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Title: Michel%20Foucault%20and%20??


1
Michel Foucault and ??

Image source Foucault, u ??
2
Outline
  • Q A Literature, Ideology, Power Discourse
  • Michel Foucault Power, Knowledge and Discourse
  • Sociology of Literature ??s novels and films

3
Q A Literature, Ideology, Power Discourse
  • How do we do a Marxist reading of a story or a
    poem?
  • How do we detect and analyze the ideology(ies) of
    a text?
  • Is a texts ideology the same with authorial
    ideology? Is authorial ideology the authors own
    ideas?
  • Is there anything outside of ideology? (In other
    words, is it possible to stand outside of
    ideology and resist it?)
  • How is the control of ideology similar to or
    different from that of hegemony, power and
    discourse?

4
Q A Literature, Ideology, Power Discourse (2)
  • How do we do a Marxist reading of a story or a
    poem?
  • Relations of production (class relations) in the
    text itself or in the production of the text
  • 2. Intrinsic study ? Ideology study ? history of
    capitalism

5
Q A Literature, Ideology, Power Discourse
  • How do we detect and analyze the ideology(ies) of
    a text?
  • With the support of some knowledge of society and
    history, examine and explain the texts
  • Contradictions (between the said and the unsaid,
    the characters, form and content, or different
    parts of the text) gaps
  • Distortion and disguise of economic reality
    and/or relations
  • Thus analyzed, the texts ideology should be
    related to its contemporary social reality.

6
Q A Literature, Ideology, Power Discourse
  • Is a texts ideology the same with authorial
    ideology?
  • No. A text is a conjuncture of multiple
    ideologies (of literary production, general
    production, aesthetic ideology, etc.)
  • Is authorial ideology the authors own ideas?
  • No. Ideology is not, for Althusser, false
    consciousness it is imagined relations produced
    by many ISA. The author lives in his ideologies,
    but not generating them. (This is an example of
    Althussers anti-humanism.)

7
Q A Literature, Ideology, Power Discourse
  • Is there anything outside of ideology? (In other
    words, is it possible to stand outside of
    ideology and resist it?)
  • No, except for Marxism as a science.

8
Q A Ideology, Power Discourse
  • How is the control of ideology similar to or
    different from that of hegemony, power and
    discourse?
  • Hegemony (correcting textbook chap 5 p. 217)
    Althusser does refer to Gramscis hegemony
    respectfully, but hegemony is NOT his central
    category of analysis.
  • Instead, Althussers central terms are relative
    autonomy, overdetermination and contradiction.
  • Hegemony new concept. . . A remarkable
    example of a theoretical solution in outline to
    the problems of the interpenetration of the
    economic and the political (For Marx 114)

9
Q A Ideology, Power Discourse
  • Similarity
  • Invisible, non-violent and pervasive control
    (e.g. interpellation, consent and containment)
  • a more and more complicated view of social
    relations
  • Differences
  • social formation ? network or grids
  • As Ideology structural perspective ignores
    agency
  • Gs Hegemony counter-hegemonies formed by
    coalition
  • Fs power and discourse denies economic
    determinism, ignores agency focused on
    knowledges role (Ref. Textbook chap 7 152-53)

10
Michel Foucault (1926 - 1984)
Has impact on areas such as -- Sociology,
Historiography, Gay and Lesbian Studies,
Marxism, Cultural Studies and Literary Studies
( New Historicism) Two Major Claims -- Man is a
product of modernity. -- Knowledge is not Truth,
but power.
11
Foucault General Ideas
  • Two periods (ref. Textbook 148)
  • Archaeology of knowledge ?????
  • ? Discourse rules and strategies for the
    formation of subject-positions and knowledge.
    (e.g.Medicine, Madness)
  • 2) Genealogy of power/knowledge ?????
  • examines a variety of institutions and
    non-discursive practices to show how
    power/knowledge is pervasive (e.g. Prison,
    Sexuality)

