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Concept Mapping

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model the construction of a concept map to the class. ... Faculty of Education belongs The Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Concept Mapping


1
Concept Mapping ????
2
Visual Learning
  • ideas, concepts, data and other information are
    associated with images and represented
    graphically.
  • techniques include webs, concept maps, idea maps
    and plots, such as stack plots and Venn plots,
    are some of the used in visual learning
  • enhance thinking and learning skills.

3
Examples of Visual Learning
  • Webs
  • Idea Maps
  • Concept Maps
  • Plots

4
Webs
  • visual maps that show how different categories of
    information relate to one another.
  • provide structure for ideas and facts
  • give students a flexible framework for organizing
    and prioritizing information.
  • use webs to brainstorm, organize information for
    writing (pre-writing), as well as to analyze
    stories and characterization.
  • an effective technique to use in small group
    settings-- build collaborative webs,
    incorporating the thoughts and contributions of
    each group member.
  • Examples Literary Webs, Character webs,
    comparison, prewriting

5
Webs Literary Webs
  • helps students analyze the various literary
    elements (plot, characterization, theme, etc.) at
    play in any given story.
  • By dissecting characters, plots and sequence of
    events, students learn about composition and get
    a better understanding of a story as a whole.

6
Webs Character Webs
  • Students identify the traits of a central
    character.
  • This reinforces the concept of point of view and
    helps students understand a character's actions
    and motivation.

7
Webs Comparison
  • For example, in a social studies class, students
    may compare and contrast the characteristics of
    one culture with another.
  • helps students better understand the groups being
    studied, as well as make unifying connections
    between them.

8
Webs Prewriting
  • brainstorming and organizing students do before
    writing.
  • Once students choose a topic, they type it in the
    center of a web. Then they rapidly add subtopic
    ideas in symbols connected to the main topic.
  • Each subtopic can have its own subtopics, which
    can also have subtopics, and so on.

9
Idea Maps
  • Stimulates students to generate ideas, follow
    them through and develop their thoughts visually.
  • Help students brainstorm, solve problems and plan
    their work.
  • Examples
  • Prior to field trips to help students think about
    what they might see and learn.
  • After the field trip, to record their
    observations..

10
Concept Maps
  • graphically illustrate relationships between
    information.
  • two or more concepts are linked by words that
    describe their relationship.
  • encourage understanding by helping students
    organize and enhance their knowledge on any topic
  • help students learn new information by
    integrating each new idea into their existing
    body of knowledge.

11
Concept Maps (cont.)
  • ideal for measuring the growth of student
    learning. As students create concept maps, they
    reiterate ideas using their own words.
  • Misdirected links or wrong connections alert
    educators to what students do not understand,
  • providing an accurate, objective way to evaluate
    areas in which students do not yet grasp concepts
    fully.

12
Example of concept maps
13
Concepts and Propositions
  • Concepts
  • as a perceived regularity in events or objects,
    or records of events or objects, e.g., book,
    table, etc
  • designated by a label (usually a a word, although
    sometimes we use symbols such as or . )
  • Propositions
  • statements about some object or event in the
    universe, either naturally occurring or
    constructed.
  • contain two or more concepts connected with other
    words to form a meaningful statement. Sometimes
    these are called semantic units,or units of
    meaning.
  • E.g., a dog is an animal connects 2 concepts
    dog and animal

14
What is Concept Mapping (continued)?
  • Concept Mapping is the process of identifying
    important concepts,
  • arranging those concepts spatially,
  • identifying relationships among those concepts,
  • and labeling the nature of the semantic
    relationships among those concepts.

