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UNSAFE WEIGHT LOSS METHODS

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Coffee, lean meat, vegetables, and melons or grapefruit make up the majority of ... 'Choose foods sensibly by looking at the big picture. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: UNSAFE WEIGHT LOSS METHODS


1
UNSAFE WEIGHT LOSS METHODS
  • Wafaa Ayesh
  • Masc.in Nutrition Food Science

2
Teen Dieting
  • Time Magazine reports that 80 of children have
    been on a diet by the time they reach the 4th
    grade.
  • 81 of ten-year-olds are afraid of being fat.
    (Mellin,et.al, 1992)
  • The most common behavior that will lead to an
    eating disorder is dieting. (AABA, 1998)

3
Teen Dieting
  • Too often, teenagers believe that they are
    supposed to look a certain way.
  • The media presents us with unrealistically thin
    models. The average woman is 54 tall and weighs
    140 lbs. The average model is 511 tall and
    weighs 117 lbs. (Smolak, 1996)
  • Pre-teen and young teen girls go through normal
    and necessary body changes (hips broaden, breasts
    develop) and no longer look like the models on TV
    and in magazines.

4
Dangerous Plans
  • FASTING
  • FAD DIETS
  • DIET DRUGS
  • VERY LOW CALORIE DIETS

5
Dangerous Plans
  • Many people try total fasting or self-imposed
    starvation to lose weight.
  • This is perhaps the most problematic method of
    weight loss and can damage tissues, body fluids,
    mineral supplies, and vital organs.
  • Diet Aids, such as Dexatrim or PhenPhen promise
    the same results as diet plans but with little or
    no change in eating or exercise lifestyle.
    Generally, they are a health risk and are often
    make claims that are too good to be
  • true.

6
1-FASTING
  • Fasting is a widely used method of weight loss
    because it gives fast results.
  • With little or no calories being consumed, weight
    is, of course, lost because the body is feeding
    off of its self.
  • Up to 50 percent of the weight lost is from lean
    body mass, which is muscle.
  • This is a very undesirable result and is the last
    thing you want to happen when you want to reduce
    body fat.

7
FASTING
  • Lean body mass or muscle, is the fat burning
    engines of your body.
  • When your body eats muscle for nutrition, you are
    losing these metabolic engines which are needed
    to burn your body fat.
  • As a result, when you start eating again, more of
    the calories are stored as fat rather than being
    burned for energy. This is the yo yo diet
    syndrome that you have probably read about.
  • The more you starve yourself, the more muscle you
    lose and the fatter you get.
  • In addition to losing lean body mass, fasting
    results in malnutrition and loss of important
    minerals.

8
2-FAD DIETS
Anyone who wants to believe in them is forced to
wonder how the thousands of scientists working on
obesity research over the past century could
possibly have missed such obvious connections.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 251

9
What is a Fad Diet?
  • A fad diet is a weight loss plan or aid that
    promises dramatic results. These diets don't
    offer long-term success, and they are usually not
    very healthy. American Academy of Family
    Physicians

10
How to identify Fad Diets
  • Promise dramatic, rapid weight loss
  • Promote diets that are nutritionally unbalanced
    or extremely low in calories
  • Use liquid formulas rather than foods.
  • Attempt to make clients dependent upon special
    foods or devices.
  • Fail to encourage permanent, realistic lifestyle
    changes.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 253

11
How to identify Fad Diets
  • Promote unproven or spurious weight-loss aids
    such as starch blockers, diuretics, sauna belts,
    body wraps, passive exercise, ear stapling,
    acupuncture, electric muscle-stimulating devices,
    amino acid supplements, unique ingredients, etc
  • Fail to provide for weight maintenance after the
    program ends.
  • Understanding Nutrition, 8th ed. Pg 253

12
If fad diets don't work, why are they so popular?
  • People are often willing to try anything that
    promises to help them lose weight because they
    want to look or feel better, or because they are
    worried about getting weight-related diseases.
    Companies that promote fad diets take advantage
    of this fact.
  • They appeal to people by promising weight loss
    that's very quick and easy.
  • Many people prefer to try the quick fix of a fad
    diet instead of making the effort to lose weight
    through long-term changes in their eating and
    exercise habits.
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

