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Chinese emperor Chen Nung - First evidence of medicinal use ... A person using marihuana for any other purpose had to pay a tax of $100 an ounce ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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  • Bethany Crozier
  • Drugs and Behavior
  • Fall 2000

  • 6000 B.C. Cannabis seeds used for food in China
  • 4000 B.C. Cannabis is cultivated in China
  • 2727 B.C. First recorded use of cannabis as
    medicine. In every part of the world humankind
    has used cannabis for a wide variety of health
  • long been used as a medicine in India, China, the
    Middle East, Southeast Asia, South Africa, and
    South America
  • Chinese emperor Chen Nung - First evidence of
    medicinal use
  • In China cannabis has been recommended for
    malaria, constipation, rheumatic pains,
    "absentmindedness," and female disorders
  • Reference (7, 11)

History 2
  • In India cannabis has been recommended to quicken
    the mind, lower fevers, induce sleep, cure
    dysentery, stimulate appetite, improve digestion,
    relieve headaches, and cure venereal disease.
  • In Africa it was used for dysentery, malaria, and
    other fevers.
  • 1500 B.C. Cannabis cultivated in China for food
    and fiber
  • 500 B.C. Hemp is introduced into Northern Europe
  • 500 - 100 B.C. Hemp spreads throughout northern
  • 1621 English clergyman Robert Burtons famous
    work The Anatomy of Melancholy, suggested the use
    of cannabis in the treatment of depression.
  • Reference (7,11)

History 3
  • The New English Dispensatory of 1764 recommended
    applying hemp roots to the skin for inflammation,
    a remedy that was already popular in eastern
  • The Edinburgh New Dispensary of 1794 included a
    long description of the effects of hemp and
    stated that the oil was useful in the treatment
    of coughs, venereal disease, and urinary
  • Marijuana was introduced in the West as a
    medicine in the middle of the 19th century.
  • Reference (7, 11)

History 4
  • W B. O'Shaughnessey- first Western physician to
    use Marijuana
  • He observed its use in India
  • After testing it on animals, he used it with
    patients suffering from rabies, rheumatism,
    epilepsy, and tetanus.
  • O'Shaughnessey returned to England in 1842 and
    provided cannabis to pharmacists. Doctors in
    Europe and the United States soon began to
    prescribe it for a variety of physical conditions
  • Marijuana was listed in the United States
    Dispensatory in 1854 (with a warning that large
    doses were dangerous and that it was a powerful
  • Referance (7,11)

History 5
  • In 1860 Dr. R. R. Mc'Meens reported findings on
    Cannabis Indica.
  • Said it had been useful to help tetanus,
    neuralgia, dysmenorrhea (painful menstruation),
    convulsions, rheumatic and childbirth pain,
    asthma, postpartum psychosis, gonorrhea, and
    chronic bronchitis.
  • He also found it useful as a hypnotic
    (sleep-inducing drug) he compared it to opium
    "Its effects are less intense, and the secretions
    are not so much suppressed by it. Digestion is
    not disturbed the appetite rather increased.
  • In 1887, H. A. Hare recommended hemp to subdue
    restlessness and anxiety and distract a patient's
    mind in terminal illness.
  • Also noted that hemp was an excellent topical
  • Reference (7,11)

History 6
  • In 1890, J. R. Reynolds recommending Marijuana
    for patients with "senile insomnia" and with
    preventing migraine attacks.
  • Doctor J. B. Mattison
  • Noted the medical use of cannabis was already in
    decline by 1890.
  • The potency of cannabis preparations was too
    variable, and individual responses to orally
    ingested cannabis seemed unpredictable
  • 1920s Marijuana is view as being evil
  • 1915 - 1927 Cannabis begins to be prohibited for
    non-medical use in the U.S., especially in SW
    states...California (1915), Texas (1919),
    Louisiana (1924), and New York (1927).
  • Reference (7, 11)

