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Feed Additives for Swine

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Since 1960, FDA has regulated feed additive incorporation into animal diets ... Antibiotics/chemotherapeutics use may be severely restricted. Antibiotic resistance ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Feed Additives for Swine


1
Feed Additives for Swine
2
Feed Additives
  • By definition, these products do not supply
    nutrients
  • Not listed in feed composition tables
  • Since 1960, FDA has regulated feed additive
    incorporation into animal diets
  • Prevention of cancer in human/animal

3
Feed Additives
  • Include products intended to promote animal
    health
  • Prevention/treatment of disease
  • Growth promotion
  • Both

4
Feed Additives
  • Some additives can leave residues in the muscle
    tissues
  • Withdrawal times prior to slaughter
  • Must choose correct additive for stage of
    production

5
Feed Additives
  • Antibiotics/Chemotherapeutics
  • Probiotics
  • Organic acids
  • Pharmacological levels of minerals
  • Flavoring agents
  • Enzymes
  • Mold inhibitors

6
Antibiotics/Chemotherapeutics
  • Against life or destructive to life
  • Natural compound synthesized by living organisms
    or chemically synthesized compounds

7
Antibiotics/Chemotherapeutics
  • For over 50 years antibiotics and
    chemotherapeutics have been used in the animal
    feed industry
  • Approximately 80 of poultry and 75 of swine
    raised in U.S. are estimated to have been fed
    these at some point during production

8
Antibiotics/Chemotherapeutics
  • Used for approximately 50 years
  • Very affective in nursery diets (gt15 improvement
    in performance)
  • Moderate effect in grow-finish (0-5)
  • Little effect in sow diets unless a problem
  • Greatest effect in herds with poor management,
    health problems, etc
  • Used only where economical

9
Antibiotics/Chemotherapeutics
  • Sub-therapeutic low levels for long periods of
    time
  • growth enhancement
  • disease prevention
  • Therapeutic high levels for short periods of
    time
  • stop a disease/condition

10
Antibiotics/Chemotherapeutics
  • Huge concern over the development of
    antibiotic-resistant bacteria
  • New antibiotics can not be used in both humans
    and livestock
  • Europe allows few now, none in near future
  • Companies considering exiting business
  • FDA reluctant to approve new ones

11
Probiotics
  • Mixtures of living bacteria and/or yeasts
  • Increase population of good microbes to
    decrease population of bad microbes
  • Lactobacillus is most common
  • Have to be acid and bile tolerant to arrive
    viable in the small intestine
  • Extremely variable responses
  • Inclusion rate impacts response
  • Must introduce enough (gt106 CFU) bacteria to
    impact GIT population

12
Organic Acids
  • Mainly added in starter (nursery) diets
  • Suppose to lower stomach pH to
  • increase pepsin activity
  • decrease rate of stomach emptying
  • reduce proliferation of pathogens
  • Variable and economics are questionable
    considering response

13
Pharmacological levels of minerals
  • Usually Zn and Cu
  • Generally included in nursery diets
  • Inexpensive
  • Future use uncertain due to heavy mineral output
    in fecal material
  • Manure application high mineral in soils

14
Flavoring agents
  • Many nutritionists consider foo foo dust
  • Generally used in nursery diets
  • Theory is they increase diet palatability and
    acceptability
  • ? feed intake and ? gain

15
Enzymes
  • Beta-glucanase and arabinoxylanase improve
    digestion of barley/wheat diets
  • Hemicelluases/cellulases little impact on
    digestion
  • Phytases help with P utilization in corn based
    diets
  • Efficacy is an issue
  • Stomach cant differentiate between protein from
    feed and protein from enzymes

16
Mold inhibitors
  • Molds produce mycotoxins
  • Mycotoxins are what cause the problems
  • Mold inhibitors only stop future mold growth
    mycotoxin production
  • It does nothing to existing mycotoxins
  • Nothing commercially available to help with
    mycotoxins common in the upper Midwest

17
Future of Feed Additives
  • Antibiotics/chemotherapeutics use may be severely
    restricted
  • Antibiotic resistance
  • Anything with high mineral may be restricted
  • Soil/water pollution

18
Antibiotic Resistance
  • Use does NOT induce resistance
  • Use kills sensitive bacteria and selects for
    resistant bacteria
  • Selects for resistant bacteria that then
    participate in gene transfer to create strains
    with resistance to increased of
    antibiotics/chemotherapeutics

19
Future of Feed Additives
  • Nutraceuticals
  • Prebiotics
  • Probiotics
  • Immunomodulators
  • Bioactive peptides (proteins)
  • Change management systems
  • Biosecurity
  • Low protein diets
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