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Politics

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Title: Politics


1
Politics
  • Now out of favor
  • Still matters
  • Aristotles master science

2
Nation or State?
  • A nation is a population with a certain sense of
    itself, a cohesiveness, a commonality of
    attitudes and ideals, and often a common
    language.
  • A state is a government structure, usually
    sovereign and powerful enough to enforce its
    writ.

3
The Elements of Nationhood
  • Territory
  • Population
  • Independence
  • Government

4
The Crises of Nation Building
  • Identity
  • Legitimacy
  • Penetration
  • Participation
  • Distribution

5
Classifying Governments
  • Laissez-faire
  • Welfare state
  • Statism
  • Socialism

6
AristotlesSix Types of Government
  • Legitimate forms Rule in interest of all
  • - Monarchy
  • - Aristocracy
  • - Polity
  • Corrupt forms Rule in interest of selves
  • - Tyranny
  • - Oligarchy
  • - Democracy

7
State Power
  • The state as agent of modernization
  • Subsystem autonomy or pluralism
  • Centralization of political power
  • - Unitary systems
  • - Federalism

8
Dahls Influence Terms
  • Rational persuasion
  • Manipulative persuasion
  • Inducement
  • Power
  • Coercion
  • Physical Force

9
Making Public Policy
  • Symbolic policy
  • Tangible policy

10
An Interdisciplinary Study
  • History
  • Human Geography
  • Economics
  • Sociology
  • Anthropology
  • Psychology

11
Power
  • Distinguishing feature of political science
  • Ability of one person to get another to do
    something

12
Explanations of Political Power
  • Biological
  • Psychological
  • Cultural
  • Rational
  • Irrational
  • Power as a composite

13
Key Power Concepts
  • Legitimacy
  • Sovereignty
  • Authority

14
An Empirical Science
  • Hypothesis
  • Quantified data
  • Qualitative data

15
Scholarly Work
  • Reasoned
  • Balanced
  • Supported by evidence

16
Politicians
  • Love power
  • Seek popularity
  • Practical thinking
  • Hold firm views
  • Offer single causes
  • See short-term payoff
  • Plan for next election
  • Respond to groups
  • Seek name recognition

17
Political Scientists
  • Skeptical of power
  • Seek accuracy
  • Abstract thinking
  • Reach tentative conclusions
  • Offer many causes
  • See long-term consequences
  • Plan for next publication
  • Seek good of whole
  • Seek professional prestige

18
Politics and Society
  • Percolating up
  • Dripping down

19
Classic Theories
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Machiavelli
  • The contractualists
  • Hegel
  • Marxism
  • Institutionalism

20
Not Just Europeans
  • Confucius
  • Kautilya
  • Ibn Khaldun

21
The Contractualists
  • Hobbes
  • Locke
  • Rousseau

22
Marxist Theories
  • Economics
  • Social Class
  • History

23
Contemporary Theories
  • Behavioralism
  • -Postbehavioralism
  • Systems theory
  • Modernization theory
  • Rational-choice theory
  • - Game theory
  • New institutionalism

24
Eastons Systems Model
  • Key parts
  • - Inputs
  • - Black box conversion process
  • - Outputs
  • - Feedback link
  • May be too static
  • Unable to handle upheaval
  • Should it be modified?

25
Modified Systems Model
  • Conversion process first
  • Black box contains withinputs
  • Better reflects complexity of reality

26
Model
  • Simplified picture of reality
  • Used to order data, theorize and predict
  • Risk of oversimplifying

27
Constitutions
  • Are written documents stating the fundamental
    rules by which a political system is governed.
  • Should not be changed too often.
  • Are the highest law of the land.
  • Limit the power of government.