History 7
  • 1928 Recreational use of Cannabis is banned in
  • 1930s Marijuana is looked upon as a narcotic
    responsible for crimes of violence.
  • 1937 Cannabis made federally illegal in the U.S.
    with the passage of the Marihuana Tax Act.
  • This law was the culmination of a campaign
    organized by the Federal Bureau of Narcotics
    under Harry Anslinger in which the public was led
    to believe that marihuana was addictive and
    caused violent crimes, psychosis, and mental
  • Anyone using the hemp plant for certain defined
    industrial or medical purposes was required to
    register and pay a tax of a dollar an ounce. A
    person using marihuana for any other purpose had
    to pay a tax of 100 an ounce on unregistered
    transactions. Those failing to comply were
    subject to large fines or prison terms for tax
  • Reference (7, 11)

History 8
  • 1938 New York's Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia
    appointed a committee of scientists to study the
    medical, sociological, and psychological aspects
    of marihuana use in New York City.
  • They found no proof that major crime was
    associated with marijuana or that it caused
    aggressive or antisocial behavior marijuana was
    not sexually over stimulating and did not change
    personality there was no evidence of acquired
  • 1960s - large numbers of people began to use
    marijuana recreationally.
  • 1970 Congress passed the Controlled Substances
    Act. This law assigned psychoactive drugs to five
    schedules and placed cannabis in Schedule I, the
    most restrictive.
  • Schedule I drugs have no medical use, a high
    potential for abuse, and they cannot be used
    safely even under a doctor's supervision.
  • Reference (7,11)

History 9
  • 1972 The National Organization for the Reform of
    Marijuana Laws (NORML) petitioned the Bureau of
    Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (formerly the
    Federal Bureau of Narcotics) to transfer
    marijuana to Schedule II so that it could be
    legally prescribed by physicians.
  • They were joined by the Drug Policy Foundation
    and the Physicians Association for AIDS Care.
  • The government refused to transfer it to Schedule
  • This decision was appealed several times by NORML
    and others.
  • 1975 FDA establishes Compassionate Use program
    for medical marijuana.
  • 1985 - The government reclassified synthetic THC
    as a Schedule II drug but kept marijuana itself -
    and THC derived from marihuana - in Schedule I.

    - Marinol a THC
    synthetic drug is put on the market for easing
    the nausea and vomiting associated with
    chemotherapy treatments.
  • Reference (7, 11)

History 10
  • 1988 DEA administrative law Judge Francis Young
    finds after thorough hearings that marijuana has
    clearly established medical use and should be
    reclassified as a prescriptive drug. His
    recommendation is ignored.
  • 1992 Marinol is approved for treatment of
    appetite lose and anorexia associated with AIDS
  • 1995 Introduction of hashish-making equipment
    and appearance of locally produced hashish in
    Amsterdam coffee shops.
  • 1996 Voters in Arizona and California approve
    physician prescribed marijuana for medical
  • July 2, 1999 DEA and FDA move synthetic THC drugs
    (Marinol) from schedule II to schedule III.
  • Reference (7,11)

  • Monitoring the future Study by NIDA is an annual
    assessment of drug use among students nationwide.
  • Pre-1990, marijuana use was decreasing. The
    following statistics show the dramatic increase
    marijuana use among students during the 1990s.
  • References (18)

Percentage of 8th-Graders Who
Have Used Marijuana Monitoring
the Future Study, 1999 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1
996 1997 1998 1999 A 10.2 11.2 12.6 16.7 19.9
23.1 22.6 22.2 22.0 B 6.2 7.2 9.2 13.0 15.8
18.3 17.7 16.9 16.5 C 3.2 3.7 5.1 7.8 9.1 11.3 1
0.2 9.7 9.7 D 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.7 0.8 1.5 1.1 1.1 1.4

AEver used BUsed in past CUsed in past
month D Daily use in past month
Percentage of 10th-Graders Who Have Used
Monitoring the Future
Study, 1999
1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999
A 23.4 21.4 24.4 30.4 34.1 39.8 42.3 39.6
40.9 B 16.5 15.2 19.2 25.2 28.7 33.6 34.8 31.1
32.1 C 8.7 8.1 10.9 15.8 17.2 20.4 2
0.5 18.7 19.4 D 0.8 0.8 1.0 2.2 2.8 3.5 3.7 3.6 3
.8 AEver used BUsed in past CUsed in past
month D Daily use in past month
Percentage of 12th-Graders Who Have Used
Monitoring the Future Study, 1999