15
Why Concept Mapping?
16
http//www.yottkp.edu.hk/hots/concept.htm
17
The Components of Concept Mapping
  • Knowledge graphs consist of
  • nodes (points/vertices)
  • links (arcs/edges).
  • Nodes represent concepts or ideas
  • Links represent the relations between concepts
    (propositions)

18
A simple example on concept map of concept map
  • Concepts
  • Concert Map
  • Linking phrases
  • Relationships
  • Concepts
  • Propositions
  • A concept map is composed of linking phrases
  • A concept map identifies relationships
  • Relationships are what between concepts
  • A concept map is composed of concepts

19
Another example for concept map
20
Another Example for Concept Map
21
http//www.google.com.hk/imgres?imgurlhttp//www.
logo.com/twp/concept_mapping_s.jpgimgrefurlhttp
//www.logo.com/twp/what_are_concept_maps.htmlh33
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7prev/images3Fq3Dconcept2Bmappingusg__VR3im
o1qgn7ADQ0q2B24rmh5pVQsaXoiimage_resultresnu
m1ctimagecd1
22
More Detailed One
23
Concept Map Reflecting Understanding of
Mathematical Functions
24
Construction of Concept Maps enables
  • The reorganization of knowledge
  • Explicit descriptions of concepts and their
    interrelationships
  • Deep processing of knowledge promote better
    remembering/retrieving/applying
  • Relating new concepts to existing concepts and
    ideas improves understanding

25
It can be used to
  • generate ideas (brain storming, etc.)
  • design a complex structure (long texts,
    hypermedia, large web sites, etc.)
  • communicate complex ideas
  • aid learning by explicitly integrating new and
    old knowledge
  • assess understanding or diagnose
    misunderstanding.

26
Examples of Using Concept Map as Mindtools
  • Study Guide
  • Students identify the most important concepts in
    a chapter and generate a semantic net as a
    reviewing strategy.
  • Maps drawn can then be compared with other
    students maps from different chapters can be
    combined
  • Students using this score better than others.
  • It is absolutely essential for the students to
    construct these nets.
  • Reflection and Integration
  • Forces students to reflect on what they know and,
    reflect about their own lack of understanding and
    about the difficulties in construction of a
    meaningful knowledge framework

27
Examples of Using Concept Map as Mindtools
  • Planning
  • Group Project generating a semantic net can
    provide the organization and impetus for
    completing the project
  • Organizing ideas
  • Assessing Learning
  • Comparing maps generated before and after
    instruction reflects the growth of knowledge.
  • Comparing maps generated by students to those by
    experts reflects as a criterion-reference measure.

28
Modes for Evaluating Concept Maps
  • Scoring
  • any relationships that are valid score 1 mark
    each
  • every valid level of hierarchy scores 5 marks
    each
  • cross links if valid score 10 marks each. If the
    cross link is valid but does not illustrate a
    synthesis between sets of related concepts and
    propositions it only scores 2 points
  • examples score 1 mark each.
  • Compare Learners Map with experts
  • of similarity between the concept map with that
    of an expert
  • Determine Learners Knowledge Growth
  • Compare the maps before and after

29
Instructional Steps when you need to teach
concept mapping to your students
  • begin with a simple topic, familiar to students
    so that it is easier for them to concentrate on
    the learning process. Ensure that a small number
    of terms are involved
  • model the construction of a concept map to the
    class. encourage students to think of all
    possible links and to write down the nature of
    each link
  • it is unlikely that students will produce good
    maps on their first attempt. Provide constructive
    criticism
  • you may provide a suggested layout the first
    time, but it is important to remove these prompts
    from subsequent maps
  • tell students that there is not a single correct
    answer to the task.