13
If fad diets don't work, why are they so popular?
  • Fad diets also become popular because many of
    them do work for a short time. In many cases,
    this is because when you stop eating certain
    types of food or eat special combinations of
    foods, you are getting fewer calories than you
    normally would. You are also paying more
    attention to what you are eating. However, its
    likely that much of the weight you lose is from
    water and lean muscle, not body fat. Also, most
    people are not able to keep up with the demands
    of a diet that strictly limits their food choices
    or requires them to eat the same foods over and
    over again. People who use fad diets usually end
    up gaining back any weight that they lost.
  • American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP)
    Website http//familydoctor.org/784.xml

14
Fad Diets and Eating Disorders
  • 35 of normal dieters progress to pathological
    dieting. Of those, 20-25 progress to partial or
    syndrome eating disorders. (Shisslak Crago,)
  • The popularity of fad diets perpetuates the idea
    that being thin is more important than being
    healthy.
  • According to a recent study, ½ of females between
    the age of 18-25 would prefer to be run over by a
    truck than be fat. (Graessar,)

15
How to recognize a fad diet
  • Advocates magic or miracle foods that burn fat.
  • Recommends bizarre quantities of only one food or
    type of food.
  • Forces one to adhere to a rigid menu.
  • Touts benefits of specific food combinations.
  • Promises rapid weight loss (gt2 lbs. per week)
  • Does not include a health warning for those with
    chronic diseases.
  • Requires NO increased physical activity.
  • Sounds too good to be true.

16
Popular Fad Diets
  • South Beach Diet
  • Atkins Diet Revolution
  • Scarsdale Medical Diet
  • Grapefruit Diet
  • Enter the Zone Diet
  • 3-Day Diet

17
South Beach Diet
  • Eat as much as you want, BUT avoid sugars and
    refined-foods carbohydrates.
  • Phase One- 2 weeks of strict dieting avoid
    nearly all carbs. Most people lose between 8-13
    lbs.
  • Phase Two- Good carbs slowly introduced into
    diet.
  • Phase Three- Return to Phase One if weight
  • gain begins again.

18
Atkins Diet Carbohydrates are bad
Picture from
http//www.faddiet.com/atkinsdiet.html
19
Dr. Atkins Diet Revolution
  • Eat NO MORE THAN 20 grams of carbohydrates per
    day.
  • Avoid ALL breads, cereals, grains, sugars, pasta,
    rice, flour, soda, juice, fruit, alcohol
  • Some vegetables are allowed if consumed in small
    quantities. The dieter is advised to stick with
    free meats, eggs, and cheeses. Advocates LOW
    carbs and HIGH fat.

20
Scarsdale Medical Diet Plan
  • Requires dieter to follow a strict diet regimen
    for 7 days.
  • Must consume at least 4 glasses of water or diet
    soda per day.
  • Coffee, lean meat, vegetables, and melons or
    grapefruit make up the majority of the diets
    food guidelines.

21
Grapefruit Diet
  • Promises that the dieter will lose 52 lbs. in 2½
    months!
  • Must drink 64 oz. water daily. Must adhere to a
    strict list of haves and have nots. Cannot
    eliminate ANYTHING from the diet and must consume
    the minimum amount required at each meal.
  • Advises the dieter to, Eat until you are
    stuffed. The more you eat, the more weight you
    will lose.
  • Includes grapefruits or juice, any meat, and
    salad with dressing.

22
Enter the Zone Diet
  • Strict 40-30-30 eating plan. 40
    carbohydrates, 30 fat and 30 protein.
  • Claims to use the biochemical effects of food on
    hormone production and metabolic activity. The
    Zone refers to a supposed state of optimal
    health, peak performance, and weight control.

23
3-Day Diet
  • Similar to the Scarsdale diet, but offers a wide
    variety of food and necessitates a VERY detailed
    eating plan.
  • Dieters are instructed to measure each food
    (usually ½ or 1 cup per serving) and are told to
    eat toast, peanut butter, veggies, apples,
    crackers, vanilla ice cream, and beef franks.
    Again, the diet stresses the importance of eating
    these foods in a certain specific order.

24
High-Carbohydrate Diets
  • Diets like the Pritikin Diet Plan or the
    Save-Your-Life Diet recommend high fiber and high
    carbs.
  • These diets are as unhealthy they can lead to
    lowered immunity and poor wound healing because
    of lower fat and protein intake.

25
Science of Low-Carbohydrate Diets
  • Carbohydrates are the bodys main source of
    energy. Excess carbohydrates are converted to
    fat and stored as fat tissue.
  • When on a low carbohydrate diet, the body uses
    fats from foods and fats stored in the body for
    energy.

