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SUBSTANCE ABUSE

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Distilled spirits (brandy, rum, vodka, scotch, whiskey)-40-60% Wine cooler- 6 ... MESCALINE- is a hallucinogen made from the peyote cactus plant. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SUBSTANCE ABUSE


1
SUBSTANCE ABUSE
  • ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, AND OTHER DRUGS

2
WHAT IS A DRUG?
  • A drug is a substance other than food that
    changes the way the body or mind works.
  • Drug use is a term used to describe drug-taking
    behavior.
  • Responsible drug use is the correct use of legal
    drugs to promote health and well-being.

3
DRUG MISUSE AND ABUSE
  • Drug misuse is the incorrect use of a
    prescription or over-the-counter drug.
  • Drug abuse is the use of an illegal drug or the
    intentional misuse of a prescription or
    over-the-counter drug.

4
WAYS DRUGS ENTER THE BODY
  • By Mouth- A drug in the form of a pill, capsule,
    or liquid that can be swallowed.
  • By Injection- when a drug is injected from a
    syringe or needle.
  • By Inhalation- when a drug is inhaled through the
    nose or mouth. It travels to the lungs where it
    enters the bloodstream.
  • By Absorption- when a drug is absorbed, it enters
    the bloodstream through the skin or mucous
    membranes. Ex. Ointments, lotions, suppositories

5
The effects drugs have on the body are determined
by many factors.
  • The way the drug enter the body
  • Solubility-fat- soluble drugs stay in the body
    longer than water-soluble
  • Weight, age, and health status
  • Emotional state
  • Use of other drugs

6
PRESCRIPTION DRUGS
  • A medicine is a drug that is used to treat,
    prevent, or diagnose illness.
  • A prescription drug is a medicine that can be
    obtained only with a written order from a
    licensed health professional.
  • A pharmacist is an allied health professional who
    dispenses medications prescribed by physicians.

7
OVER-THE-COUNTER DRUGS (OTC)
  • An OTC drug is a drug that can be purchased
    without a prescription. Generally, OTC drugs are
    taken to relieve signs and symptoms of an
    illness. These drugs often are not used to cure
    illnesses.

8
DRUG DEPENDENCE
  • Drug dependence is the continued use of a drug
    even though it harms the body, mind, and
    relationships.
  • Chemical dependence and chemical addiction are
    other terms used for drug dependence.
  • Physical dependence is a condition in which a
    person develops tolerance and a drug becomes
    necessary, or the person has withdrawal symptoms.

9
DRUG DEPENDENCE (CONTINUED)
  • Tolerance is a condition in which the body
    becomes used to a drug and larger amounts are
    needed to produce the same effect.
  • Withdrawal symptoms are unpleasant reactions that
    occur when a drug is no longer taken.
  • Psychological dependence is a strong desire to
    continue using a drug for emotional reasons.

10
ALCOHOL IS A POWERFUL DRUG
  • Alcohol is a drug in certain beverages that slows
    down the central nervous system and harms body
    organs.
  • Beverages such as beer, wine, wine coolers, and
    whiskey contain alcohol.
  • Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the amount
    of alcohol in a persons blood. The higher the
    BAC, the greater the effects of the alcohol.

11
A PERSONS BAC DEPENDS ON SEVERAL FACTORS
  • How much alcohol a person drinks
  • How fast a person drinks
  • How much a person weighs
  • How a person feels
  • How much a person has eaten
  • When other drugs are in the bloodstream

12
PERCENT AND EFFECTS
  • 0.02- A person feels very loose and relaxed.
  • 0.06- Reaction time is slowed resulting in
    impaired coordination. Speech is slurred.
    Reasoning, judgment, and self-control are
    affected.
  • 0.10- Reasoning, judgment, and self-control are
    seriously impaired.
  • 0.12- Vomiting can occur.
  • 0.15- Behavior is impaired. Staying awake is
    difficult
  • 0.30- A person is in a semi-stupor or deep sleep.
    Most people cannot stay awake to reach this BAC.
  • 0.50- Deep coma and death can occur.