28
Constitutional Law
  • Subject to interpretation
  • Judicial review
  • - Judicial activism
  • - Judicial restraint

29
Purposes of a Constitution
  • States national ideals
  • Formalizes structure of government
  • Establishes legitimacy of government

30
U.S. Constitution
  • Separation of powers
  • Checks and balances

31
Adaptability of U.S. Constitution
  • The right to bear arms
  • The growth of big government

32
What is a Right?
  • Human rights
  • Civil rights
  • Economic rights

33
Ensuring Rights
  • Civil liberties
  • Civil rights
  • Minority rights

34
Freedom of Expression
  • First Amendment right
  • Highly context-dependent
  • Some limits

35
Sedition
  • Incitement to public disorder or to overthrow the
    state
  • Twentieth-century Sedition Acts
  • - Espionage Act
  • - Smith Act
  • - McCarran Act (Internal Security Act)

36
Spectrum of Government Power
  • Perfect democracy
  • - Power in hands of the people
  • Democracy
  • Limited democracy
  • Authoritarianism
  • Totalitarianism
  • Perfect totalitarianism
  • - All power held by government

37
Democracy
  • From the Greek demokratía
  • - demos people
  • - kratía government
  • True democracy
  • Representative democracy

38
Elements of Democracy
  • Popular accountability of government
  • Political competition
  • Alternation in power
  • Popular representation
  • Majority decision
  • Right of dissent and disobedience
  • Political equality
  • Popular consultation
  • Free press

39
Democracy in Practice
  • Elitism
  • Pluralism

40
Totalitarianism
  • All-encompassing ideology
  • A single party
  • Organized terror
  • Monopoly of communications
  • Monopoly of weapons
  • Controlled economy

41
Right-Wing Totalitarianism
  • Italian Fascism
  • German National Socialism

42
Authoritarianism
  • Dilutes totalitarianism
  • Governed by small group
  • Does not attempt to control everything
  • Rarely has firm ideology to sell
  • Institutes command, obedience, order
  • Has strict, hierarchical chain-of-command
  • Allows little to no voice for citizens
  • Has some trappings of democracy, with little
    function

43
Latest Wave of Democracy
  • Authoritarian regimes that enjoyed strong
    economic growth
  • Collapsed Communist regimes whose economic growth
    lagged

44
Theory of Democratic Peace
  • No two democracies have ever fought each other.
  • If true, a more democratic world means a more
    peaceful world.

45
Ideology
  • Belief system that society can be improved by
    following certain doctrines
  • Usually ends in ism
  • Typically gives rise to other ideologies

46
Classifying Ideologies
  • Left
  • - favors equality, welfare programs, and
    sometimes government intervention in the economy
  • Right
  • - stresses individual initiative and private
    economic activity
  • Center
  • - tries to synthesize and moderate the views of
    both the left and the right

47
The Major Ideologies
  • Classic liberalism
  • Classic conservatism
  • Modern liberalism
  • Modern conservatism
  • Marxist socialism
  • Social democracy
  • Communism
  • Nationalism
  • Fascism

48
Modern Liberalism and Conservatism
  • Modern liberalism is an ideology favoring
    government intervention to correct economic and
    social ills.
  • Modern conservatism is an ideology founded in the
    classic liberalism of Adam Smith to keep
    government out of the economy.

49
Karl Marx
  • Leading socialist thinker
  • Wrote The Communist Manifesto and Capital
  • Focused on ills and malfunctions of capitalism
  • Variously interpreted by others

50
Offshoots of Marxism
  • Social democracy
  • Anarcho-syndicalism
  • - Unions running everything
  • Lenin/Stalin hypercentralized tyranny
  • Trotskys denunciation of Leninism/Stalinism
  • Maos self-destructive permanent revolution
  • Titos experimental decentralized system

51
Communism
  • Imperialism
  • Organization
  • Maoism
  • Titoism

52
Nationalism
  • Exaggerated belief in greatness and unity of
    ones country
  • Still dominant today
  • Often born out of occupation and repression by
    foreigners
  • Perceives an enemy to struggle against
  • Most intense in third-world nations
  • Tends to economic isolation
  • Depends on emotional appeals
  • May be regional

53
Ideology in Our Day
  • The collapse of communism
  • Neoconservatism
  • Libertarianism
  • Feminism
  • Environmentalism
  • Islamism

54
Is Ideology Finished?
  • Daniel Bell The failure of tyrannical communism
    and the rise of the welfare state produced the
    end of ideology.
  • Francis Fukuyama Not only has the great
    ideological debate ended with the victory of
    capitalist democracy, but history itself could be
    ending.

