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Hydrogen Safety

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... burning the fuel under a boiler, it is exploded inside the cylinder of an engine... C.E. Thomas, 'Hydrogen Vehicle Safety Report', prepared by Directed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Hydrogen Safety


1
Hydrogen Safety
  • UI ChE/ME 404/504
  • ISU Engr 499/599
  • Richard Jacobsen
  • Vivek Utgikar
  • November 29, 2007

2
Hydrogen Safety
  • Hydrogen characteristics
  • Basic hydrogen properties
  • FCV safety systems
  • Prevention
  • Detection
  • Isolation

3
Hydrogen Characteristics
http//www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/doe_h2_safety.
pdf
4
Hydrogen Characteristics (continued)
http//www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/doe_h2_safety.
pdf
5
Hydrogen Characteristics (continued)
http//www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/doe_h2_safety.
pdf
6
Hydrogen Characteristics (continued)
http//www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/doe_h2_safety.
pdf
7
Hydrogen Characteristics (continued)
http//www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/doe_h2_safety.
pdf
8
Hydrogen Vehicle Systems
http//www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/doe_h2_safety.
pdf
9
Government Safety Objectives for Hydrogen
http//www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/doe_h2_safety.
pdf
10
Government Safety Objectives for Hydrogen
(continued)
http//www.hydrogen.energy.gov/pdfs/doe_h2_safety.
pdf
11
Hydrogen Storage
  • Hydrogen storage is a key enabling technology for
    the advancement of hydrogen and fuel cell power
    technologies in transportation, stationary, and
    portable applications. DOE's efforts focus
    primarily on the RD of on-board vehicular
    hydrogen storage systems that will allow for a
    driving range of 300 miles or more. In addition,
    hydrogen storage systems for off-board
    applications such as the hydrogen delivery and
    refueling infrastructure and Power Parks are also
    being investigated, coordinated with the hydrogen
    delivery program element.
  • This DOE Hydrogen Program activity is focused on
    advanced storage of hydrogen (or its precursors)
    on vehicles or within the distribution system.

U.S. Dept. of Energy Hydrogen Program
www.hydrogen.energy.gov/storage.html?print
12
Hydrogen Storage (continued)
  • High-Pressure and Cryogenic Tanks
  • The Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
    Energy is developing and evaluating advanced
    concepts to store hydrogen at high pressures and
    cryogenic temperatures.
  • Advanced Solid State and Liquid Materials
  • The Offices of Energy Efficiency and Renewable
    Energy and Fossil Energy are working to develop
    innovative materials for reversible hydrogen
    storage including carbon-based materials,
    metalorganic frameworks, and metal hydrides, as
    well as approaches that are regenerable offboard
    such as chemical hydrides.
  • Basic Research
  • In Office of Sciences basic research program,
    the main focus will be on basic research needs in
    developing novel storage materials and methods.
    The broad class of storage materials to be
    studied includes various forms of complex
    hydrides and nanostructured materials.

U.S. Dept. of Energy Hydrogen Program
www.hydrogen.energy.gov/storage.html?print
13
Sources of Information
  • There are lists of references on various subjects
    in INEEL/EXT-99-00522 by Lee Cadwallader and
    Steve Herring. On http//www.osti.gov/ select
    Energy Citation Database in header and search for
    document number.
  • 2007 Annual Merit Review Proceedings Hydrogen
    Storage http//www.hydrogen.energy.gov/annual_re
    view07_storage.htmlp_metal

14
Sources of Information (continued)
2007 Annual Merit Review Proceedings -- Hydrogen
Storage The presentations and posters from the
hydrogen storage session at the Annual Merit
Review in May 2007 are available as Adobe Acrobat
PDFs. Hydrogen Storage Presentations Hydrogen
Sorption Center of Excellence Carbon/Sorbents
Independent Projects Metal Hydrides
Independent Projects Metal Hydride Center of
Excellence Chemical Hydrogen Storage
Independent Projects Chemical Hydrogen Storage
Center of Excellence Additional New
Materials/Concepts Storage Testing, Safety, and
Analysis Hydrogen Storage Session Review (PDF
583 KB), Sunita Satyapal, U.S. Department of
Energy
15
Sources of Information (continued)
16
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17
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18
Gasoline Safety
  • "A new source of power... called gasoline has
    been produced by a Boston engineer. Instead of
    burning the fuel under a boiler, it is exploded
    inside the cylinder of an engine...
  • "The dangers are obvious. Stores of gasoline in
    the hands of people interested primarily in
    profit would constitute a fire and explosive
    hazard of the first rank. Horseless carriages
    propelled by gasoline might attain speeds of 14,
    or even 20 miles per hour. The menace to our
    people of this type hurtling through our streets
    and along our roads and poisoning the atmosphere
    would call for prompt legislative action even if
    the military and economic implications were not
    so overwhelming...the cost of producing
    gasoline is far beyond the financial capacity
    of private industry...In addition, the
    development of this new power may displace the
    use of horses, which would wreck our
    agriculture.
  • Walter F. Stewart, Congressional Record statement
    from 1875 in "Hydrogen as a Vehicular Fuel,"
    Chapter 3 of K.D. Williamson, Jr. and Frederick
    J. Edeskuty, Recent Developments in Hydrogen
    Technology. Vol. n, CRC Press, 1986, p. 132.