1979 1985 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1
996 1997 1998 1999 Ever Used 60.4
A 54.2 36.7 32.6 35.3 38.2 41.7 44.9 49.6
49.1 49.7 Used in Past Year 50.8
B 40.6 23.9 21.9 26.0 30.7 34.7 35.8 38.5 37.5 37.
8 Used in Past Month 36.5
C 25.7 13.8 11.9 15.5 19.0 21.2 21.9 23.7 22.8 23.
1 Daily Use in Past Month 10.3
D 4.9 2.0 1.9 2.4 3.6 4.6 4.9 5.8 5.6 6.0
AEver used BUsed in past CUsed in past
month D Daily use in past month
Predisposition to using Marijuana
  • Weak parent-child attachment
  • Less parental structure
  • Sibling drug use
  • deviant friends
  • low achieving friends
  • dropping out of high school
  • alcohol and cigarette abuse
  • Living in settings where drugs are used
  • mother or father use drugs
  • References (3,4,5,12,13,14,16,18,20)

Predisposition 2
  • Living in violent settings
  • child abuse and neglect
  • low religious and cultural ties
  • mental disorders
  • Male
  • pre-18 years of age
  • Most young people grow out of drug use with
    rates of people using drugs dropping as they
  • drug using peers
  • References (3,4,5,12,13,14,16,18,20)

  • Hemp - the Marijuana plant
  • Bud - the part of the cannabis plant you smoke
  • Cannabis -
  • refers to marijuana and other substances made
    from the hemp plant
  • also can be a reference to the plant itself
    (Cannabis Sativa)
  • Hash oil - tar-like liquid distilled from Hashish
  • more potent than Hashish
  • Hashish (Hash) and Charas - sticky resin from the
    female plant flowers
  • most potent (10-20 THC)
  • References (7,11,19,23)

Definitions continued
  • Ganja and sinsemila - dried material found on
    tops and buds of the female flower
  • 5-8THC
  • Bhang and marijuana - dried remainder of the
  • 2-5 THC
  • Hit - one puff of Marijuana smoke
  • Reference (7,11,19,23)

Street Names
  • Pot
  • grass
  • weed
  • Mary Jane
  • Reefer
  • Joints
  • Ganja
  • Herb
  • Boom
  • Gangster
  • Chronic
  • Aunt Mary
  • Skunk
  • Kif
  • 200 some more
  • Reference (6,7,11,17,19)

The Plant
  • Cannabis Sativa
  • grows best in temperate and tropical regions
  • Marijuana comes from the leaves and flowering
    tops of the plant
  • Canaboids are the chemicals that are unique to
    the cannabis plant (INCLUDES THC)
  • THC is most concentrated in the resin of the
    female plant flowers
  • Reference (6,7,9,11,18,19,23)

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  • NAME Tetrahydrocannabinols
  • CHEMICAL NAME Tetrahydro 6,6,9-trimethyl-3-penty
    l-6H-dibenzo b,dpyran-1-ol
  • Main active chemical in Marijuana
  • Absorbed by fatty tissues in organs of the body
    (including brain)
  • Can be detected in the body for days, but can be
    detected weeks later in chronic users.
  • Changes the way sensory information is received
    and processed in the hippocampus.
  • Reference (7,11,18,23)

Effects from THC
  • Varies with dose, route of administration,
    experience of the user, vulnerability to
    psychoactive effects and setting of use.
  • CNS
  • enhanced senses
  • altered perception of time
  • sense of well being
  • mild euphoria
  • feeling of relaxation
  • relief from anxiety
  • Reference (2,7,11,15,17)

Effects continued
  • CNS at High doses
  • intensified emotions
  • mild sensory distortions
  • mild hallucinations
  • acute depressive reactions
  • acute panic reactions
  • mild paranoia
  • impaired mental coordination
  • loose of complex motor functioning
  • References (7,11,15,17)

Effects continued
  • Cardiovascular System
  • Increased heart rate
  • Increased blood pressure
  • blood vessels of the cornea dilate
  • blood shot eyes
  • dizziness
  • Pulmonary System
  • marijuana contains more tars and many of the same
    carcinogenic compounds as tobacco smoke
  • bronchial irritation and inflammation
  • References (3,7,11,15,17)