12
Power and Knowledge/Truth
  • Power
  • -- disciplinary and normalizing power
  • both repressive, controlling and productive
  • Operation
  • -- a perpetual series of observation and modes of
    control of conduct
  • Effects
  • -- induces pleasure, forms knowledge, produces
    discourse (1980 119 textbook 153)
  • ? producing Truth normal subjects docile
    bodies

13
Power and Knowledge/Truth
  • Power pervasive
  • -- not just top-down it circulates, working in
    multiple direction like capillary (???)
    movement.
  • e.g. control and regulation of our health
  • 1) hospital spatial arrangement nursery
    station ? waiting room? clinic ? examination
    room
  • -- 2) ideological control the posters,
    pamphlets.
  • -- 3) pharmacy, insurance co., etc.
  • -- 4) government
  • -- 5) school

authorities
14
Penopticon a metaphor for social control

A circular building with the central control
tower ? control internalized.
15
Penopticon
  • (textbook 150)
  • Total Visibility of the prisoners, invisibility
    of guard, or anybody taking the position in the
    central control tower (subject position)
  • Isolation cannot see the other prisoners in the
    other cells
  • internalize the control
  • disciplined when not watched.(151)
  • Soceity as ????carceral archipelago
  • Prison, penitentiary, rehabilitation center,
  • Hospital, social worker, school, etc.
  • Combining punitive system with normalizing
  • practices

16
Penopticon as a metaphor
  • (textbook 149-51)
  • ? an individual is distributed, located and
    examined in their fixed position.
  • e.g. One Flew Over the Cuckoos Net
  • -- the patients as willing subjects of medical
    science (since they are excluded from the world
    of normality).
  • -- ways of discipline and surveillance
  • -- public confession clip 1, 2 what else?

-- control of their space, schedule, value
standard, and deprivation (of freedom,
pleasuresgambling, sex, smoke--and self-decision)
17
Q Power and Knowledge/Truth
  • Which types of social or self surveillance are
    legitimate, and which types, unnecessary? How
    about the current quarantine of SARSa modern
    plague--patient? Do we really live in a
    prison-like penopticon?

18
Example of surveillance
  • ?????,????????????????????,??????????. . .
    ???????????,??????????????????A??????????????
  • A????????--?SARS?????????SARS???????,
  • B??????--???????????????????,???????????????
    http//epochtimes.com/b5/3/5/10/n310098.htm

19
Examples of surveillance
  • Polices petrol and criminal records
  • Traffic Control System
  • Electronic Game
  • Domicile Registration System and Census
  • IC card

20
Other Systems of surveillance and discipline
  • Any system which includes and connects us (esp.
    through numbers) telephone, computer, student
    no., banking system (account, credit card),user
    account no., educational platform,
  • The schools merit/de-merit system
  • Discourse e.g.
  • A. ????,?????????,?????,
  • self-discipline self-imposed home quarantine,
    wearing a mask
  • B. normal sex the forbidden ?
    self-disciplined, normal sexual subjects

21
Discourse Definition
  • Discourse is "a group of statements which provide
    a language for talking about ...a particular
    topic at a particular historical moment."
  • Constructed through some discursive practices
  • Three major procedures of discursive formation
  • Definition Prohibition ? defining statements
    Rules about the sayable and thinkable
  • Division and rejection ? subject positions
    exclusion of other statements
  • Opposition between false and true ?
    Authority/Power of knowledge (Truth)
  • (Ref. Textbook 154)

22
Discourse Definition (2)
  • Influences
  • -- productive produces knowledge
  • -- regulative (not unlike penopticon) offers us
    subject positions which is hierarchical.
  • -- controlling and discriminatory discipline the
    subjects and punish or exclude those who do not
    follow the rules.

23
Discourse example (1)
  • the discourse of Romantic Poetry
  • -- values imagination, nature, ? Truth
  • -- methodology quest poem, use of common
    language,
  • -- discursive practices walking in nature,
    writing poetry, reviews, prefaces, etc.
  • -- inclusion the six poets
  • -- hierarchy and exclusion the poetesses
  • the formation of literary
    canon.
  • hiring, examination and
    curriculum

24
Q Discourse and Truth
  • Which of the following statements truth or part
    of a certain discourse, and what possible effects
    do they have?
  • William Wordsworth creates the Immortality Ode.
  • Our sexual desire is the source of our energy
    which can be both constructive and destructive.
  • Any English major should know Shakespeare.
  • Necrophilia, pedophilia, and sex with animal
    should not be allowed.
  • We are born to be male or female, and taught to
    be man or woman.

