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Canine infectious diseases: board review 2004

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Botulism. Etiology: Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin contaminates food/dead animals ... Botulism. Diagnosis: History and signs ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Canine infectious diseases: board review 2004


1
Canine infectious diseasesboard review 2004
  • Olivier Toulza, DVM

2
Bacterial diseases
  • Actinomycosis Nocardiosis
  • Borreliosis
  • Botulism
  • Brucellosis
  • Campylobacteriosis
  • Clostridial disease
  • Leptospirosis
  • L-form bacteria
  • Mycobacterial infections
  • Plague
  • Salmonellosi
  • Streptococcal infection
  • Tetanus
  • Tularemia
  • Yersiniosis

3
Actinomycosis
  • Etiology
  • Actinomyces sp.
  • Normal flora in oropharynx ? wound infection
    (grass, bite)
  • Gram , anaerobic, non acid-fast, filamentous
    bacteria
  • Clinical signs
  • Fever, lymphadenopathy, abscesses
  • Usually localized to one tissue site (head,
    pleural space, abdomen)
  • Diagnosis
  • "sulfur granules" in pus (bacteria)
  • Culture is difficult but necessary for Dx
  • Treatment
  • Drain abscess
  • Penicillin 1st choice
  • Prognosis good w/adequate Rx

4
Nocardiosis
  • Etiology
  • Nocardia asteroides
  • Soil saprophyte ? opportunistic infection
    (inhalation, wound)
  • Gram , aerobic, acid-fast, filamentous bacteria
  • Clinical signs several presentations
  • SQ wound, fever, abscess (mycetoma)
  • Body cavity thoracic or abdominal (effusion)
  • Disseminated lungSQliverkidneyCNSbone
  • Diagnosis
  • Bacteria in pus
  • Culture
  • Treatment
  • Drain abscess
  • Sulfonamides 1st choice
  • Prognosis fair if localized, poor if disseminated

5
Borreliosis
  • Etiology
  • Borrelia burgdorferi ? Lyme disease
  • Spirochete bacteria
  • Transmission by Ixodes ticks (meal gt12-24h)
  • Rare transmission dog to human or dog to dog
  • Clinical signs
  • 2-5 months after infection episodic signs
  • Due to hosts inflammatory response
  • Lameness, painful swollen joints, /- fever
  • Glomerulonephritis, ARF (worse in Labs
    Goldens?)
  • Other seizures, heart block, behavior change

6
Borreliosis
  • Diagnosis
  • Normal CBC, Chem, UA, ANA, RF
  • Joint fluid ? cells (gt95Neutr), ? protein
  • Serology
  • ELISA detects IgG ( 4-6 wks after infection)
  • Western blot differentiates vaccinal (Osp A) vs
    infectious titer

7
Borreliosis
  • Treatment
  • Amoxicillin or Doxycycline for 4 weeks
  • Better w/in 24-48h
  • Does not prevent recurrences
  • Use anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs or steroids)
  • Prognosis good, but relapses
  • Prevention
  • Tick control
  • Vaccines
  • Bacterin containing killed B. burgdorferi
    (controversial)
  • recombinant Osp A

8
Botulism
  • Etiology
  • Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin contaminates
    food/dead animals
  • Saprophytic, ubiquitous, spore forming
  • Gram , anaerobic rod
  • Pathogenesis
  • toxin blocks release of Ach
  • Incubation hrs to 6 days
  • Clinical signs
  • LMN rear to front, CN affected, /- respiratory
    paralysis
  • paraS dysfunction mydriasis, drooling

9
Botulism
  • Diagnosis
  • History and signs
  • EMG subnormal amplitude of evoked motor
    potentials, no denervation potentials
  • Treatment
  • Supportive care
  • Antitoxin only effective before toxin enters
    cells
  • Prognosis fair if no respiratory paralysis

10
Tetanus
  • Etiology
  • Clostridium tetani ? Vegetative form ? toxin
  • Gram , anaerobic, spore forming, in soil
  • Produces neurotoxin under anaerobic conditions
  • Pathogenesis
  • Toxin migrates via peripheral nerves to spinal
    cord
  • Blocks release of GABA Glycine from inhibitory
    interneurons (Renshaw cells)
  • Clinical signs localized or generalized
  • Trismus (lockjaw), pain, stiffness, erect
    ears/tail
  • CN affected
  • Death from respiratory failure

