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Plant Design for Electronics Recycling

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Proximity to interstate and airports. Survey freight providers. ... Adequate storage for ink, toner, and batteries. Make sure you facility has a HMMP ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plant Design for Electronics Recycling


1
Plant Design for Electronics Recycling
  • Rafael Reveles
  • Director of Engineering
  • Noranda Recycling Inc.

ISRIs 2006 Convention and Exposition April 2nd
- 6th, 2006
Mandalay Bay Resort Casino
2
Noranda Recycling Inc.
  • 4 sites in US, 1 in Canada
  • Brampton, Roseville and Lavergne operations focus
    on end-of-life electronics recycling.
  • Wholly owned subsidiary of Falconbridge - 48
    operations, 18 countries
  • One of the worlds largest producers of zinc and
    nickel and a significant producer of copper,
    primary and fabricated aluminum, lead, silver,
    gold, cobalt and sulphuric acid.

3
U.S. Recycling Plants
Noranda Recycling, San Jose CA
Noranda Recycling, E. Providence RI
Noranda Recycling, Roseville CA
Noranda Recycling LaVergne, TN
4
Key Elements of Plant Design
  • Facility selection
  • Tenant improvements
  • Layout
  • Machinery

5
Facility Selection
  • Transportation needs
  • Local regulations
  • Equipment needs
  • Output option proximity

6
Transportation needs
  • Rail spur can reduce freight costs by 25.
    Especially helpful when shipping shredded
    material to smelters.
  • Alternatively, local rail yards usually have
    trans-loading service providers.
  • Proximity to interstate and airports.
  • Survey freight providers.
  • Evaluate shipping container options.

7
Output vendors
  • Steel and Aluminum recycler proximity
  • Smelters- North America or Europe
  • Ports
  • Hazardous waste
  • Useful tool- Develop a matrix containing volumes
    vs. proximity

8
Regulatory considerations
  • E-scrap managed as waste? (California Universal
    Waste)
  • Example In CA, subject to DTSC inspections,
    special container requirements, inventory aging
    requirements, facility signage, etc..
  • Output destination management can be affected-
    Excluded Recyclable Materials.
  • Zoning
  • Air permitting- dust collector discharge
  • Storm water permitting

9
Equipment needs
  • Power- 3000 amp service (upgraded transformer a
    significant expense)
  • Foundation at least 6
  • Ceiling height 28 to 32 feet
  • Grade level roll up doors
  • Fire pump, ESFR sprinklers
  • Roof loading- ceiling column spacing

10
Tennant Improvements
  • HVAC
  • Restrooms
  • Entrance / security
  • Footings
  • Lighting
  • Racking
  • Truck docks
  • Sprinkler
  • Permits

11
HVAC
  • Is it necessary?
  • Insulated ceilings
  • Roof mount vs. floor level units
  • Make up air balanced to dust collection
  • Cold climates- sprinkler pipe freeze issue,
    ceiling fans, make up air must be heated

12
Restrooms and Plumbing
  • Extra restroom capacity
  • Showers
  • Circulation pumps can be extra maintenance

13
Security
  • Most customers require video surveillance video
    server
  • Building alarm monitoring company (includes fire
    panel)
  • Entrance lobby guard or bell
  • Card lock system- isolate business office
  • Trucker access
  • Perimeter security fence - bins

14
Equipment footings
  • Soil sample with Civil P. E. analysis and permit
    if required
  • Excavation equipment access
  • Concrete cure time
  • Footings can be costly and deeper depending on
    soil conditions
  • Ensure final equipment layout prior to
    construction

15
Lighting
  • Bay lighting
  • Ensure OSHA lighting standard
  • Add task lighting over production area

16
Warehouse Racking
  • Rack usage depends on business model, turn around
    time, and available floor space
  • Wire guide warehouse vs. conventional
  • Additional sprinklers may be necessary
  • Installation usually requires permitting due to
    seismic concerns
  • Protect the racks with bollards

17
Wire Guide Warehouse
18
Truck docks
  • Quantity?
  • Expensive to add after building construction
    (gt25K to upgrade)
  • Hydraulic dock plates speed up unloading and
    provide a smooth forklift path into the truck
  • Ergonomically friendly vs. manual dock

