safety Manual
    for emergency contact phone numbers.
  • Continue decontamination, if indicated.
  • If the spill involves more than a millicurie of
    radioactive material, it would be prudent to
    vacate the lab and immediately contact the RSO.

12
Radioactive Material Usage and Waste (Section 11)
  • Inventory Cards. The Radiation Safety Office
    provides a yellow Inventory Card with each stock
    vial of radioactivity for you to track the
    material's usage and disposal. To the right is an
    example of a completed card.  Radiation Safety
    Office personnel review these cards during audits
    to update the computer inventory system. 
  • Waste Handling and Labeling. Handling and
    security of radioactive waste entails the same
    precautions as other radioactive materials. The
    waste must be properly contained to prevent
    spills or breakage. Identify the waste type and
    contents with labels for solid, liquid,
    scintillation vial, or animal waste supplied by
    the Radiation Safety Office.  
  • Solid Waste. The Radiation Safety Office picks up
    all solid waste. Please use heavy duty plastic
    bags for unbreakable waste or cardboard boxes for
    glass and other breakable materials. Dispose of
    sharp objects in appropriate containers to
    prevent needle sticks and finger cuts.  Do not
    commingle short-lived isotopes, like 32P with
    long-lived isotopes, like 3H or 14C.

13
  • Short-Lived Solid Waste.  With consideration for
    ALARA, please remove labels from waste items
    before discarding them into the radioactive waste
    container.  Radiation safety personnel rummages
    through the waste after it has decayed and
    removes or obliterates radiation labels.  As you
    can imagine, this task can be disgusting, or even
    hazardous if we come across unprotected sharp
    objects.  We appreciate your effort in making our
    job easier.  And remember, the outside of the
    waste container must still be properly labeled.
  • Liquid Waste. Investigators are encouraged to
    turn in radioactive liquids to the Radiation
    Safety Office for disposal in an effort to
    minimize the radioactivity discharged to the
    sanitary sewer. Section 2.24.5 of the Radiation
    Safety Manual addresses disposal of liquid
    radioactive waste requirements.
  • Scintillation Vial Waste. Scintillation vials
    should be stored upright to prevent leakage of
    the fluid. Storage boxes are available from the
    Radiation Safety Office. The university has
    received approval to dispose of most
    biodegradable scintillation cocktails into the
    sanitary sewer on the main campus. We are limited
    to 1 liter per day. Users are encouraged to
    submit the scintillation vials to the Radiation
    Safety Office for disposal, unless other
    arrangements are with the RSO.

14
RPD Personal Protection (Section 6)
  • Minimize the time of your exposure. Your dose (D)
    equals the dose rate (DR) times the time (t) of
    exposure. By reducing your time of exposure, you
    reduce your dose.
  • D (mRem) DR (mRem/hr) t (time)
  • Maximize your distance from the source. Radiation
    from a point source decreases by an inverse
    square relationship. If you double your distance
    from the source, your dose rate is reduced by
    1/4.  In the equation below, DR1 dose rate at
    distance X1 from a source, DR2 dose rate at
    distance X2 from a source.
  • DR1 X12 DR2 X22
  • Use shielding. High density material (e.g., lead)
    effectively shields X rays. The thickness of
    shielding needed to attenuate the x-ray beam is
    highly dependent on the density of the shielding
    material and the energy of the radiation. High
    energy x-rays require more shielding material
    than low energy x-rays.

15
  • Immediately turn off any RPD if an unsafe
    condition arises, such as smoke or fire,
    accidental personal exposure, or flooding. Inform
    the Facility Coordinator.
  • Never expose any body part in or near the primary
    beam
  • Never disengage a safety interlock or warning
    device or operate a unit if one of these systems
    malfunctions. Note Repair or maintenance of
    some RPDs may require temporary disabling of
    interlock systems. Such a condition can present a
    hazardous situation hence, heightened safety
    precautions are imperative. Precautions include
    approval from the facility coordinator
    procedures approved by the Facility Coordinator
    and RSO using locks, tags, signs, and/or log
    book entries to clearly show the reduced safe
    environment and verification that the safety
    devices are fully operational before routine use
    of the unit.
  • Never energize electrical equipment if the floor
    or equipment are wet or high voltage wires are
    exposed.
  • RPD operations must conform to the facility
    operating procedures. Never operate equipment for
    which you have not been trained.
  • Never alter, repair, or perform maintenance on an
    RPD component without authorization and approval
    from the Facility Coordinator.