11
Tetanus
  • Diagnosis
  • Wound signs
  • Treatment
  • Drain wound
  • Penicillin Metronidazole
  • Equine tetanus antitoxin (caution anaphylaxis)
  • Supportive care
  • Prognosis
  • good if mild/moderate dz (recovery takes weeks)
  • guarded if respiratory involvement

12
Brucellosis
  • Etiology
  • Brucella canis
  • Not in cats, but ZOONOSIS
  • Gram -, aerobic, intracellular coccobacillus
  • Pathogenesis infected secretions on mucous
    membranes
  • Clinical signs
  • Repro disorders infertility, orchitis, abortion
    (45-60d)
  • Lymphadenopathy, fever, lameness,
    discospondylitis
  • Diagnosis
  • Chem hyperglobulinemia
  • Serology
  • Rapid slide agglutination test (RSAT) best
    test, but false
  • Tube agglutination test for confirmation
  • Agar-gel immunodiffusion very sensitive, for
    confirmation
  • Culture (blood, secretions, tissue) easy but long

13
Brucellosis
  • Treatment
  • Difficult (intracellular organism)
  • Minocycline dihydrostreptomycin
  • Prognosis guarded for cure
  • Prevention stop breeding infected animals

14
Campylobacteriosis
  • Etiology
  • Campylobacter jejuni
  • In normal dog cat feces ZOONOSIS
  • Gram -, curved bacillus
  • Clinical signs rare
  • Acute diarrhea /- vomiting gtgtgt chronic
  • Diagnosis
  • Stained fecal smear
  • Fecal culture
  • Treatment erythromycin
  • Prognosis excellent unless septicemia

15
Clostridial disease
  • Etiology
  • Clostridium perfringens difficile toxigenic
  • In normal dog cat feces
  • Gram , anaerobic, spore forming, bacilli
  • Clinical signs
  • Acute hemorrhagic diarrhea gtgtgt chronic
  • Diagnosis
  • C. perfringens culture, enterotoxin in feces
  • C. difficile cytotoxin in feces
  • Treatment
  • C. perfringens Ampi/Amoxicillin, Metronidazole,
    Tylosin high fiber diet
  • C. difficile Metronidazole
  • Prognosis good unless severe disease

16
Leptospirosis
  • Etiology
  • Leptospira interrogans ZOONOSIS
  • Several serovars (canicola, icterohaemorrhagiae)
  • Spirochete bacteria
  • Pathogenesis
  • Transmission contact w/infected animal or
    environment (urine)
  • Penetration through mucous membranes
  • Clinical signs variable
  • Fever, anorexia, vomiting, petechiae, cough
  • ARF (canicola, grippo) or hepatitis (ictero,
    pomona)
  • Diagnosis
  • CBC, Chem, UA with signs of inflammation liver
    and/or renal dz
  • Serology
  • microscopic agglutination test standard
  • convalescent titers (fourfold increase)
  • Organism identification (dark-field microscopy)
    difficult
  • Culture difficult

17
Leptospirosis
  • Treatment
  • Supportive care ARF, DIC
  • Penicillin 1st to stop leptospiremia
  • Tetracycline to eliminate carrier state
  • Doxycyline does both
  • Prognosis depends on severity
  • Prevention
  • Vaccine bacterins for canicola ictero
  • 4-way Lepto vaccine canicola, ictero, pomona,
    grippo

18
Mycobacterial infections
  • Tuberculous infection
  • Etiology
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. avium
  • Acid-fast organisms
  • Clinical signs
  • Fever, cough, weight loss, V/D, lymphadenopathy,
    dysphagia
  • Diagnosis
  • Granulomas in respiratory tract (dogs), or GI
    (cats), or LN
  • Biopsy or culture of infected tissue
  • Treatment
  • Euthanasia due to poor prognosis and ZOONOSIS
  • Isoniazid rifampin ethambutol for 6-9 months

19
Mycobacterial infections
  • Nontuberculous infection
  • Etiology
  • Mycobacterium lepraemurium (feline leprosy)
    rodent bite
  • Atypical mycobacteria wound contamination
  • Clinical signs cutaneous SC nodules
  • Diagnosis
  • Biopsy acid-fast organisms
  • Culture is difficult
  • Treatment
  • Surgical excision of nodules
  • Dapsone or Rifampin