55
Political Culture
  • The psychology of a nation in regard to politics
  • Varies considerably from one nation to another
  • Determined by history, economy, religion and
    folkways
  • A collective political memory
  • Determines how a people interprets the proper
    role of government and how that government
    operates

56
Political Culture and Public Opinion
  • Political culture looks for basic, general values
    on politics and government.
  • Public opinion looks for views about specific
    leaders and policies.

57
Participation in America
  • Rule of anticipated reactions
  • Low voter turnout
  • Strong faith in democracy

58
The Civic Culture
  • Participant
  • Subject
  • Parochial

59
Decay of Political Culture
  • More cynicism
  • Declining voter turnout
  • Growth of distrust in government

60
Different Cultures
  • Elite culture
  • Mass culture
  • Subcultures

61
Political Socialization
  • The learning of culture
  • May be formally taught or absorbed by imitating
    others
  • Crucial to stable government

62
Agents of Socialization
  • Family
  • School
  • Peer groups
  • Mass media
  • Government

63
Public Opinion
  • Citizens reaction to current, specific issues
    and events
  • Plays a major role in modern democracy
  • Different from political culture
  • An array of diverse attitudes that can change
    quickly
  • Sometimes shows widespread ignorance
  • Often led or manipulated by interest groups
  • Any government vulnerable to it

64
Salience
  • Literally, that which jumps out
  • The importance of given issues in public opinion
    or the characteristics of publics holding various
    opinions
  • The degree to which categories and issues affect
    public opinion

65
Shaping Public Opinion
  • Social class
  • Education
  • Region
  • Religion
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Ethnic group

66
Classic Opinion Curves
  • Skewed
  • Unimodal or Bell-Shaped
  • Bimodal

67
Polling Techniques
  • Selecting a sample
  • Reaching the sample
  • Asking the questions

68
Sample
  • Those persons to be interviewed in a survey
  • A small fraction of a population
  • Should be as representative, rather than as
    large, as possible

69
Presidential Ratings
  • Honeymoon
  • Rally events
  • The economy

70
Three Publics
  • General public
  • Attentive public
  • Policy and opinion elite

71
Public Opinion Polls
  • Are they fair?
  • Help make public opinion
  • May distort an election
  • Not neutral in their impact
  • Not a substitute for careful analysis of issues

72
Interest Group
  • Any collection of people tying to influence
    government
  • Nonpublicly accountable organizations that
    attempt to promote shared private interests by
    influencing public-policy outcomes

73
Interest Groups Differfrom Political Parties
  • Goals
  • Nature of memberships
  • Numbers

74
Who Belongs?
  • Pluralist view
  • - Multiplicity of groups
  • - Varied interests
  • - Optimistic view
  • Elite view
  • - Majority from middle- and upper-classes
  • - Domination by business-related interests
  • - No organization by lower classes

75
Interest Groups and Government
  • Interest groups presuppose an existing government
    worth trying to influence.
  • As government grows, so do interest groups.
  • Some interest groups take on government
    functions.
  • The bureaucracy has become one of the biggest and
    most powerful interest groups of all.

76
Effective Interest Groups
  • Political culture
  • Big money
  • Political action committees (PACs)
  • Single-issue groups
  • Size and membership
  • Access

77
Political Action Committees(PACs)
  • Set up specifically to contribute money to
    election campaigns
  • Originally an idea of labor unions
  • Biggest spending from business
  • Bulk of contributions to incumbents

78
Interest Group Strategies
  • Approaching lawmakers
  • Approaching the administration
  • Approaching the judiciary
  • Appeals to the public
  • Demonstrations
  • Violent protest

79
Questions to Consider
  • How well do interest groups serve the needs of
    citizens?
  • What happens to individuals who are not organized
    into groups?
  • Who considers the interests of the whole country?
  • Do interest groups only represent the views of a
    small but vocal minority?
  • Do interest groups stalemate government action?

80
Finding a Balance
  • Good of all
  • Good of particular groups

81
Political Party
  • Group seeking to elect office-holders under a
    given label
  • Exist in almost all present-day societies,
    democratic or not
  • Weak in U.S.