19
Truck Docks
20
Fire Sprinklers
  • Absolutely a must with any E-Scrap plant
  • Early Suppression Fast Response preferred by
    insurers such as FM Global
  • Machinery usually requires additional fire
    suppression by local FD
  • Maintenance- flow, pressure, and alarm
    notification testing

21
Building Permits
  • Local building department turn around time should
    be factored into timeline
  • A consultant can speed up the process
  • Permits commonly required for- HVAC, sprinklers,
    electrical, footings, racking, machinery
  • Permit fees vary and can sometimes include an
    expedited service fee

22
Layout
  • Receiving
  • Shipping
  • Warehouse
  • Work Cells
  • Automated solutions
  • Lift trucks
  • EHS

23
Layout Example
24
Receiving
  • Receiving is typically a bottleneck when planning
    site capacities
  • Reduced docks require delivery appointments
  • Scales should be in ground and greater than 48
  • Forklift mounted scales can increase shipment
    receiving efficiency
  • Buffer considerations- minimize the amount of
    travel for shipping units

25
Receiving
26
Shipping
  • Largely dependant on business model retail
    sales?
  • FEDEX or UPS terminal
  • Shrink wrap machines

27
Warehouse
  • Bin size pallet location or small bins
  • Keep most popular stock items at floor level or
    in consolidated high demand area

28
Work Cells
  • 2 types de-package and disassembly
  • Determine your sort boxes- boards, steel,
    cardboard, shred, plastic, wire.
  • Adjustable height tables and benches reduce
    injury
  • Air tools speed up productivity
  • Scissor lift tables reduce lifting injuries
  • Tool balancers reduce injury and increase speed

29
Work cell layout
30
Work Cells
31
Cell Sorting
32
Automation
  • Sort line
  • Wireless network

33
Lift Trucks
  • Electric lifts reduce fire risk and do not create
    fumes
  • Riding pallet jacks are efficient at receiving
    and general pallet movement
  • Sit down units typically have 3000 pound lift
    capacities
  • Minimize manual jack use- slow and causes injury
  • Wire guide lifts and order pickers are expensive,
    but necessary for a large warehouse configuration

34
EHS
  • Floor conditioning- Epoxy
  • Spill containment
  • Flammable cabinet
  • Adequate storage for ink, toner, and batteries
  • Make sure you facility has a HMMP

35
Processing Machinery
  • General Theory
  • Shredding options
  • Separation Technologies
  • Dust collection
  • Output options
  • New Horizons

36
Machinery general theory
  • Shredding reduces scrap in size and liberates
    metals into separable particles
  • Ferrous and Aluminum streams commonly extracted
  • All other streams will be copper bearing and go
    to a smelter or broker
  • Manual complete disassembly yields a higher
    recovery, but is cost prohibitive in the US

37
Shredding options
  • Primary size reduction requires a shear type
    shredder
  • 4 shaft- can be in series or stand alone
  • 2 shaft- delivers large pieces and requires
    secondary size reduction
  • Granulators provide a finishing step and produce
    uniform particle size

38
Size Reduction
39
Separation steps
  • Screen off the fines (lt8mm) with a shaker or a
    trommel
  • Remove ferrous with a overband or drum magnet
  • Remove aluminum with an eddy current

40
Roseville Metals Separation Plant










200 HP
400 HP
Shear Shredder (2")
Shear Shredder (4")
Granulator (1)
Eddy Current
Belt Magnet
Aluminum
Copper Family Fines
Copper Family Mixed Plastics



41
E-scrap Processing Line
42
Dust collection
  • Absolutely necessary when shredding
  • Must be effective at maintaining safe ambient air
    for staff- validate with periodic air monitoring
  • A cyclone-baghouse combination is ideal
  • Carry out due diligence and analyze the dust and
    loading conditions to evaluate explosion risk
  • Floor sweeper

43
Dust Collection
44
Output options
  • Before selecting equipment, survey your local
    commodity market and know what their quality
    requirements are.
  • Steel vendors do not want copper - requires more
    size reduction to achieve
  • Aluminum vendors may not want circuit board
    contamination- a second eddy current may be needed

45
Gantt Chart
46
New Horizons
  • Plastics separation- sink float, visual detection
  • Inductive separators
  • Color sorting machines
  • Shredding- VFDs vs. hydraulics

47
End Of Presentation
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