20
Plague
  • Etiology
  • Yersinia pestis
  • Wild rodents reservoir
  • Transmission flea bite or ingestion of rodent
  • Zoonosis flea, bite/scratch from infected animal
  • Clinical signs
  • mild lymphadenopathy in dogs
  • septicemia in cats
  • Treatment
  • sulfonamides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol
  • Prognosis guarded in cats

21
Salmonellosis
  • Etiology
  • Salmonella spp.
  • In normal dog cat feces ? fecal/oral
    transmission ZOONOSIS
  • Gram - bacilli
  • Pathogenesis
  • invade multiply in intestinal mucosa (distal
    small bowel, colon)
  • Clinical signs
  • Fever, diarrhea (dog), vomiting, weight loss /-
    septicemia
  • Asymptomatic carriers
  • Diagnosis
  • Culture fecal or blood
  • Treatment
  • if GI only supportive care /- ABs (resistance,
    carrier)
  • if septicemia Ampicillin, Enrofloxacin, TMS,
    Cephalosporin
  • Prognosis good unless septicemia

22
Streptococcal infection
  • Etiology
  • Streptococcus spp.
  • Gram , facultative anaerobic, cocci
  • Nonhemolytic strep normal flora
  • ß-hemolytic strep pathogenic
  • Clinical signs
  • Fever, UTI, lymphadenopathy, cough, dyspnea,
    endocarditis, discospondylitis
  • Diagnosis culture
  • Treatment
  • Penicillin, Cephalosporin
  • Ampi or TMS if ß-hemolytic strep UTI
  • ZOONOSIS
  • group A Strep (S. pyrogenes) from human to animal

23
Tularemia
  • Etiology
  • Francisella tularensis
  • Gram - bacillus
  • Reservoir rabbits wild rodents
  • Transmission
  • bug bites ingestion of infected meat
  • ZOONOSIS cat scratch or bite
  • Clinical signs
  • Fever, cough, dyspnea, lymphadenopathy, icterus
  • Diagnosis
  • Serology
  • Culture
  • Treatment aminoglycosides

24
Yersiniosis
  • Etiology
  • Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in cats
  • Y. enterocolitica in humans gtgtgt dog cat
  • Gram - bacilli
  • Clinical signs
  • Y. pseudotuberculosis diarrhea, weight loss,
    vomiting, fever, icterus
  • Y. enterocolitica bloody mucoid diarrhea
  • Diagnosis
  • Y. pseudotuberculosis biopsy and tissue culture
  • Y. enterocolitica fecal culture
  • Treatment TMS, tetracycline, chloramphenicol
  • Prognosis
  • good if enterocolitica, guarded if pseudotub.

25
Fungal diseases
  • Aspergillosis
  • Blastomycosis
  • Coccidioidomycosis
  • Cryptococcosis
  • Histoplasmosis
  • Phycomycosis
  • Protothecosis
  • Sporotrichosis

26
Aspergillosis
  • Etiology
  • Aspergillus fumigatus
  • Saprophytic fungus ? inhalation
  • Infection facilitated by underlying dz, trauma
  • Clinical signs
  • Nasal infection chronic rhinitis uni then
    bilateral
  • Disseminated dz fever, weight loss, back pain,
    neuro problems
  • Diagnosis
  • CBC, Chem, UA ? ALP, ? TP
  • Cytology Fungal culture
  • Serology only to support Dx (not alone)
  • Radiographs
  • Nasal turbinate lysis (seen with rhinoscopy)
  • Disseminated dz diffuse interstitial lung
    pattern, /- bony lysis of limb
  • Treatment
  • Nasal intranasal infusion of clotrimazole or
    enilconazole ? fair prognosis
  • Disseminated dz itraconazole but difficult ?
    poor prognosis

27
Blastomycosis
  • Etiology
  • Blastomyces dermatitidis
  • Saprophytic fungus ? inhalation by young, large
    breed male dogs
  • Mississippi River Valley possible ZOONOSIS
  • Clinical signs
  • Pulmonary fever, chronic cough, weight loss
  • Cutaneous draining tracts, lymphadenopathy
  • Disseminated bone, eyes, LN, testes, CNS
  • Diagnosis
  • Non regenerative anemia, stress leukogram, incr.
    Glob.
  • Cytology optimal method of Dx Fungal culture
  • Serology Agar gel immunodiffusion to support Dx
    (not alone)
  • Rads lung nodules, bone lesions (lysis
    proliferation)
  • Treatment Amphotericin B, Itraconazole,
    Ketoconazole
  • Prognosis fair unless CNS 20 recurrence

