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Notes 11/04 Class 09: Japan and the

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Title: Notes 11/04 Class 09: Japan and the


1
Notes 11/04Class 09 Japan and the Four
Tigers GEO105 World Regional Geography
  • Michael T. Wheeler
  • Syracuse University, Geography

2
Japan and the Four Tigers
Lecture slide 02
  • Last week China
  • Cultural center of East Asia
  • This week
  • Japan
  • From 1600-1850, secluded from the world
  • From 1868-1905, rapidly westernized and joined
    the ranks of the Great Powers
  • After World War I mimicked European countries in
    developing own empire
  • World War II
  • Deeper and deeper involvement in China
  • Pearl Harbor
  • Massive expansion across the Pacific
  • Firebombings and atomic bombs (Hiroshima,
    Nagasaki)
  • Post-World War II
  • Economic Miracle
  • Emulation (the Four Tigers)
  • South Korea (former Japanese colony)
  • Taiwan (former Japanese colony)
  • Hong Kong (former British colony)
  • Singapore (former British colony)

3
Japans Physical Geography
Lecture slide 03
  • Japan
  • Like England
  • Island (archipelago) off of a large continent
  • Seafaring and fishing
  • Few natural resources
  • Four Tigers
  • In critical shipping locations
  • South China Sea (HK, Taiwan)
  • Straits of Malacca (Sing)
  • Infrastructure
  • Japanese empire
  • British empire
  • Skilled workforce
  • Few natural resources
  • Importance of North Pacific Ocean

4
Global Tectonics
  • Lecture slide 04

2.5 Major tectonic plates (p. 39)
5
Northern Pacific Tectonics
  • Lecture slide 05

A
B
6
North Pacific Bathymetry
  • Lecture slide 06

7
Pacific Ocean Currents
  • Lecture slide 07

8
Natural Disasters
  • Lecture slide 08
  • Volcanoes
  • Sakurajima
  • Mount Fuji
  • Earthquakes
  • 1995 Kobe (Richter 6.9)
  • 1923 Great Kanto Earthquake (7.9)
  • 1906 San Francisco (8.25)
  • Two weeks ago, Niigata (6.8)
  • Hot Springs (onsen)

9
Chinese Cultural Influence
  • Lecture slide 09

10
Syncretic Buddhism
  • Lecture slide 10

11
Japanese Pirates, 15th and 16th Centuries
  • Lecture slide 11

12
Japanese Feudalism Closed Country
  • Lecture slide 12

13
Edo Period Tokugawa Shogun
  • Lecture slide 13

14
Commodore Perrys Black Ships, 1853
  • Lecture slide 14

15
Bonin (Civil) War
  • Lecture slide 15

16
Meiji Restoration, 1868
  • Lecture slide 16

17
Cultural Transfer
Lecture slide 17
  • Two great cultural transfer in Japanese History
  • 6th-7th Century from the Chinese
  • Rice cultivation, Buddhism, kanji (Chinese
    characters)
  • Meiji Restoration from the West
  • Modern Western technology
  • Confidence to do this because there is a unique
    Japanese essence (wa)
  • Technologies
  • Great Britain
  • Navy
  • Political organization
  • Industrial economy (Companies, railroads,
    steamships)
  • Prussia / Germany
  • Army
  • France
  • Education
  • United States
  • Agriculture (red barns in Hokkaido)
  • Terms of trade
  • Export silk to get hard currency

18
Break
  • Lecture slide 18

9.15 Population density, Japan Korea (p. 414)
19
European-style Empire
  • Lecture slide 19
  • Empire
  • 1874 Okinawa
  • 1875 Invasion of Korea
  • 1894-5 Sino-Japanese War
  • Taiwan
  • 1898 Occupied Tsingtao
  • 1904-5 Russo-Japanese War
  • Korea
  • Sakhalin
  • World War I (Re)Occupied German colonies
    (Tsingtao)
  • 1920s Occupied Eastern Siberia
  • 1931 Invaded Manchuria (Manchukuo)

20
World War II China
  • Lecture slide 20

21
World War II United States Britain
  • Lecture slide 21

22
World War II Japan Destroyed
  • Lecture slide 22

23
Postwar Economic Miracle
  • Lecture slide 23
  • Foreign Policy
  • Close ties to the United States (Asian bilateral
    relationships)
  • Financial stimulus from the Korean War
  • Economy
  • Catch up to the West
  • Ministry of International Trade and Industry
    (now, Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry)
  • Select key industries
  • Automobiles
  • Steel
  • Consumer electronics
  • Aerospace
  • Politics
  • Liberal Democratic Party (LDP)
  • Majority in Diet and Prime Minister, 1955-present
    (except 1993-6)
  • Strong support of rural districts vs. the big
    cities
  • Johnson, Chalmers. MITI and the Japanese miracle
    the growth of industrial policy, 1925-1975.
    Stanford University Press, 1982.