13
ALCOHOL AND THE BODY
  • Alcohol affects
  • 1. body senses
  • 2. reaction time and coordination
  • 3. immune system- the body system that contains
    cells and organs that fight disease.
  • 4. mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus
  • 5. stomach
  • 6. pancreas
  • 7. liver- drinking can lead to cirrhosis of the
    liver which is a disease in which the liver
    tissue is destroyed and replaced with scar tissue
  • 8. heart and blood vessels
  • 9. brain and nervous system
  • 10. reproductive system

14
ALCOHOL AND THE MIND
  • Alcohol can affect the mind by
  • 1. Hindering school performance
  • 2. affected decision making
  • 3. affecting social skills
  • 4. attributing to violence
  • 5. leading individuals to depression and suicide

15
PROBLEM DRINKING AND ALCOHOLISM
  • Problem drinking is a pattern of drinking that
    produces difficulties in a persons life.
  • A problem drinker is a person who causes problems
    for himself or herself or others when drinking.
  • Alcoholism is a disease in which there is
    physical and psychological dependence on alcohol.

16
THE EFFECTS OF ALCHOLISM ON FAMILY MEMBERS
  • Suspicion
  • Insecurity
  • Guilt
  • Fear
  • Disappointment
  • Embarrassment
  • Resentment

17
PERCENTAGE OF ALCOHOL IN DIFFERENT BEVERAGES
  • Table wine- 9-12
  • Fortified wine- 12-18
  • Beer- 3-6
  • Light beer- 2.5-3.5
  • Distilled spirits (brandy, rum, vodka, scotch,
    whiskey)-40-60
  • Wine cooler- 6

18
SERVING SIZES OF ALCOHOL
  • WINE 4 oz
  • BEER 12 oz
  • DISTILLED SPIRITS 1.5 oz
  • WINE COOLER 12 oz

19
CONTROLLED DRUGS AND ILLEGAL DRUG USE
  • A controlled drug is a drug whose possession,
    manufacture, distribution, and sale are
    controlled by law. A prescription is needed to
    obtain a controlled drug.
  • Illegal drug use is the wrong use, possession,
    manufacture, or sale of controlled drugs and the
    use, possession, manufacture, or sale of illegal
    drugs

20
STIMULANTS
  • Stimulants are a group of drugs that increase the
    activities of the central nervous system. They
    increase the sense of alertness, and increase
    blood pressure and heart rate.
  • Caffeinism is a kind of poisoning due to heavy
    caffeine intake. Some signs include difficulty
    sleeping, mood changes, anxiety, muscle
    twitching, restlessness, headaches, depression,
    stomach pains, and a fast heartbeat.

21
COCAINE AND CRACK
  • Cocaine is a highly addictive stimulant drug
    obtained from the leaves of the coca bush.
    Cocaine is absorbed through the mucous membrane,
    and is circulated to the heart, lungs, and other
    body organs. The effects are almost immediate.
    When inhaled, it reaches the brain in three
    minutes. If injected, in 15 seconds. If smoked,
    in seven seconds.
  • Crack is a purified form of cocaine that produces
    a rapid and intense reaction. It is named for the
    sound it produces when smoked. The effects of
    crack are ten times greater than those of snorted
    cocaine.

22
AMPHETAMINES AND METHAMPHETAMINES
  • Amphetamines are chemically manufactured
    stimulant drugs that are highly addictive. They
    were used at one time as diet pills.
  • Methamphetamines, or meth, are stimulant drugs
    within the amphetamine family. The use of meth
    produces effects similar to cocaine.
  • Ecstasy, aka MDMA, is an illegal drug that can
    act as a stimulant as well as a hallucinogen.
    Long term use can harm parts of the brain
    important for thought and memory.

23
SEDATIVE-HYPNOTIC DRUGS
  • Sedative-hypnotic drugs are a group of drugs that
    depress the activities of the central nervous
    system.
  • Sedatives are drugs that have a calming effect on
    behavior.
  • Hypnotic drugs are drugs that promote drowsiness
    and sleep.
  • Barbiturates are a type of sedative that was
    prescribed by physicians to help people sleep.
  • Tranquilizers are sedatives that are prescribed
    by a physician to treat anxiety.
  • Sedative-hypnotic drugs slow reaction time, and
    have side effects including dizziness, nausea,
    and headaches.