16
RPD Operating Procedures (Section 7)
  • The Operating Procedures (OP or Facility
    Operating Manual) provide guidance to device
    users on the facility procedures and safety
    requirements. The OP is produced by the Facility
    Coordinator. A copy should be kept with the x-ray
    device for review by the operator. 
  • Any directions to operators not mentioned in the
    Radiation Safety Manual or the unit's technical
    manual should be discussed in the OP. Information
    that may be included are
  • Training requirements for operation
  • Safety interlocks and warning devices
  • checklists for startup, operation, shutdown,
    emergencies, or testing of interlocks
  • General safety concerns, such as electrical,
    noxious gases, etc.
  • Security
  • Use log
  • Dosimetry

17
RPD Operating Procedures (Section 7)
ct. OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR BONE DENSITOMETERS
  • Operation
  • Scanner is to be operated in accordance with
    operating instructions as outlined in the
  • various manuals. No person is to be measured if
    the daily quality assurance procedure has
  • failed.
  • Operators
  • The following persons are allowed to operate the
    scanner when patients are to be measured
  • - Holders of a Radiological License of the
    State of Ohio
  • - Trainees under the supervision of a person
    who holds a Radiological License of the State
  • of Ohio
  • All scanner operators must be approved by the
    Director of the BioMedical Imaging
  • Laboratory to operate the scanner and execute the
    procedures for which their training is
  • documented in the Competency Check List for Bone
    Densitometry. The scanner operators
  • have internet access to the radiation rules and
    regulations of the Ohio Department of Health
  • (www.odh.state.oh.us). The scanner operating
    procedures and general radiation safety will
  • be reviewed annually, and the review will be
    documented by signature and date.
  • The operators are required to wear a personal
    dosimeter. The operator shall be no closer
  • than the location of the computer workstation or
    3 feet from the patient during operation
  • of the x-ray tube. The door to the room must be
    closed while the x-ray tube is operated.

18
RPD Operating Procedures (Section 7)
ct. OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR BONE DENSITOMETERS
  • Patients/Subjects
  • Any person to be measured has to fall in one of
    the following categories
  • - Referred by a physician
  • - Entered into a research project with signed
    consent form
  • All persons to be measured will be informed that
    the DXA scanning procedure involves X-rays.
  • Emergency
  • In the case of an emergency that requires
    vacating the premises, abort scan and follow
    standard procedures.
  • Initial release - 2Oct01
  • Revision 1 - 15May03
  • Revision 2 - 25Oct07 (Combined SOP for all
    scanners)

19
RPD Quality Assurance Program (Section 8)
  • According  the Ohio Administrative Code
    37011-66-04, the Quality Assurance (QA) Program
    provides for written procedures to identify
    problems, defective equipment, and unsafe
    practices of radiation-producing devices (RPD) so
    the problems can be quickly corrected. At WSU,
    the QA Program is documented in the Radiation
    Safety Manual and the facility Operating
    Procedures.
  • During inspections by Ohio Department of Health
    personnel, the inspectors will likely ask to see
    the following items
  • the Radiation Safety Manual and Facility
    Operating Procedures.
  • documentation of training of operators on
    Facility Operating Procedures.
  • documentation of training to "individuals likely
    to be working in a restricted area or who may
    receive 100 mrem/year" on (1) the potential
    hazards of being present in the area, (2) the
    location, boundaries, and purpose of the
    restricted area, and (3) a description of the RPD
    and its location.
  • for any unit used to x-ray people, a copy of the
    Ohio radiographer's or X-ray Machine Operator's
    license for each operator must be available.
  • an inventory of each RPD at the facility,
    including the location and RPD description.
  • data and test results of the evaluation of each
    RPD and its shielding and surroundings.
  • maintenance logs and incident reports
  • documentation of personnel responsible for
    monitoring and performing QA tests.
  • calibration certificates for each piece of
    equipment used for radiation monitoring or QA
    testing.
  • dosimetry results.