28
Coccidioidomycosis
  • Etiology
  • Coccidioides immitis
  • Saprophytic fungus ? inhalation
  • Semi-arid areas (AZ), young large breed dogs not
    zoonotic
  • Clinical signs
  • Pulmonary fever, cough, weight loss
  • Cutaneous draining tracts, lymphadenopathy
  • Disseminated bone, eyes, LN, CNS
  • Diagnosis
  • CBC, Chem same as Blasto
  • Cytology optimal method of Dx Fungal culture
  • Serology to support Dx
  • Rads interstitial lung pattern,
    osteoproliferation
  • Treatment ketoconazole, itraconazole
  • Prognosis poor if disseminated, fair if pulmonary

29
Cryptococcosis
  • Etiology
  • Cryptococcus neoformans
  • Saprophytic, yeast-like fungus (bird droppings) ?
    inhalation
  • Cats gtgtgt dogs
  • Clinical signs
  • Cutaneous draining tracts, lymphadenopathy
  • Nasal chronic discharge, /- mass
  • Disseminated eyes, CNS, fever, weight loss
  • Diagnosis
  • CBC, Chem same as Blasto
  • Cytology on pus or CSF optimal method of Dx
    Fungal culture
  • Serology only to support Dx
  • Rads turbinates lysis /- soft tissue density in
    sinuses
  • Treatment antifungals, but not very effective in
    dogs
  • Prognosis fair to good in cats, poor in dogs
    w/CNS dz

30
Histoplasmosis
  • Etiology
  • Histoplasma capsulatum
  • Saprophytic fungus (bird/bat droppings) ?
    inhalation
  • Mississippi Ohio River Valleys possible
    ZOONOSIS
  • Clinical signs
  • GI dz (dogs) fever, V/D, weight loss
  • Disseminated dz (cats) bone, LN, eyes, lungs
  • Diagnosis
  • Panhypoproteinemia, ? liver enz
  • Cytology optimal method of Dx Fungal culture
  • Serology only to support Dx
  • Rads lung nodules, lymphadenopathy, GI wall
    thickening
  • Treatment antifungals
  • Prognosis fair if not severe dz

31
Phycomycosis
  • Etiology
  • Pythium insidiosum
  • Aquatic organisms
  • Clinical signs
  • GI (dogs) granulomatous lesions
  • Cutaneous draining tracts
  • Diagnosis
  • Biopsy eosinophilic infiltrates
  • Cytology Fungal culture
  • Treatment
  • Surgical excision of lesion ketoconazole
  • Prognosis no cure

32
Protothecosis
  • Etiology
  • Prototheca zopfii wickerhamii
  • Saprophyte algae, worldwide
  • Worse in Collies Dogs gtgtgt cats
  • Clinical signs
  • GI large bowel diarrhea
  • Eyes, weight loss, cutaneous lesions
  • Diagnosis
  • Colonic scraping or biopsy
  • Treatment amphotericin B
  • Prognosis guarded

33
Sporotrichosis
  • Etiology
  • Sporothrix schenckii
  • Soil saprophyte ? wound contamination ZOONOSIS
  • Rare disseminated dz
  • Clinical signs
  • Ulcerated skin nodules, lymphadenopathy
  • Diagnosis
  • Cytology
  • Culture of biopsy
  • Treatment
  • Ketoconazole, itraconazole, iodides
  • Prognosis good if localized, guarded if
    disseminated

34
Parasitic diseases
  • Amebiasis
  • Babesiosis
  • Coccidiosis
  • Giardiasis
  • Hepatozoonosis
  • Leishmaniasis
  • Neosporosis
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Trypanosomiasis

35
Amebiasis
  • Etiology
  • Entamoeba histolytica
  • Transmission trophozoites or cysts in water
  • Rare in dogs cats affects humans
  • Clinical signs
  • Bloody, mucoid diarrhea
  • Diagnosis
  • Fecal smear or floatation
  • Treatment metronidazole or furazolidone

36
Babesiosis
  • Etiology
  • Babesia canis B. gibsoni
  • Intracellular erythrocytic parasite
  • Vector Rhipicephalus tick
  • Clinical signs
  • Peracute (rare) shock, sudden death
  • Acute (common) intravascular hemolysis
  • Chronic (rare) fever, weight loss, inappetence
  • Diagnosis
  • Regenerative anemia, leukocytosis,
    thrombocytopenia, icterus
  • Blood smear parasite inside RBCs
  • Coombs test can be positive
  • Serology (IFA) to detect occult infection
  • Treatment Imidocarb supportive care
  • Prognosis depends on severity