Effects Continued
  • Immune system
  • immunosuppression - subtle and usually
  • reduced spleen function
  • THC inhibits the spleen cells because they
    contain cannabinoid receptors in their membranes
  • Reproductive system (Males)
  • reduced testosterone levels
  • reduced sperm production
  • Reproductive system (Females)
  • decreased levels of FSH and LH hormones
  • disturbances in the menstrual cycle
    References (7,11,15,17)

Side Effects
  • Sedation
  • altered motor coordination
  • impaired cognition
  • reduced short-term memory
  • These attribute to difficulty performing in
    school and in work.
  • Impairment persists for 4-8 hours from one hit.
  • References (7,8,11,15,17)

  • Result from an adaptation of the brain to the
    continuous presence of the drug
  • It is known that marijuana causes a psychological
    addiction, but the question is if it causes a
    physiological addiction.
  • Develops rapidly - Disappears rapidly
  • Withdrawal Symptoms DO occur in some marijuana
  • restlessness
  • aches/pains
  • depression
  • sweating
  • difficulty concentrating
  • shaky hands
  • irritability
  • mild agitation
  • insomnia
  • sleep disturbances
  • nausea and cramping
  • decreased appetite
  • drug craving
  • Reference (2,7,17,19)

Oral Administration
  • Joint or Nail - loose marijuana rolled into
    cigarette papers and smoked
  • Most common way to smoke marijuana.
  • Reference (6,7,19,23)

  • Tobacco is removed from the inside of the cigar,
    and replaced with marijuana.
  • Blunts offers several advantages to the user
  • The tobacco wrapper slows down the burning rate
    of the joint. This allows a greater number of
    users to share the same joint.
  • A blunt holds more marijuana than a joint, and is
    convenient to use and store. A single user can
    smoke it, extinguish it, and easily re-light it.
  • Reference (6,7,19,23)

  • Marijuana is placed in to bowl
  • it does not have to be chopped up, an entire bud
    can be placed in the bowl
  • The marijuana is lit and the smoke is sucked from
    the other end.
  • Reference (6,7,19,23)

  • Bongs, or water pipes pass the smoke through
    water to cool and filter it.
  • The principal benefit of smoking grass through a
    bong is that the smoke is cooled and several
    carcinogens are removed without removing THC.
  • Reference (6,7,19,23)

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Edible Marijuana
  • Some people use Marijuana for cooking. They do
    not get a high amount of THC from this method
  • It is common to mix the bud with butter, let it
    cook in a crock-pot and then strain it.
  • The active ingredients are left in the butter.
  • Brownies
  • Use the butter to bake the brownies or just use
    the marijuana bud or leaves in the brownies.
  • Tea
  • Use Marijuana in with the other herbs to brew the
  • References (7,19,23)
  • Reference (7, 19,23)

Therapeutic Uses
  • Dronabinol (Marinol)
  • Synthetic THC
  • formulated in sesame oil
  • used as an appetite stimulant in patients with
  • used to treat nausea and vomiting associated with
  • reduces muscle spasms and pain in multiple
  • reduces intraocular pressure in glaucoma patients
  • antidepressant and analgesic effects are also
  • Synthetic THC Dosages
  • Appetite Stimulant 2.5 mg/ Chemotherapy dose 5mg
    (3x daily)
  • References (1,7,11,21,23)

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Medical Marijuana (pro)
  • Relief of pain
  • Relief from nausea and vomiting (good for
    Chemotherapy patients)
  • Increased appetite (good for AIDS patients)
  • very difficult to ingest fatal amounts
  • chemotherapy agents are much more lethal
  • Reduced pressure in the eyes (good for glaucoma
  • legalizing Marijuana will decrease its illicit
  • References (1,7,9,10,21)