82
Functions of Parties
  • Bridge between people and government
  • Aggregation of interests
  • Integration into the political system
  • Political socialization
  • Mobilization of voters
  • Organization of government

83
Parties in Democracies
  • Centralization
  • Setting government policy
  • Party participation in government
  • Financing the party

84
Types of Parties
  • Duvergers three types
  • - mass
  • - cadre
  • - devotee
  • Coalition
  • Neo-institutional
  • Catchall
  • Relevant

85
Classifying Parties
  • Left (liberal)
  • Center-left
  • Centrist
  • Center-right
  • Right (conservative)

86
Party in Communist States
  • Politburo
  • Opportunists
  • Apparatchiks

87
Party Systems
  • One-party
  • Dominant-party
  • Two-party
  • Multiparty
  • Two-plus party
  • Fluid (or inchoate) party

88
Parties and Electoral Systems
  • Single-member election districts
  • Proportional representation

89
Types of Party Competition
  • Moderate pluralism
  • - Center-seeking (centripetal)
  • Polarized pluralism
  • - Center-fleeing (centrifugal)

90
Are Parties Fading?
  • Not what they used to be
  • Membership down
  • Voters less loyal
  • Should anything be done?

91
Electoral Systems
  • Single-member districts
  • - Advantages
  • - Disadvantages
  • Proportional representation
  • - Advantages
  • - Disadvantages

92
Voter Turnout
  • Percent of those eligible who vote
  • U.S. turnout low historically
  • Lower in U.S. than in other democracies

93
U.S. Nonvoting The Debate
  • Low electoral participation means that many
    Americans are turning away from the political
    system.
  • Or, the decline may mean that Americans are
    basically satisfied with the system.

94
Who Votes?
  • Income and education
  • Race
  • Age
  • Gender
  • Area of residence

95
How Do People Vote?
  • Long-term variables
  • Short-term variables

96
Party Identification (ID)
  • Long-term voter attachment to a given party
  • When strong, habitual voting for same party
    without question results
  • Heavily influenced by family and instilled early
    in life
  • Important element in electoral stability
  • Fading in Europe

97
Who Votes How?
  • Class voting
  • Regional voting
  • Religious blocs
  • Age groups
  • Gender gap
  • Marriage gap
  • Racial minorities
  • Urban voting

98
Electoral Alignment
  • Realignment
  • Dealignment

99
What Wins Elections?
  • Charisma
  • Retrospective voting
  • Candidate strategies
  • Voter groups

100
Political Institutions
  • Established and durable relationships of power
    and authority
  • Working structures of government
  • Evolve into importance
  • Bigger than individual leaders
  • Largely artificial creations

101
The Form of State
  • Monarchy
  • Republic

102
Territorial Structuring
  • Unitary systems
  • Federal systems
  • Confederation

103
Unitary SystemsCenter-Periphery Tensions
  • Devolution in Britain
  • Decentralization in France
  • Autonomy in Spain

104
FederalismSome Problems
  • Ex-Soviet federalism
  • Ex-Yugoslav federalism
  • Canadian federalism

105
U.S. Balkanization
  • More than 80,000 local governments
  • Often in each others way
  • Jurisdictional conflicts
  • Burden shifting

106
U.S. Burden Shifting
  • Growth of federal power
  • New federalism
  • Unfunded mandate

107
Federal Grants
  • Categorical grants
  • Block grants
  • Revenue sharing

108
Executive Roles
  • Head of state
  • Head of government

109
Presidential Democracy
  • Separation of power between executive and
    legislative branches
  • President combines head of state with chief of
    government roles
  • Executive not easily ousted by legislature

110
Parliamentary System
  • Fusion of power between executive and legislative
    branches
  • Head of state distinct from chief of government
  • Chief political official (usually prime minister)
    easily ousted

111
Separation and Fusion of Power
  • Executive-legislative deadlock
  • Vote of confidence
  • Immobilism

112
Coalition
  • Multiparty alliance to form a government
  • When no one party has majority of seats in
    parliament

113
Legislative Chambers
  • Bicameral
  • Unicameral

114
The Committee System
  • Real power of modern legislatures
  • Screen much proposed legislation
  • Can make or break a proposal
  • Includes
  • - Standing (permanent) committees
  • - Special ad hoc committees
  • - Subcommittees