37
Coccidiosis
  • Etiology
  • Cytoisospora spp. in puppies kittens
  • Cryptosporidia spp. in neonates
    immunosuppressed
  • Transmission ingestion of oocysts
  • Clinical signs none to bloody diarrhea
  • Diagnosis
  • Fecal float for Cytoisospora
  • Intestinal biopsies for Cryptosporidia
  • Treatment
  • Sulfa drugs as coccidiostatic for Cytoisospora
  • Clindamycin or Tylosin for Cryptosporidia (not
    effective)
  • Prognosis
  • good for Cytoisospora
  • guarded for Cryptosporidia - ZOONOSIS

38
Giardiasis
  • Etiology
  • Giardia intestinalis
  • Transmission ingestion of cysts (food or
    water) Zoonosis???
  • Causes malassimilation
  • Clinical signs
  • Diarrhea mild to severe, /- steatorrhea, /-
    large bowel diarrhea
  • Weight loss
  • Diagnosis
  • Fecal floatation (Zn sulfate) or wet mount
  • Giardia ELISA in feces
  • Treatment
  • Metronidazole, Fenbendazole, Quinacrine,
    Furazolidone
  • Clean kennel quaternary ammonia compound
  • Prognosis good to fair

39
Hepatozoonosis
  • Etiology
  • Hepatozoon canis
  • Intracellular parasite in various tissues
  • Coast of Texas
  • Transmission ingestion of infected tick
    (Rhipicephalus sanguineous)
  • Clinical signs
  • Wax wane
  • Fever, weight loss, pain, cough, diarrhea
  • Diagnosis
  • CBC, Chem, UA non specific inflammation
  • Cytology or biopsy (muscle) for definitive Dx
  • Treatment
  • No cure
  • Symptomatic Rx NSAIDs, TMS Pyrimethamine
    Clindamycin

40
Leishmaniasis
  • Etiology
  • Leishmania donovani or infantum or chagasi
  • Vectors sandflies (Phlebotomus, Lutzomyia)
  • Hosts dogs, rodents ZOONOSIS
  • Clinical signs
  • Skin lesions, lymphadenopathy, weight loss, joint
    pain, petechiae, lethargy
  • Diagnosis
  • Anemia, hyperglobulinemia, azotemia, proteinuria
  • Cytology (LN, BM, spleen) for definitive Dx
  • Serology to support Dx
  • Treatment
  • Meglumine antimoniate or Allopurinol
  • Prognosis poor if renal failure

41
Neosporosis
  • Etiology
  • Neospora caninum
  • Transmission ingestion of tachyzoites tissue
    cysts (meat), transplacental
  • Clinical signs ascending LMN paralysis
  • Diagnosis
  • Serology fourfold increase in titer
  • Biopsy immunochemical staining
  • Treatment TMS, Clindamycin but not effective
  • Prognosis grave

42
Toxoplasmosis
  • Etiology
  • Toxoplasma gondii
  • Obligate intracellular protozoan
  • Definitive host cat
  • Transmission ingestion of oocysts ZOONOSIS
  • Life cycle
  • Enteroepithelial cycle only in cats ? cysts
  • Extraintestinal cycle ? tissue cysts (CNS,
    muscle, viscera)
  • Clinical signs usually asymptomatic
  • Dogs acute fever, V/D, lymphadenopathy, myalgia
    CNS dz
  • Diagnosis
  • CSF ? prot., ? lymphocytes
  • Serology (IFA) IgM (acute dz), IgG (paired
    titers)
  • Biopsy
  • Treatment Clindamycin, TMS, Pyrimethamine,
    folinic acid
  • Prognosis fair unless CNS

43
Trypanosomiasis
  • Etiology
  • Trypanosoma cruzi (dog), brucei (cat)
  • Vector Reduviidae (blood-sucking insects)
  • Transmission
  • insect defecates on wound or ingestion of insect
  • Clinical signs
  • Acute anorexia, lymphadenopathy, R-sided heart
    failure
  • Chronic cardiomyopathy (dilated)
  • Diagnosis
  • Cytology blood, LN
  • Cardiac evaluation (rads, ECG, echo)
  • Treatment no available in US
  • ZOONOSIS (via insect)