White, R., Gunstone, R. (1992). Probing
understanding. London The Falmer Press.
30
Exercise One
  • Draw a concept map representing the following
    statements
  • Faculty of Education belongs The Chinese
    University of Hong Kong (CUHK)
  • CUHK is the biggest university in Hong Kong
  • CUHK locates at Shatin
  • Shatin is in the New Territories of HK.
  • CUHK faces Ma On Shan
  • Use the following links
  • Belongs to
  • Is a
  • Locates at/in
  • Faces/opposite of

31
Arrangement of Concepts
  • Hierarchical structure
  • the most inclusive, most general concepts at the
    top of the map (at the middle…)
  • the more specific, less general concepts arranged
    hierarchically below.
  • with reference to some particular question we
    seek to answer or some situation or event that we
    are trying to understand (since structure also
    depends of the context)

32
Links
  • Symmetric
  • Is opposite of is same as has sibling is
    independent of has synonym is equal to
  • Asymmetric Links
  • Inclusion Relations,
  • eg has part/is part of
  • Characteristic Relations
  • Has attribute/is attribute of
  • Action Relations
  • Uses/is used by
  • Process Relations
  • Has object/ is object of

33
Six Steps to Create Concept Maps
  • select key concepts. This is a recognition
    process that activates relevant knowledge, and
    assists in topic identification
  • write the key concepts
  • make an attribute list of the key concepts
  • relate key concepts in a spatial relationship
  • rearrange spatial representations
  • compare representation to the text.

Holley, C. D., Dansereau, D. F. (1984). Spatial
learning strategies Techniques, applications,
and related issues. Sydney Academic Press.
34
Example
Plants have roots Plants have stems Plants have
leaves
Leaves produce food Leaves are usually green
35
Example
36
Things to avoid
  • Sentences in the boxes
  • String Maps

???????????
37
What to do if you find it hard to add linking
words
  • This shows that you only poorly understand the
    relationship between the concepts
  • Try write out a sentence that represents the
    relationship between the two concepts as
    accurately as possible
  • Pick out a word or a phrase as the label of the
    relationship.

38
Advantages of Computer Support for Concept
Mapping
  • Ease of adaptation and manipulation
  • Dynamic Linking
  • Conversion
  • Communication
  • Storage

Also see Visual learning
http//www.inspiration.com/vlearning/index.cfm
39
Concept Maps used in classrooms
40
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41
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42
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43
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44
Concept Map Tools
  • Inspiration http//www.inspiration.com/vlearning/i
    ndex.cfm?fuseactionconcept_maps
  • IHMC CmapTools http//cmap.ihmc.us/download/
  • Decision Explorer http//www.banxia.com/dexplore/i
    ndex.html
  • Mindjet http//www.mindjet.com/en-US/default.aspx
  • The Brain Visual Information Managementhttp//www.
    thebrain.com/

45
Activity 2 Construct a concept map showing your
understanding of a Concept
  • Start with a concept that you are familiar with.
    Examples are pollution, computers,
    classroom. Treat this as the main concept.
  • Think about 3 other concepts that are related to
    the main concept (e.g., air pollution, keyboard,
    student), and link them to the main concept with
    the suitable links. Links must be suitably
    labeled.
  • Build on one the newly added concepts, link it to
    3 other new concepts. Again, the links must be
    suitable labeled.
  • Arrange the concepts so that the most abstract
    and inclusive one is at the top and the most
    concrete and specific ones are at the bottom.
  • Save the export this concept map as a gif file
    and submit it to Moodle.

46
References
  • ????????????? http//www.yottkp.edu.hk/hots/conce
    pt.htm
  • ??? (2002). ?????????????????. http//www.ied.edu.
    hk/apfslt/v3_issue2/sowm/index.htm
  • Instructional Strategies Online
    http//olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/conceptma
    p/index.html
  • Novak, J.D., CaThe Theory Underlying Concept
    Maps and How to Construct Them. Institute for
    Human and Machine Cognition. http//web.archive.or
    g/web/20060524112734/cmap.ihmc.us/Publications/Res
    earchPapers/TheoryCmaps/TheoryUnderlyingConceptMap
    s.htm
  • Concept Mapping Resource Guide http//www.socialre
    searchmethods.net/mapping/mapping.htm
  • ???????. http//www.sherc.net/sherc/application/gn
    tjc.jsp

47
END
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