115
A Closer Look at Legislatures
  • Lawmaking
  • Constituency work
  • Supervision and criticism of government
  • Education
  • Representation

116
Decline of Legislatures
  • Structural disadvantages
  • Lack of expertise
  • Psychological disadvantages
  • The absentee problem
  • Lack of turnover
  • Dilemma of parliaments

117
Executives
  • Presidents
  • Prime Ministers

118
European Parliaments
  • Forming a government in Britain
  • Constructive no confidence in Germany
  • Cohabitation in France

119
The Clinton Impeachment
  • Moralistic
  • Divided
  • Partisan
  • Personality-driven
  • Public
  • Legalistic
  • Expensive
  • Institutionalized
  • Distasteful

120
Roles of the Executive
  • Head of state
  • Chief of government
  • Party chief
  • Commander in chief
  • Chief diplomat
  • Dispenser of appointments
  • Chief legislator

121
Executive Leadership
  • Hands-on
  • Hands-off
  • Middle ground

122
Barbers Presidential Character
  • Based on how much
  • - presidents like political office
  • - energy they put into it
  • Types
  • - Active-positive
  • - Active-negative
  • - Passive-positive
  • - Passive-negative

123
Ill Presidents
  • Woodrow Wilson
  • Franklin D. Roosevelt
  • John F. Kennedy
  • Ronald Reagan

124
Cabinets
  • Major executive divisions called department in
    U.S., ministry in most of the rest of the world.
  • Who serves in a cabinet?
  • Rise of noncabinet advisers

125
Bureaucracy
  • Career civil service that staffs government
    executive agencies
  • Rules, procedures, chain-of-command, hierarchy
  • Brings some rationality, uniformity,
    predictability and supervision
  • Often carries negative connotation

126
U.S. Federal Bureaucracy
  • Cabinet departments
  • Federal agencies
  • Independent regulatory agencies

127
Bureaucracies in Other Nations
  • Communist countries
  • France
  • Germany
  • Great Britain
  • Japan

128
Webers Characteristics of Bureaucracy
  • Administrative offices are organized
    hierarchically.
  • Each office has its own area of competence.
  • Civil servants are appointed on the basis of
    technical qualifications.
  • Civil servants receive fixed salaries according
    to rank.
  • The job is a career and the sole employment of
    the civil servant.
  • The official does not own his/her office.
  • The official is subject to control and
    discipline.
  • Promotion is based on superiors judgment.

129
Bureaucracyin Modern Government
  • Administration
  • Services
  • Regulation
  • Licensing
  • Information gathering

130
Trouble with Bureaucracy
  • Productivity
  • Corruption

131
Roles of Bureaucracy
  • Administration
  • Policymaking
  • Adjudication
  • Discretionary implementation
  • Rule making
  • Advisory roles

132
What to Do with Bureaucracy?
  • Ombudsmen
  • Legislative checks
  • Cutting
  • Decentralization
  • Politicizing

133
Types of Law
  • Positive law
  • Criminal law
  • Civil law
  • Constitutional law
  • Administrative law
  • International law
  • Common law
  • Code law
  • Canon law

134
The Roots of Law
  • Higher law
  • Natural law

135
U.S. Court System
  • National court structure
  • - U.S. Supreme Court
  • - Circuit courts
  • - District courts
  • State court system

136
Judges
  • Federal
  • State

137
Comparing Courts
  • British court system
  • European court system
  • Law in Russia

138
Role of the Courts
  • Judicial review
  • - Marbury v. Madison
  • Political role

139
Influences on Judges
  • Outlook and background
  • Geography
  • Occupational background
  • Party affiliation
  • Conception of judicial role
  • Colleagues opinions
  • Public opinion

140
Warren Court
  • Civil rights
  • Criminal justice
  • Legislative reapportionment

141
Post-Warren Courts
  • Burger Court (1969 1986)
  • Rehnquist Court (1986-present)

142
Government and the Economy
  • Classic Adam Smith
  • Keynesian economics
  • Congress
  • Federal Reserve Board

143
Leading Economic Problems
  • Inflation
  • Tax hike
  • Balance of payments
  • Gold standard
  • Wage-price freeze
  • Oil shocks
  • Stagflation
  • Interest rates
  • Tax cut
  • Budget deficits
  • Trade deficits
  • Budget balancing