44
Rickettsial diseases
  • Ehrlichiosis
  • Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Salmon poisoning (rickettsial enteritis)

45
Ehrlichiosis
  • Etiology
  • Ehrlichia canis monocytes
  • Ehrlichia platys cyclic thrombocytopenia
  • Ehrlichia equi neutrophils
  • Ehrlichia risticii monocytes
  • New terminology
  • E. equi Anaplasma phagocytophila
  • E. platys Anaplasma platys
  • E. risticii Neorickettsia risticii

46
Ehrlichia canis
  • Transmission Rhipicephalus sanguineous
  • Clinical signs
  • Acute fever, weight loss, epistaxis, lameness,
    CNS signs
  • Chronic anemia, ocular lesions, CNS signs
  • Diagnosis
  • CBC thrombocytopenia to pancytopenia
  • Chem hyperglobulinemia, incr. liver enzymes
  • CSF incr. lymphocytes if neuro signs
  • Joint tap polyarthritis
  • Serology (IFA) or Cytology for definitive Dx

47
Ehrlichia canis
  • Treatment
  • Doxycycline, tetracycline, chloramphenicol
  • Supportive care (/- transfusions)
  • Prognosis
  • Good if acute and adequate Rx
  • Guarded if chronic

48
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
  • Etiology
  • Rickettsia rickettsii
  • Reservoir rabbits and rodents
  • Transmission tick bite (Dermacentor) spring
    summer
  • Clinical signs
  • Vasculitis petechiae, ecchymoses
  • Fever, lethargy, anorexia, V/D, lymphadenopathy,
    joint pain, eyes, CNS
  • Diagnosis
  • Thrombocytopenia
  • CSF normal to ? Neutr.
  • Serology or biopsy to confirm Dx
  • Treatment doxycycline, tetracycline,
    chloramphenicol
  • Prognosis good w/early Rx

49
Salmon poisoning(rickettsial enteritis)
  • Etiology
  • Neorickettsia helmintheca or elokominica
  • Transmission ingestion of fish infected by fluke
    (Nanophyetus salmincola) infected by
    Neorickettsia
  • Pacific Northwest (intermediate host snail)
  • Clinical signs
  • Hemorrhagic diarrhea, vomiting, fever
  • Diagnosis
  • Fecal float (fluke ova) or LN aspirate
    (rickettsia)
  • Treatment
  • Doxycycline, tetracycline, TMS, chloramphenicol
  • Fenbendazole or praziquantel
  • Prognosis poor w/out Rx

50
Viral diseases
  • Distemper
  • Infectious hepatitis
  • Herpesvirus infection
  • Parvovirus infection
  • Coronaviral enteritis
  • Pseudorabies
  • Rabies
  • Infectious tracheobronchitis

51
Distemper
  • Etiology
  • Canine Distemper Virus
  • Morbillivirus (Paramyxoviridae family) RNA virus
  • Transmission inhalation
  • Clinical signs
  • Systemic signs anorexia, nasal/ocular discharge,
    V/D, cough, fever, skin rash
  • Neurologic signs
  • Acute dz seizures (partial or generalized),
    myoclonus
  • Subacute dz myoclonus 1-3 wks after systemic
    signs
  • Chronic dzmultifocal encephalitis (young or old
    dogs)

52
Distemper
  • Diagnosis
  • CBC lymphopenia, inclusion in lymphocytes
  • CSF ? prot cells anti-CDV antibody in CSF
  • Serology IFA on cytology (conj., resp.
    epithelium, buffy coat)
  • Treatment none, except for supportive care
  • Prognosis fair if mild dz grave if progressive
    neuro signs
  • Prevention vaccine (start at 6-8 wks old)

53
Infectious hepatitis
  • Etiology
  • Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1)
  • Transmission oronasal route
  • Rare dz
  • Clinical signs
  • Anorexia, fever, lymphadenopathy, V/D, ascites,
    petechiae
  • Corneal edema during recovery period
  • Diagnosis
  • CBC, Chem neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, ? ALT
  • Serology fourfold increase in titer confirms Dx
  • Treatment supportive care only
  • Prognosis good if mild dz poor if severe dz
  • Prevention vaccine (uses CAV-2)

