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GENDER AND HEALTH

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'The goal of achieving equality between women and men is based on principles of ... 70% of Indian women suffer from anaemia. 70-90% suffer from gynecological problems ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: GENDER AND HEALTH


1
GENDER AND HEALTH
  • Keerti Bhushan Pradhan
  • keerti_at_aravind.org

2
The Challenge
  • The goal of achieving equality between
    women and men is based on principles of human
    rights and social justice. Empowerment of women
    is more over a prerequisite for achieving people
    centered development..The abolition of poverty
    can not be achieved until men and women have
    equal access to the resources and services
    necessary to achieve their individual potential
    and fulfil their obligations to household,
    community and, more broadly society..
  • (UK White Paper on International Development,
    1997)

3
Gender Definitions
  • Gender refers to the socially defined roles and
    responsibilities of men, women and boys and
    girls. Male and female gender roles are learned
    from families and communities and vary by culture
    and generation
  • Gender equality means the absence of
    discrimination, on the basis of a persons sex,
    in opportunities, in the allocation of resources
    or benefits or in access to services
  • Gender equity means fairness and justice in the
    distribution of benefits and responsibilities
    between women and men and often requires
    women-specific projects and programmes to end
    existing inequities

4
Global Magnitude
  • 70 of the worlds 1.3 billion people living in
    poverty are women
  • Women represent two thirds of the worlds 960
    million non-literate people
  • In most developing countries, boys enrolment in
    school exceeds that of girls
  • Approximately two thirds of the 130 million
    children of school age who do not or can not go
    to school are girls
  • Globally, violence against women causes more
    deaths and disability among women aged 15 to 44
    than do cancer, malaria, traffic accidents or war
  • 2 million girls are at risk each year of female
    genital mutilation

5
MMR-Countries
  • Canada-6
  • India-570
  • Nigeria-1000
  • South Africa-230
  • (Data from World Health Report,1999)
  • Women suffer a heavier burden of ill-health than
    men and greater attention must be paid to their
    health needs

6
INDIA
  • 927/1000 MEN (World Bank-1996)
  • 12 MILLION GIRL BORN(1.5m die before first birth
    day, 1.5m die before fifth birthday
  • 70 of Indian women suffer from anaemia
  • 70-90 suffer from gynecological problems
  • Mental illness31-41 (Womens health project
    1994)
  • 96 of female workforce in informal sector

7
Mothers Education-Impact
  • A study of 45 developing countries found that the
    average mortality rate for children under 5 was
    144 per 1000 live births when their mothers had
    no education, 106 per 1000 when they had primary
    education only, and 68 per 1000 when they had
    some secondary education.
  • (World Development Report 1998)

8
Gender in the context of health
  • Gender Inequality in relation to health
  • Lower status/social value in the household
  • Cultural factors such as lack of female health
    provider
  • Being excluded from decision making on health
    actions and expenditure
  • Lower literacy rates and reduced access to
    information
  • High opportunity costs of womens labour time
    distance, waiting time etc.
  • Social division of labour (women-informal care
    provider)
  • Susceptibility and Treatment to infectious
    diseases-Malaria Tb. High
  • Public health issues like violence, alcoholism,
    smoking and life style related problems

9
Gender Equity
  • Men and Women do not receive less or inferior
    treatment by virtue of their sex. But Women are
    less likely to go for the treatment..Wrong
    assumption that disease rates are lower among
    women
  • Health needs which are specific to each gender
    receive appropriate resources. For example women
    and girls have reproductive health needs

10
Gender and Health Financing
  • Are women more disadvantaged by particular modes
    of payment (or are they better able to manage
    some modes over others)?
  • Does cost recovery-particularly the levying of
    user charges at point of delivery-have an adverse
    impact on womens health?
  • How do different types of cost recovery affect
    access to services by gender?

11
Gender and Private Sector
  • Very little information on the gender aspects of
    governments working with the private sector
  • Contracting out services to the private/NGO
    sector-framework of incentives to address health
    needs of women and girls

12
Gender Decentralization
  • Effort to include the voice/participation of less
    powerful both women and poorest households in the
    process of decentralization in healthcare

13
WHO Technical Paper 1998
  • WHO Technical Paper on gender and health (1998)
    cites the main criticism of WID policies as being
    that they continue to define women themselves as
    the problem, who need welfare and special
    treatment if improvements in their circumstances
    are to be made.
  • The underlying reasons of women are largely
    unexplored and no explanation is offered for the
    systematic devaluation of their work or the
    continuing constraints on their access to
    resources

14
Gender-Perspective
  • Gender equality is an issue of development
    effectiveness, not just a matter of political
    correctness or kindness to women.
  • (World Bank 2002)

15
  • THANK YOU
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