144
U.S. Boom
  • Balanced federal budgets
  • Low inflation and interest rates
  • Modest taxes
  • Slowly growing wages
  • Modest regulation
  • Plentiful imports
  • Consumer-driven prosperity
  • Low oil prices

145
U.S. Federal Budget
  • Discretionary spending
  • Mandatory spending

146
Budget Balancing
  • Deficits
  • Debt

147
Entitlement
  • U.S. federal expenditure mandated by law
  • Social Security, Medicare are examples
  • Often called uncontrollable spending
  • Extremely difficult to cut

148
Defining Poverty
  • Ideological differences
  • - Liberal view
  • - Conservative view
  • Poverty line
  • - U.S. Department of Labor
  • - Three times a minimal food budget

149
Welfare
  • Food Stamps
  • Welfare reform
  • - AFDC ends
  • - Workfare developed
  • Medicaid

150
How Big Should Government Be?
  • American answer
  • - Keep government small
  • - Suspect and criticize expansion of government
    power
  • Welfare state already small
  • Bulk of federal spending in entitlements

151
System Breakdown
  • Political malfunctioning/instability
  • Erosion of legitimacy
  • Regimes loss of effectiveness

152
Terrorism
  • September 11
  • Grows mostly in countries struggling to modernize
  • Group activity
  • Some state-sponsored
  • Works rarely and seldom alone

153
Types of Violence
  • Primordial
  • Separatist
  • Revolutionary
  • Coups
  • Issues

154
Change
  • A cause of violence
  • Rising expectations
  • Rising frustrations
  • Relative deprivation

155
Revolutions
  • Quick, dramatic system change
  • Throw out old system and its elites
  • Require organization
  • Need intellectuals

156
Stages of Revolution
  • Old regime decays
  • Committees, networks, cells or conspiracies form
  • Moderates take over at first
  • Extremists take over
  • Thermidor ends reign of terror

157
After the Revolution
  • One tyranny replaced with another
  • Generally end badly
  • Revolutionary promise is golden revolutionary
    results are mud

158
Waning of Revolution
  • Countries where revolution is still being fought
    are still idealistic and convinced they will
    bring a better social system.
  • Countries where revolution has triumphed are
    characterized by disillusionment and bitterness.

159
Heading Off Revolutions
  • Answer simple but difficult to carry out
  • End injustices that revolutions feed on
  • Reforms hard to apply due to strong resistance
  • Institute reforms before revolutionary feeling is
    implanted
  • Head off problem before it becomes dangerous.

160
International Relations
  • Wilder and more complex than domestic politics
  • Lack of sovereignty
  • Dependent on power, not force
  • Different countries, different national interests

161
Types of National Interest
  • Vital versus secondary
  • Temporary versus permanent
  • Specific versus general
  • Complementary versus conflicting

162
Why War?
  • Micro theories
  • Macro theories
  • - Balance of power
  • - Hierarchy of power
  • Misperception

163
Keeping Peace
  • World government
  • Collective security
  • Functionalism
  • Third-party assistance
  • Diplomacy
  • Peacekeeping

164
The Cold War
  • Truman Doctrine
  • Marshall Plan
  • Containment

165
Beyond Sovereignty
  • The United Nations (UN)

  • The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
  • Organization on Security and Cooperation in
    Europe (OSCE)

166
International System
  • The pattern in which countries interact
  • Observers do not agree on what kind of system is
    emerging
  • Devising rational, coherent U.S. foreign policy
    difficult
  • Most Americans do not care

167
Historical Systems
  • 19th century balance of power system
  • Interwar system
  • Bipolar Cold War system

168
What System is Emerging?
  • Unipolar
  • Hub-and-spokes
  • Multipolar
  • Stratified
  • Zones-of-chaos
  • Repolarized
  • Globalized
  • Resource-wars
  • Clash-of-civilizations
  • Proliferation

169
Economics
  • Common thread among most models
  • Takes place of military might and alliances
  • Biggest single factor structuring globe