25
Discourse example (2)
  • Sexuality as a discourse
  • Discourses of sexuality have increased and become
    a science since the 17th century, when sex in the
    West became a taboo. ? for normlization and
    regulation.
  • Produces different subject positions and objects
    of gaze and control. The sodomite had been
    temporary aberration the homosexual was now a
    species. (1979 43)
  • Sexual identities regulatory fictions
    inscribed on our bodies.

26
Discourse Sexuality (For reference)
  • Two Foucauldian views of sexuality and our body
  • Sexuality not something hidden but a great
    surface network in which the stimulation of
    bodies, the intensification of pleasures, the
    incitement to discourse, the formation of
    knowledges, the strengthening of controls and
    resistances, are linked to one another.
  • modified Body as an interface between internal
    forces (psychic, physiological) and the external
    social forces.

27
Literary Discourse implications
  • No fixed boundaries between literature and other
    social practices ? popular fiction such as those
    of ?? can be discussed with some literary work.
  • The author is not the creator of his work. S/he
    serves as a label to put on a group of works
    related to him. (e.g. Wordsworth discourse??s
    discourse of Romantic love)
  • Defining some subject positions (of the author,
    the reader, etc.)

28
Sociology of Literature 3 Kinds
  • 1. Reflection Examine social phenomena in the
    text
  • understanding of society through literature
  • literature reflects society.
  • 2. Influence Examines how social environment and
    structure influence the production and
    circulation of literature.
  • sociology of literary production
  • 3. Interpretive analysis and institutional
    analysis combined

29
Methodology
  • Textual analysis
  • Institutional analysis
  • Analysis of society and history
  • ??/???? ? discourse analysis
  • -- the text itself is already an interpretation
  • 1. from the meaning of a text to the meaning
    structures (discourse) it is embedded in
  • 2. Disclose the relations between power and
    meanings.

30
Methodology (2) 8 units
  1. Text narrative structure and structure of
    feeling (melodramatic, romantic, familial
    feelings)
  2. Author
  3. Reader e.g. teenagers release from reality
  4. Genre conventions ? communitys consensus
  5. Literary community
  6. Rented Bookstore, Bookstores and Culture industry
  7. Institution
  8. society

31
Romantic Love
  • The desire for union or merger
  • Idealization of the beloved
  • Exclusivity (e.g. always, never)
  • Emotional dependency or powerful concern for the
    beloved. (Cf. J. 5)

32
Romantic Love Discourse of ??
  • Not seen as popular romance first
  • Gradually codified into Romantic love story
    (while other aspects of the novels are ignored or
    emptied out)
  • Typical plot
  • love at first sight ? passion obstacles ?
    overcoming the obstacles or death.
  • In ??s novels,two basic forces are love and
    family the obstacles are usu. from the family
    (generation gap and/or family love) ?
    re-structuring of the family (Lin 20-21)

33
The Remote in the Romantic Love Discourse of??
  • ???? (1974 http//www.qyhouse.com/ebooks/vol20.tx
    t)
  • Historical background 70s after the white
    terror and the period of political upheaval and
    modernization
  • 1971  ??????????
  • 1973  Ten Major Constructions
  • --
  •  1975  Yang Hsuan ?? Modern Chinese Folksong
    Concert ????????,
  • 1977 ??????
  • 1979 ????Beautiful Island Event.?????

34
The Remote in the Romantic Love Discourse of??
  • ???? (1974 http//www.qyhouse.com/ebooks/vol20.tx
    t)
  • The remote
  • The dreamy and poetic signs poem, guitar
  • The Western and far away signs ???,beautiful
    sceneries without identity.
  • The unsaid the political, the economic and the
    sexual. Examples 1, 2, 3

35
References
  • Miller, Peter. Domination Power. Routledge
    12/01/1987.
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