26
Science of Low Carbohydrate Diets
  • When carbohydrates are in short supply, the body
    cannot completely break down fat. As a result,
    ketone bodies are formed. Large amounts of water
    is excreted.
  • This water loss can cause dehydration.
  • Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing ketosis.
  • This state forces the body to burn calories
    similar to a state of starvation. This is
    DANGEROUS, especially over a long period of time.

27
Psychology of Dieting
  • Fad diets are SO popular because they promise
    FAST weight loss with MINIMAL effort. In our
    fast-paced society, this is a very tempting
    offer.
  • Americans are obsessed. The weight loss industry
    in the U.S. rakes in 37 billion dollars a year.

28
Psychology of Dieting
  • A study of four popular fad diets discovered
    another problem while they claim to be easy to
    follow, most people cannot adhere to them. A
    third of participants dropped out of the more
    healthy Weight Watchers and Zone diets. About
    half could not complete the Atkins Diet or the
    vegetarian Ornish Diet Plan.
  • Source
    Tufts University

29
Psychology of Dieting
  • The study also noted that, while initial weight
    loss may be high, the participants had only lost
    about 5 of body weight after one year.
  • This weight loss is comparable to a 200 lb.
    individual shedding 10 lbs. Most dieters hope to
    shed about 30 lbs.
  • Even unhealthy weight loss can be DISCOURAGING!

30
3-DIET DRUGS
  • Diet drugs should be approached with extreme
    caution. Most diet drugs work by affecting the
    hypothalamus.
  • It will decrease feelings of hunger and increase
    satiety or the feeling of fullness.
  • Many of these drugs are not sufficiently tested
    and can have dangerous side effects.
  • A good example of this are the popular drugs
    Phentermine and Fenfluramine.
  • These are more commonly known as Phen Fen.
  • Many doctors prescribed these drugs for weight
    loss.
  • While successful weight loss has been reported,
    the weight is regained after drug use is
    discontinued.
  • In addition, several serious health problems,
    including pulmonary hypertension and heart valve
    problems have been associated with the use of
    these drugs

31
DIET DRUGS
  • Diet drugs have become very popular because they
    are viewed as a magic pill. Dieters are always
    on the lookout for a quick and easy weight loss
    cure.
  • The dieters hope is that the magic pill will
    provide weight loss without effort and without
    changing the unhealthy lifestyle that caused the
    weight problem.
  • Drugs are not the answer for most, and in many
    cases can cause many more serious problems.

32
National Nutrition Month 07
American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org
33
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Develop an eating plan for lifelong health. Too
    often people adopt the latest food fad rather
    than focusing on overall health. Get back to
    basics and use the Dietary Guidelines 2005 and
    MyPyramid as your guide to healthy eating.
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

34
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Choose foods sensibly by looking at the big
    picture. A single food or meal doesnt make or
    break a healthful diet. When consumed in
    moderation in the appropriate portion size, all
    foods can fit into a healthful diet.
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

35
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Food and nutrition misinformation can have
    harmful effects on your health and well-being, as
    well as your wallet.
  • Dietitians are uniquely qualified to communicate
    current and emerging science-based nutrition
    information and are an instrumental part of
    developing a diet plan that is unique to your
    particular needs.
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

36
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Learn how to spot a food fad. Unreasonable or
    exaggerated claims that eating (or not eating)
    specific foods, nutrient supplements or
    combinations of foods may cure disease or offer
    quick weight loss are key features of fad
    diets. 
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

37
Key Messages National Nutrition Month 07
  • Find your balance between food and physical
    activity.
  • Regular physical activity is important for your
    overall health and fitness plus it helps control
    body weight, promotes a feeling of well-being and
    reduces the risk of chronic diseases.
  • American Dietetics Association www.eatright.org

38
Weight Loss Tips
  • Emphasize nutrient dense foods
  • Eat small portions of foods at each meal
  • Share a restaurant meal with a friend or take
    home half for lunch tomorrow
  • Make legumes, grains, vegetables, and fruits
    central to your diet plan
  • Follow the Dietary Guidelines
  • Eat slowly
  • Limit high-fat foods
  • Limit concentrated sweets and alcoholic beverages
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Participate in physical activity regularly
  • Limit liquid calories choose whole fruits rather
    than juices, and avoid sugary soft drinks.
  • Understanding Nutrition,
    8th ed. Pgs 268-269

39
THINK POSITIVELY
  • Be realistic.
  • Make small changes.
  • Be adventurous.
  • Enjoy a variety of foods.
  • Be flexible.
  • You can fit in special treats.
  • Be sensible.
  • Enjoy all foods.
  • Be active.

-Get creative with your recreational activities.
40
Thank you
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