170
U.S. Foreign Policy Cycles
  • Interventionism
  • Isolationism

171
Interventions Without Risk?
  • Gulf War, 1991
  • Somalia, 1992-1993
  • Haiti, 1994
  • Bosnia, 1995
  • Kosovo, 1999
  • Colombia, ongoing

172
Klingbergs Alternation Theory
  • Introversion Averaging 21 years
  • Extroversion Averaging 27 years

173
Current American Isolationism
  • May connote rigidity and ignorance
  • May be unilateralism
  • - Doing things our way against wishes of allies
  • May be noninterventionism
  • - Reluctance to use U.S. forces overseas
  • Are there duties beyond borders?

174
Politics
  • Now out of favor
  • Still matters
  • Aristotles master science

175
Nation or State?
  • A nation is a population with a certain sense of
    itself, a cohesiveness, a commonality of
    attitudes and ideals, and often a common
    language.
  • A state is a government structure, usually
    sovereign and powerful enough to enforce its
    writ.

176
The Elements of Nationhood
  • Territory
  • Population
  • Independence
  • Government

177
The Crises of Nation Building
  • Identity
  • Legitimacy
  • Penetration
  • Participation
  • Distribution

178
Classifying Governments
  • Laissez-faire
  • Welfare state
  • Statism
  • Socialism

179
AristotlesSix Types of Government
  • Legitimate forms Rule in interest of all
  • - Monarchy
  • - Aristocracy
  • - Polity
  • Corrupt forms Rule in interest of selves
  • - Tyranny
  • - Oligarchy
  • - Democracy

180
State Power
  • The state as agent of modernization
  • Subsystem autonomy or pluralism
  • Centralization of political power
  • - Unitary systems
  • - Federalism

181
Dahls Influence Terms
  • Rational persuasion
  • Manipulative persuasion
  • Inducement
  • Power
  • Coercion
  • Physical Force

182
Making Public Policy
  • Symbolic policy
  • Tangible policy

183
An Interdisciplinary Study
  • History
  • Human Geography
  • Economics
  • Sociology
  • Anthropology
  • Psychology

184
Power
  • Distinguishing feature of political science
  • Ability of one person to get another to do
    something

185
Explanations of Political Power
  • Biological
  • Psychological
  • Cultural
  • Rational
  • Irrational
  • Power as a composite

186
Key Power Concepts
  • Legitimacy
  • Sovereignty
  • Authority

187
An Empirical Science
  • Hypothesis
  • Quantified data
  • Qualitative data

188
Scholarly Work
  • Reasoned
  • Balanced
  • Supported by evidence

189
Politicians
  • Love power
  • Seek popularity
  • Practical thinking
  • Hold firm views
  • Offer single causes
  • See short-term payoff
  • Plan for next election
  • Respond to groups
  • Seek name recognition

190
Political Scientists
  • Skeptical of power
  • Seek accuracy
  • Abstract thinking
  • Reach tentative conclusions
  • Offer many causes
  • See long-term consequences
  • Plan for next publication
  • Seek good of whole
  • Seek professional prestige

191
Politics and Society
  • Percolating up
  • Dripping down

192
Classic Theories
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
  • Machiavelli
  • The contractualists
  • Hegel
  • Marxism
  • Institutionalism

193
Not Just Europeans
  • Confucius
  • Kautilya
  • Ibn Khaldun

194
The Contractualists
  • Hobbes
  • Locke
  • Rousseau

195
Marxist Theories
  • Economics
  • Social Class
  • History

196
Contemporary Theories
  • Behavioralism
  • -Postbehavioralism
  • Systems theory
  • Modernization theory
  • Rational-choice theory
  • - Game theory
  • New institutionalism

197
Eastons Systems Model
  • Key parts
  • - Inputs
  • - Black box conversion process
  • - Outputs
  • - Feedback link
  • May be too static
  • Unable to handle upheaval
  • Should it be modified?

198
Modified Systems Model
  • Conversion process first
  • Black box contains withinputs
  • Better reflects complexity of reality

199
Model
  • Simplified picture of reality
  • Used to order data, theorize and predict
  • Risk of oversimplifying
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