Medical Marijuana (con)
  • Marijuana cigarettes contain high levels of tar
  • twice as much a tabacco cigarettes
  • unproven safety and effectiveness of Marijuana
  • increased heart rate
  • Increased risk of infection (Not good for AIDS
  • impairment of pulmonary defenses against
  • Increased risk of lung cancer (Not good for
    chemotherapy patients)
  • Effect of reduced pressure in eyes is very short
  • Marijuana seems to be a gate way drug
  • references (1,7,9,10,15,21)

Gateway Drug
  • Some research has found that marijuana users are
    more likely than non-users to try other drugs.
  • A 1994 survey reported in the NY Times found that
    17 of marijuana users said they had tried
    cocaine, while only 0.2 of non-users has tried
  • These results can be interpreted in two ways
  • 83 of all marijuana smoker never try cocaine.
  • A marijuana smoker has a 85 chance of trying
  • A study by Kandel found that the risk of using
    cocaine was 104 times greater if you used
  • Studies have shown that marijuana users tend to
    be more likely to abuse other drugs, but they
    have not shown that it is marijuana causing the
  • Others argue, that those who use marijuana are
    just as susceptible to cocaine and other drugs
    before they use marijuana. Marijuana is just
    used first because it is easy to find.
  • It is also interesting that those who drink a lot
    of alcohol are more likely to smoke marijuana and
    then more likely to do other drugs.
  • References (6,9,18,19)

Treatment for marijuana abuse
  • Until a few years ago, treatment for marijuana
    users was no different then any other drug abuse
  • detoxification, behavioral therapy, and support
  • Now marijuana abuse programs are focused on
    counseling and group support systems. (10-12
  • Evaluate and treat other drug related disorders
  • Evaluate and treat comorbid psychiatric disorders
  • Evaluate and treat comorbid medical problems
    (chronic pain)
  • Educate about adverse effects of marijuana use
  • Supportive care for withdrawal and panic symptoms
  • calming environment
  • Strengthen social support
  • educate family and friends
  • Comprehensive substance abuse programs.
  • References (9,19)

Treatment 2
  • Another model for treatment
  • one-on-one intervention
  • It begins with an assessment session that
    provides an overview to the patient, an in-depth
    discussion about the patients use of marijuana
    and reasons for favoring or opposing quitting.
  • It then answers to questions the client has about
    quitting or modifying use
  • A third model for treatment
  • It involves a three-session intervention that
    focuses on helping patients resolve their mixed
    feelings about change.
  • It identifies short-term goals of the patient
    that can be worked on over a 30-day period.
  • It provides advice about initiating change in the
    life of the user.
  • Lastly, it reviews the patients progress after 30
  • Marijuana abuse programs do not last as long as
    other programs
  • It is not unusual for a marijuana user to only
    need support for one month - meeting only 2 or 3
    times a week. Reference (9,19)

Treatment 3
  • According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse
    (NIDA), each year 100,000 people seek treatment
    with a primary (or at least a self-perceived
    primary) marijuana abuse problem.
  • Currently no medications for treating marijuana
    dependence are available.
  • Reference (9,19)

Trafficking Penalties
  • Almost all marijuana is smuggled into the US
    concealed in false compartments of travelers.
  • In 1997, the US authorities seized 593 metric
    tons of marijuana from the Southwest Border.
  • The following penalties for marijuana trafficking
    are as of January 1,1996.
  • Reference (6)

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Interesting Quotes from Marijuana users
  • I have always heard pot is an EXPECTORENT and so
    could help to clear a congested chest or sinus.
  • Be sure to clean your bong well when sick. You
    dont want the germs hanging around any longer
    than neccesary.
  • THCTotal Headache Cure
  • I'm an Honors Student with a 3.8 GPA, so I guess
    I'm not the stereotypical stoner, after all none
    of us are.
  • I guess I'm one of those people that you would
    never expect to be a stoner. I am a full time
    stay at home mom, a girl scout leader and a
    volunteer at my son's school. It is so funny to
    hear people talk about drug use and how they
    could tell if someone was stoned, and someone is
    right in front of them.
  • I have amazing ideas when Im high. Far from
    making me dull and unmotivated, it gives me
    vision and i want to change the world.
  • You know you're stoned when you trip over the
    pattern in the carpet.
  • You know your stoned when the question , " What
    were we just talking about? " confuses you to no
    end! Reference (23)

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