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Actionable Governance Indicators:

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Freedom House's Freedom in the World and Countries at a Crossroads data. ... Biggest performance lag in Arab world is poor access to government information. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Actionable Governance Indicators:


1
  • Actionable Governance Indicators
  • Anti-Corruption and Institutional Assessments to
    Inform Policy Reform Choices

2
Who We Are
  • Global Integrity is an international nonprofit
    organization that works with in-country teams of
    experts to track governance and corruption trends
    around the world.

3
Our Mission
  • As an independent information provider, we
  • collect and disseminate credible,
  • comprehensive and timely information on
  • good governance and corruption.
  • We produce original reporting and quantitative
  • analysis to promote accountable and democratic
  • global governance that is in the public interest.

4
What We Do
  • Flagship national assessments annual Global
    Integrity Report.
  • Sub-national assessments as part of our Local
    Integrity Initiative.
  • In-country stakeholder workshops Global
    Integrity Dialogues.

5
Global Integrity Approach
  • By its nature, corruption is almost impossible to
    measure with any degree of accuracy difficult to
    measure what you cant see.
  • It is however possible to assess the laws,
    mechanisms, and institutions that should curb,
    deter, or prevent abuses of power, including
    their implementation.
  • Our Integrity Indicators approach assesses
    anti-corruption/national integrity architectures
    of a country. They measure the medicine, not the
    disease of corruption.

6
The Demand for Metrics
  • Whether we like it or not, there is a growing
    demand for quantitative corruption metrics.
  • Demand is increasing with the rise of the
    governance agenda in development circles.
  • Metrics seen as essential for tracking progress
    of reforms and for monitoring evaluation.

7
Frequently Used Metrics
  • Transparency International Corruption
    Perceptions Index (CPI) Bribe Payers Index.
  • World Bank Institutes Worldwide Governance
    Indicators (WGI).
  • Freedom Houses Freedom in the World and
    Countries at a Crossroads data.
  • Global Integrity, Open Budget Index, BEEPS, PEFA,
    DIAL, Ibrahim Index.

First Generation
Second Generation
8
The Challenge
  • Virtually all existing governance/anti-corruption/
    corruption indicators are not suitable for
    cross-country comparisons or for tracking changes
    over time (Uses and Abuses of Governance
    Indicators, Arndt Oman, OECD 2006).
  • Yet, existing toolkits are often misunderstood
    and misused despite explicit warnings about their
    limitations.
  • Misuse of indicators, coupled with serious time
    lags inherent in most data, undercuts political
    will for reform why bother reforming if you can
    never catch up to a process you cant affect?

9
Global Integrity data only really exist for 2004
2006yet it is made to appear as if 2003, 2005,
and 2007 do also!
10
Strengths Weaknesses of the Most Widely Used
Data
  • Aggregate indicators (CPI, WBI) Easy to gather
    many voices and smooth out outliers, but not
    appropriate for tracking change over time or
    change across countries. Rarely yields
    actionable data. Global coverage a plus.
  • Expert assessments (GI, OBI, FH, PEFA) Much more
    challenging and resource-intensive process, but
    far more actionable and accessible to
    policymakers and practitioners. Tracking change
    over time and across countries possible.

11
Black Box
Corruption?
12
Black Box
Outcomes
Survey says, Youve got corruption!
Corruption?
13
Black Box
Outcomes
Inputs
History Geography Economy Institutions Public
Policy
Survey says, Youve got corruption!
Corruption?
14
Things we (including governments) can change.
Black Box
Outcomes
Inputs
History Geography Economy Institutions Public
Policy
Survey says, Youve got corruption!
Corruption?
15
Things we can change.
  • Civil Society Practices Freedoms
  • Media Practices Freedoms
  • Access to Information
  • Political Participation
  • Election Integrity
  • Political Financing
  • Government Accountability
  • Budget Practices
  • Civil Service Regulations
  • Whistle-Blowing Measures
  • Procurement Safeguards
  • Privatization Safeguards
  • National Ombudsman
  • Government Auditing
  • Taxes and Customs Practices
  • State-Owned Enterprise Safeguards
  • Business Licensing and Regulation
  • Anti-Bribery Laws
  • Anti-Corruption Agency

16
INTEGRITY INDICATORS
  • Civil Society Practices Freedoms
  • Media Practices Freedoms
  • Access to Information
  • Political Participation
  • Election Integrity
  • Political Financing
  • Government Accountability
  • Budget Practices
  • Civil Service Regulations
  • Whistle-Blowing Measures
  • Procurement Safeguards
  • Privatization Safeguards
  • National Ombudsman
  • Government Auditing
  • Taxes and Customs Practices
  • State-Owned Enterprise Safeguards
  • Business Licensing and Regulation
  • Anti-Bribery Laws
  • Anti-Corruption Agency