20
Research Involving Animals Radioactive
Materials
  • Researchers who use radioactivity incorporated
    into live animals must obtain specified approval
    from the
  • Radiation Safety Committee (RSC). They must
    submit their application (Form LAR/RSO 14,
    "Animal Care
  • Information", Appendix L of the Radiation Safety
    Manual) to the RSC via the Radiation Safety
    Officer.
  • Instructions to LAR. The Authorized User must
    ensure that the presence of radioactivity and
    specific instructions are fully communicated to
    the LAR staff by
  • Posting a "Caution Radioactive Materials" sign
    at the entryway of the room holding the
    contamination animals.
  • Completing Appendix M of the Radiation Safety
    Manual and posting the form on the animal room
    door. This form provides specific information and
    instructions regarding personal protection,
    dosimetry, feeding, changing bedding, and other
    special instructions.
  • Labeling cages housing contaminated animals,
    waste container, and any equipment that is
    potentially contaminated.
  • Radioactive Animal Waste. Animal carcasses,
    excrement, and associated wastes containing
    radioactivity will be placed in a plastic bag and
    refrigerated or frozen. A waste label available
    from the Radiation Safety Office shall be affixed
    to the bag. Contact the Radiation Safety Office
    for disposal. Animal waste containing only H-3 or
    C-14 with activity less than 0.05 microcuries per
    gram of animal tissue averaged over the entire
    animal waste should be documented on the
    Inventory Card.                                   
                   

21
Iodination Procedures
  • An iodination process uses iodinated material to
    make compounds labeled with radioactive iodine.
    The procedure typically uses millicurie
    quantities of I-125 and can pose a genuine
    potential for exceeding university limits for
    contamination and personal exposure. For these
    reasons extra procedures, as shown below, apply
    for iodination experiments. See Section 2.21.2 of
    the Radiation Safety Manual.
  • Inform the RSO at least 2 days in advance of
    each iodination procedure.
  • A thyroid bioassay must be performed on each
    participant before the first iodination. After
    each iodination thereafter, a follow-up bioassay
    must be performed within 24-72 hours of
    completion (optimally, the next day).
  • Inform the RSO immediately if inhalation or
    personal contamination is suspected. If an intake
    is confirmed a potassium iodide blocking agent
    must be administered as soon as possible to
    mitigate exposure to the thyroid.
  • Prepare an "iodine trap" solution of 0.1 M each
    of sodium thiosulfate, sodium iodide, and sodium
    hydroxide. This solution will trap free iodine
    for decontamination and disposal purposes.
  • The work must be performed in a fume hood,
    vented to the outside, with a minimal flow rate
    of 100 ft/min. The flow rate must be certified
    within the past 12 months. Ensure the fan is on
    during the procedure. Keep the sash at a low, but
    comfortable position to maximize negative draw.

22
  • A fume hood insert (radio-iodination hood) with
    charcoal absorbers must be used to mitigate the
    release of radio-iodine to the atmosphere. Ensure
    the fan works properly during the entire
    procedure.
  • A calibrated survey meter with a low-energy gamma
    detector is required. Frequent monitoring of
    gloves and around the fume hood should be
    performed to quickly identify contamination.
  • First practice the iodination procedures without
    radioactivity to become familiar with the steps
    involved and identify ways to reduce the
    potential of exposure.
  • Wear two pairs of gloves to prevent absorption
    through the skin. Change the outer pair
    immediately if contaminated.
  • The RSO may monitor the vented exhaust from the
    fume hood and the breathing zone of the person
    performing the iodination to ensure no limits are
    exceeded.
  • Keep contaminated trash in the fume hood as long
    as possible. Double bag the waste for pickup by
    EHS.
  • Monitor gloves, exposed clothing, lab coat, and
    the work area (including the floor) for
    contamination after completion of work. Monitor
    and wash hands before leaving the lab.
  • Swipe survey the use area for removable
    contamination.

23
Radiation Safety Refresher Training Registration
Form Print form and return to RSO Fax
937-775-4286
  • Title Dr. Mr. Mrs. Ms. First Name Last Name
    Department Status Phone Number E-mail
    address
  • You have now completed the radiation safety
    refresher course. Thank-you for your
    participation.  We invite your opinion on this
    web-based training. Is the material
    understandable? Yes No  
  • Is the training method effective for covering the
    material?  Yes No 
  • Are you given the opportunity to ask questions?
    Yes No
  • Please use the space below to offer your
    questions or comments regarding any information
    provided or related issues? ______________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
    __________________________________________________
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