19
Basic H2 PropertiesComparison with methane,
propane and gasoline
G.A. Karim, " Some Considerations of the safety
of Methane, (CNG), as an Automotive
Fuel-Comparison with Gasoline, Propane and
Hydrogen Operation," SAE Paper N. 830267
20
(No Transcript)
21
Basic H2 Properties
  • Safety Disadvantages
  • Odorless and Colorless
  • Low ignition energy
  • Wide flammability range
  • Low density and low dynamic viscosity
  • Safety Advantages
  • High buoyancy and dispersion rates
  • No toxicity or spillage concerns

22
FCV Safety
  • Prevention
  • Detection
  • Isolation
  • Containment
  • Ventilation/Dilution

23
Prevention
  • Good engineering design
  • Codes and Standards
  • H2 Storage (NGV2, CGA, ANSI/IAS PRD-1, etc.)
  • FC System (SAE 2579, ISO, etc.)
  • FC Vehicle (SAE 2578, FMVSS, etc.)
  • 3rd party certification/testing for components

24
Example H2 Storage
25
Example H2 Storage
  • Certifications (including-not limited to)
  • USA FMVSS 304 (Federal Motor Vehicle Safety
    Standards)
  • USA NGV 2-98 Approved (Natural Gas Vehicle)
  • International ISO CD 11439 (International
    Organization
    for
    Standardization)
  • Canada/Australia/UK CSA B51-97 Part 2
    (Canadian Standards
    Association)
  • Complies to NFPA 52 (National Fire Protection
    Association)
  • Germany TUV Approved

26
Example H2 Storage
  • Burst Test at 3 x safety factor of the working
    pressure
  • Bonfire Test for fire resistance and PRD/TRD
    (pressure release device/temperature release
    device) release
  • Pressure Cycling Test from 10 to 125 of the
    working pressure
  • Drop Test
  • Penetration Test
  • Environmental Testing
  • Chemical Resistance Testing
  • Flaw Tolerance Test
  • Shock and Vibration Testing
  • Pendulum Impact Test

27
H2 Leak Detection
  • H2 Sensors
  • Types
  • Placement
  • Controls
  • Excess flow valves
  • Active flow measurement

28
H2 Leak Detection
  • Types
  • Sensors (Catalytic, Electrochemical,
    Semi-conducting, etc.)
  • Acoustic
  • Odorants?

29
H2 Sensors
  • Placement
  • Adjacent to potential release
  • Accumulation points
  • Controls
  • Multi-level alarms (25, 50, 100 LFL)

30
Excess Flow Valves
31
Active Flow Measurement
  • Measure flow out of tank vs. fuel consumed by
    stack.
  • Issues
  • Flow measurement accuracy
  • Anode H2 purge
  • System buffering

32
Accident Detection
  • Inertial switch

33
Hazard Isolation
  • Containment
  • Fail-safe (in-)tank solenoid
  • Ventilation/Dilution
  • Active
  • Fans
  • Passive
  • Vents

34
Ventilation
35
Vehicle Comparisons
  • H2 Vehicle Safety Analysis
  • Comparisons between Gasoline, NG, H2
  • Facility, garage and tunnel leak simulations
  • Example Leak ignition comparison

36
Vehicle Comparisons
37
Vehicle Comparisons
38
Vehicle Comparisons
39
References to Vehicle Comparisons
  • C.E. Thomas, Hydrogen Vehicle Safety Report,
    prepared by Directed Technologies, Inc. for Ford
    Motor Company, contract No. DE-AC02-94CE50389,
    U.S. Department of Energy, May 1997
  • M.R. Swain and M.N. Swain, A Comparison of H2,
    CH4, and C3H8 Fuel Leakage in Residential
    Settings, Int. J. Hydrogen Energy, Vol. 17, No.
    10, pp. 807-815, 1992
  • Swain MN. Comparison of hydrogen, natural gas,
    liquid petroleum gas, and gasoline leakage in a
    residential garage. Energy and Fuels
    199812(1)839.
  • Numerous others

40
General Conclusion
  • a hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicle and
    dispensing system, with proper engineering,
    should be as safe as a gasoline, natural gas, or
    propane vehicle system. (Thomas, 1997)

41
  • END
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