17
Things we cant change
  • How well or badly do you think your current
    government is handling the following matters
    (choices).Fighting Corruption in Government
    very badly, fairly badly, fairly well, very
    well, havent heard enough Afrobarometer
  • How problematic is corruption for the growth of
    your business? Business Enterprise Surveys
  • Is corruption in government widespread?
    Gallup World Poll

Less-Actionable Indicators
18
INTEGRITY INDICATORS
  • Up-to-date progress reports tracking incremental
    reform.
  • Prioritize, prioritize, prioritize

19
Global Integrity Report 2008
320 discrete questions per country (15,000 data
points in 2008) In law vs. In practice
capturing the implementation gap Each indicator
has a score, an explanatory comment and a
supporting reference Ordinal scoring (0, 25,
50, 75, 100) anchored by unique scoring
criteria Double-blind and transparent peer
review comments for many indicators (15,000 in
2008) Margins of error for country-level
scores 110 transparency all disaggregated
scores, comments, references, and peer review
comments published.
20
260 contributors in 2008
21
How we choose our experts
  • Open annual global recruiting
  • Referrals from friends and colleagues in
    country/region
  • In-depth background checking by Global Integrity
    staff
  • Performance over time
  • Today more than 700 experts in 92 countries

22
Global Integrity Report 2008
In each country report Corruption
Timeline Reporters Notebook Integrity
Indicators Integrity Indicators
scores Commentary References
23
Global Integrity Report 2008
Datapoints in country rankings/Index
Datapoints in full set of 15,000 Integrity
Indicators
24
Cambodia
Indonesia
The Philippines
25
Cambodia
Indonesia
The Philippines
26
(No Transcript)
27
(No Transcript)
28
Global Integrity Report 2008
  • Key Findings
  • (a sample of actionable findings)

29
Global Integrity Report 2008
Political financing is once again the lowest
performing category worldwide
A global actionable trend
30
Global Integrity Report 2008
Biggest performance lag in Arab world is poor
access to government information.
A regional actionable trend
31
Global Integrity Report 2008
  • The Philippines is a classic case of a
    world-class legal and institutional
    anti-corruption framework undermined by
    inconsistent implementation.

Note the Very Large Implementation Gap
Note the above-average legal framework
A national trend
32
Top 7 Good Practices
  • Set Appropriate Expectations
  • Link Data to Appropriate Impact
  • Do No Harm/Use Data Responsibly
  • Avoid the Ownership Cliché, but
  • Use Local Experts
  • Avoid the Usual Suspects
  • Go Deep Rather Than Wide

33
Set Expectations Appropriately
  • Know what you want to measure
  • Numbers are not always the answer
  • No silver bullets
  • Dont shy away from political-economy analysis

Top 7 Good Practices
34
Link Data to Appropriate Impact
  • Not all governance reforms can (or should) be
    linked to measureable poverty reduction/MDGs.
  • Better approach use detailed, rigorous
    household/firm/government official surveys and
    focus groups to show
  • Changes in experiences (volume and frequency of
    bribes)
  • Changes in transparency- and accountability-orient
    ed policies.
  • If possible in sector work, links to improved
    service delivery

Top 7 Good Practices
35
Do No Harm/Use Data Responsibly
  • Worst case abuse The contractor should deliver
    a 15 increase in the countrys score on the next
    round of the Corruption Perceptions Index.
  • Not only is this impossible, but also
    irresponsible and misleading to government.

Top 7 Good Practices
36
Avoid the Ownership Cliché
  • Country ownership only works when government is
    an honest broker, is serious about reforms, and
    has the capacity/political will to implement
    reforms.
  • Country ownership in Philippines? Sure.
  • Burma? No.

Top 7 Good Practices
37
Leverage Local Expertise
  • If not country owned, then at least make use of
    local experts to avoid the results being viewed
    as external judging.

Top 7 Good Practices
38
Avoid the Usual SuspectsApproach
  • If PETS in Uganda, Citizen Scorecards in
    Bangladesh, and core drilling of roads in
    Indonesia were so formulaically successful, we
    would have seen more of those projects around the
    world.
  • Their absence suggests theyre the exception, not
    the rule.

Top 7 Good Practices
39
Go Deep Rather Than Wide
  • Sub-national and sector assessments represent the
    bleeding-edge of the agenda.
  • Very few templates/examples currently available,
    offering an opportunity for creative thinking and
    groundbreaking work.

Top 7 Good Practices
40
Email info_at_globalintegrity.orgWebsite
http//www.globalintegrity.org Were blogging at
the Global Integrity Commonshttp//commons.globa
lintegrity.org
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