24
NARCOTICS
  • Narcotics are a group of drugs that slow down the
    central nervous system, cause drowsiness, and can
    be used as painkillers.
  • Some narcotics have medical uses when prescribed
    by a physician. Examples include morphine and
    codeine.
  • Heroin is an illegal narcotic drug derived from
    morphine.

25
MARIJUANA
  • Marijuana is a drug containing THC that impairs
    short-term memory and changes mood.
  • Marijuana, like smoking, can damage lung tissue.
    It can also suppress the immune system.

26
HALLUCINOGENS
  • Hallucinogens are a group of drugs that interfere
    with the senses, causing people to see and hear
    things that are not real.
  • LSD is a hallucinogen that is often sold
    illegally in powder, tablet, and capsule form.
  • LSD is fat-soluble and stays in the body a long
    time
  • LSD produces flashbacks. A flashback is a sudden
    illusion that a person has long after having used
    certain drugs.

27
PCP and MECALINE
  • PCP-(aka angel dust) is a hallucinogen that can
    act as a stimulant or a depressant.
  • MESCALINE- is a hallucinogen made from the peyote
    cactus plant. Mescaline can affect the brain
    within 30 seconds after entering the body. Its
    effects can last for 12 hours.

28
ANABOLIC STEROIDS
  • STUNT GROWTH
  • CAUSE HARDENING OF THE ARTERIES
  • CAUSE HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE
  • CAUSE LIVER DAMAGE
  • PRODUCE AGGRESSIVE AND VIOLENT BEHAVIOR

29
HUFFING, SNIFFING, AND BAGGING
  • Seizures and sudden death
  • Altered states of consciousness
  • Changes in behavior
  • Kidney and liver failure
  • Heart muscle damage
  • Brain and nerve damage
  • Leukemia
  • Lead poisoning
  • Ulcers around the mouth and nose
  • Short-term memory loss and motor-skill impairment

30
SIGNS OF DRUG ABUSE
  • Talking about trying a drug
  • Making plans to be in situations in which there
    will be drugs
  • Giving up friends who do not use drugs
  • Spending more time with people who use drugs
  • Getting into trouble
  • Showing no interest in activities
  • Having a sloppy appearance
  • Joining a gang
  • Rebelling against authority
  • Smelling like alcohol

31
CONTINUED
  • Having glassy eyes and a blank stare
  • Stumbling
  • Having slurred speech
  • Hiding drugs
  • Lying about drug use

32
PROGRESSION TO DRUG DEPENDENCY
  • Ill just try it.
  • I like the feeling.
  • I need some more to feel good.
  • I do not have a problem with drugs.
  • I just have to have it.

33
DRUG-FREE LIFESTYLE
  • A drug-free lifestyle is a lifestyle in which
    people do not use harmful and illegal drugs.
  • Some teens are more at risk for harmful drug use
    than other teens are. They have certain risk
    factors
  • Risk factors are ways that a person might behave
    and characteristics of the environment in which a
    person lives that threaten health, safety, and
    well-being.

34
RISK FACTORS FOR HARMFUL DRUG USE IN TEENS
  • Having difficult family relationships
  • Having negative self-esteem
  • Being unable to resist peer pressure
  • Being unable to master developmental tasks
  • Being economically disadvantaged
  • Having one or more biological family members who
    are drug-dependent
  • Lacking skills to cope with stressful situations
  • having a learning disability and/or doing poorly
    in school
  • Having friends who misuse and abuse drugs

35
RESISTANCE SKILLS
  • Resistance skills are skill used when you want to
    say NO to an action or to leave a situation.

36
USING RESISTANCE SKILLS WHEN PRESSURED TO USE
DRUGS
  • Use assertive behavior.
  • Give reasons for saying NO.
  • Use nonverbal behavior to match verbal behavior.
  • Avoid being in situations in which there will be
    pressure to use harmful drugs.
  • Avoid being with people who use harmful drugs.
  • Resist pressure to engage in illegal behavior.
  • Influence others to choose responsible behavior.
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