54
Herpesvirus infection
  • Etiology
  • Herpesvirus
  • Transmission oronasal route, venereal,
    transplacental
  • Clinical signs
  • Puppies
  • dead/mummified, premature or weak, /- cerebellar
    signs
  • 1-3 wk-old fatal
  • 3-5 wks mild upper resp. infection
  • Adults infertility, abortion, vaginitis,
    balanoposthitis
  • Diagnosis
  • Virus isolation
  • Epithelial swab intranuclear inclusion bodies
  • Serology
  • Treatment supportive care
  • Prognosis grave for neonates chronic infection
    in adults
  • Prevention vaccine (not given routinely)

55
Parvovirus infection
  • Etiology
  • Canine Parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2)
  • DNA virus, very resistant
  • CPV-1 cause of fading pups (5-21 day-old)
  • Transmission fecal-oral, highly contagious
  • Affects rapidly dividing cells (intestinal
    crypts, BM, LN)
  • Clinical signs
  • More severe in Rotties Dobies
  • gt 6wk-old V/D (blood), anorexia, lethargy
  • lt 4-6 wk-old dyspnea, sudden death (myocarditis)
  • Diagnosis
  • Leukopenia
  • Fecal Parvovirus ELISA test
  • Treatment isolation for 2-3 wks!
  • Supportive care (fluids, ABs, plasma,
    anti-emetics)
  • Prognosis good but risk of sepsis w/out Rx
  • Prevention vaccine (start at 6-8wks)

56
Coronaviral enteritis
  • Etiology
  • Canine Coronavirus
  • RNA virus, resistant
  • Pathogenesis attacks mature GI cells
  • Clinical signs V/D (less severe than Parvo)
  • Diagnosis difficult (electron microscopy)
  • Treatment supportive care
  • Prognosis good
  • Prevention vaccine for high-risk dogs

57
Pseudorabies
  • Etiology
  • Herpesvirus (from swine) Aujeszkys dz mad
    itch
  • DNA virus, resistant
  • Transmission ingestion of infected meat (raw
    pork)
  • Clinical signs
  • Behavior change, intense pruritus, seizures
  • Death within 48hrs
  • Diagnosis
  • Difficult (virus isolation, brain histopath, sero
    on pigs)
  • Treatment none
  • Prognosis grave

58
Rabies
  • Etiology
  • Lyssavirus (Rhadoviridae family)
  • RNA virus, very labile
  • Reservoir bats, skiunks, raccoons, foxes
  • Transmission contact between saliva wound
  • Pathogenesis
  • incubation 3 to 24 wks (depends on site of bite)
  • virus travels to CNS along nerve fibers
  • Clinical signs death within 10 days
  • Prodromal phase (2-3d) behavior change
  • Excitative/Furious phase (1-7d) drooling,
    dysphagia, aggression, roaming, seizures
  • Paralytic phase rapid paralysis ? death from
    resp. arrest
  • Diagnosis postmortem
  • Biopsy skin (sensory vibrissae), brain

59
Rabies
  • Treatment none ? grave prognosis
  • Prevention vaccine (inactivated virus)
  • ZOONOSIS
  • wear gloves mask
  • pre-exposure vaccines for high-risk individuals
  • if human is bitten by suspect animal
  • neurologic animal euthanasia and test brain
  • healthy dog (owned) isolation for 10 days
  • healthy dog (not owned) euthanasia and test
    brain
  • report case to public health authorities
  • post-exposure vaccines for any exposed human

60
Infectious tracheobronchitiskennel cough
  • Etiology
  • Viruses
  • CPiV (Canine Parainfluenza Virus
    Paramyxoviridae)
  • CAV-2 (infectious laryngotracheitis virus)
  • CAV-1 (infectious hepatitis virus)
  • Canine Herpesvirus
  • Bacteria
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica (Gram-)
  • Streptococcus (Gram)
  • Pasteurella (Gram-)
  • Pseudomonas (Gram-)
  • Coliform bacteria (Gram-)
  • Mycoplasma (no cell wall)

61
Infectious tracheobronchitis
  • Clinical signs
  • Cough /- rhinitis /- pneumonia
  • Diagnosis
  • Hx (contagious) and signs
  • Chest radiographs
  • Bacterial culture and virus isolation
  • Serology
  • Treatment symptomatic
  • ABs Doxycycline, Clavamox, TMS
  • /- Antitussives
  • /- Bronchodilators
  • Prognosis fair
  • Prevention vaccines (intranasal for CPiV,
    Bordetella)
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