24
Japanese Economic Model
  • Lecture slide 24
  • Export-driven growth
  • Limited Imports
  • Trade restrictions?
  • Or, language / cultural?
  • Large current-account surplus with the United
    States
  • State-managed investment
  • Japan, Inc.
  • Very high degree of urbanization
  • Depopulated countryside
  • Poor at entrepreneurial, innovation
  • 5th Generation (Computer) Language Project

9.13 Japanese manufacturing growth (p. 410)
25
Japan Overview
  • Lecture slide 25
  • Megalopolis
  • U.S. Boston Washington (D.C.)
  • Japan Greater Tokyo Greater Osaka
  • Japanese Core
  • 28m in Greater Tokyo
  • 20m in Greater Osaka-Kobe-Kyoto
  • 75m people
  • Depopulated countryside
  • Japanese topography
  • Mountainous shipping
  • Japan Sea side
  • Much fewer people
  • Lots of snow

26
Pacific Corridor
  • Lecture slide 26

27
Most-Rapidly Aging Society in the World
  • Lecture slide 27
  • Longest life-expectancy in the world
  • 122m people
  • Huge costs for health care and pensions

28
Four Asian Tigers
Lecture slide 28
  • South Korea
  • Emerged from Korean War (1950-3)
  • Disciplined, well-educated, low-wage workforce
  • 1987, democratic elections
  • Today, 12th largest exporter and GNP in the world
  • 48m people
  • Hong Kong
  • One million people left during World War II
  • After war, refugee entrepreneurs from mainland
    China, especially Shanghai
  • British government, Chinese entrepreneurship and
    labor
  • Per-capita GDP passed United Kingdoms in 1994
  • 6.1 million person city-state
  • Taiwan
  • Nationalist / Kuomintang (losing side in Chinese
    Civil War) government
  • 1987, relaxed martial law, started becoming
    democratic
  • 2000, worlds 14th-largest exporter (country of
    22m)
  • Singapore
  • City-state of 4m people, dominated by ethnic
    Chinese (77)
  • Very controlled society

29
China (Peoples Republic)
Lecture slide 29
  • Deng Xiaopings Reforms (1979-)
  • Adopted policies of Tigers
  • 1/5 of worlds population, GDP now 13 of world
    output (at purchasing-power parity)
  • By the end of 2004, will probably be the worlds
    3rd largest exporter (after U.S. and Germany)
  • Largest recipient of Foreign Direct Investment
    (FDI)
  • Produces 2/3 of worlds photocopiers, microwave
    ovens, DVD players, and shoes
  • Over ½ of all digital cameras and 2/5 of personal
    computers
  • Almost all toys
  • World economys emerging giants
  • India, Brazil, Russia
  • China has bigger GDP than the other 3 combined
  • China vs. India
  • India
  • More developed institutions, less corruption,
    established rule of law, protection of property
  • Over the past 20 years, average real GDP growth
    of 5.7
  • China
  • Adult illiteracy rate of 9 (India 39)
  • Personal savings rate 48 (India 24)
  • Over the past 20 years, average real GDP growth
    of 9.5

30
Asian Economic Model(s)
Lecture slide 30
  • NIEs Newly Industrializing Economies
  • Hong Kong, Singapore, South Korea, Taiwan
  • ASEAN-4 (Association of Southeast Asian Nations)
  • Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand

31
Review
Lecture slide 31
  • Physical Geography
  • One of the most volatile tectonic regions in the
    world
  • Frequent, large earthquakes and numerous
    volcanoes
  • Climate very dependent on Northern Pacific Ocean
  • Currents, typhoons
  • History
  • Two big cultural transfers
  • From China in 6th -7th Centuries
  • From West during Meiji Restoration
  • Only non-Western nation to join the ranks of the
    Great Powers during the Age of Industrial
    Imperialism
  • Militarism part of Japanese growth and expansion
  • Only country that has been the victim of nuclear
    attack
  • Hiroshima (August 6, 1945)
  • Nagasaki (August 9)
  • Asian Economic Miracle(s)
  • Foreign Policy
  • Bilateral treaties with the United States
  • Greater Asian distrust of Japanese after World
    War II
  • Politically conservative

32
Next Week
Lecture slide 32
  • For this week
  • Reading
  • Chapter 10 444-465, 470-2 'Ethnicity, Language,
    and Cultural Traditions,' 475-476 'Political
    Instability and Cooperation,' 478-9 'Opium'
  • Review
  • p. 489
  • Testing Your Understanding 7
  • Thinking Geographically 2
  • Map Workbook
  • p. 75 (use map Figure 10.3 on page 77). Mapping
    Exercise 1 Mapping the Overseas Chinese
    Population," Human-Environmental Geographies,"
    Questions 1-5. (You can ignore question 6).
  • Web Page
  • classes.maxwell.syr.edu/geo105_f04/class_notes/10-
    Review.htm
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