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Essential Food Elements

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2) To know the function, source, structure of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat ... Traditional food consists mainly of carbohydrate like rice, wheat, corn, honey, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Essential Food Elements


1
Essential Food Elements
  • By
  • Dr Hamda Qotba, B.Med.Sc, M.D, ABCM

2
Objectives
  • 1) Introduction of important terminology
  • 2) To know the function, source, structure of
    carbohydrates, proteins, and fat
  • 3) Side effects of excess and insufficient intake
    of EFE

3
Terminology you have to know
  • Nutrition
  • Process by which living organism receives
    material and uses them to promote its vital
    activities
  • Nutrient
  • Any substance which is digested and absorbed to
    promote body function

4
  • Diet
  • Selection of food which is normally eaten by
    person or population
  • Food
  • Substance when eaten , digested, absorbed provide
    at least one nutrient

5
  • Balanced diet
  • Diet that provide adequate amount of all
    nutrients
  • Malnutrition
  • Caused by incorrect amount of nutrient intake
  • Nutritional status
  • Health status that produced by balanced between
    requirements and intake

6
  • Nutritional assessment
  • Measurement of nutritional status by
    anthropometrics , biochemical data, dietary
    history
  • Dietitian
  • Persons who applies science of nutrition to
    people in health and disease

7
  • Metabolism
  • Changes taking place in the body as result of
    body activity
  • Anabolism
  • Complex molecules are synthesized from simpler
    ones
  • Catabolism
  • Complex molecules are broken to simpler ones

8
Carbohydrates
  • Starch , sugar
  • Broken in the body to produce heat and energy
  • Oxidation of carbohydrate in the body produce CO2
    and H2O
  • 1g ----? 16 kj (4kcal)

9
Structure
  • Monosaccharides
  • Glucose , fructose and galactose
  • Disaccharides
  • Sucrose , lactose and maltose
  • Polysaccharides
  • Amylose straight chain of 70-350 glucose
  • Amylopectin branched chain of 100000 glucose

10
Sources of carbohydrates
  • Glucose ------? fruits
  • fructose ------? honey
  • sucrose ------? beet, cane
  • lactose -------? milk
  • Galactose ----? digestion of lactose
  • maltose ------? sprouting grains
  • starch ------? grains, unripe ftveg.
  • Glycogen----? liver, muscles
  • Cellulose ------? cereals, veg.,
  • cell wall as
    fiber

11
Properties uses
  • Sweetness differs fructose ? lactose
  • Glucose ---? added for food when high energy
    required
  • Fructose ---? sweetener in diabetes
  • Sucrose --? sweetener preservative
  • Glucose syrup ----? jam

12
Digestion Absorption
  • Starch pancreatic amylase maltotriose
  • Disaccharidases sucrose, maltose, lactose
    monosaccharide
  • carbohydrate are absorbed in the single form
  • Absorbed by intestinal villi then travel by blood
    stream to the liver through the portal vein

13
Utilization
  1. Used as fuel to produce energy for cell activity
  2. Glycogen (glucose, galactose, fructose) is
    synthesized in liver and muscle and its used for
    muscular work
  3. Converted into fat when liver and muscle are full
    with glycogen

14
Blood sugar level Hormonal control
  • 65-180 mg/dl
  • Insulin ß pancreatic cell assessing passage of
    glucose to cell
  • Adrenaline adrenal medulla glucose from the break
    down of glycogen in liver

15
  • Glucagon ? pancreatic cell glucose from the break
    down of glycogen in liver
  • Growth hormone pituitary gland antagonize insulin

16
Intake
  • Traditional food consists mainly of carbohydrate
    like rice, wheat, corn, honey, jam, fruits and
    veg.
  • Excess intake obesity
  • lack intake ketosis
  • lack intake depletion of body
    tissue

17
Fat
  • Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen
  • Glycerol 3 fatty acid ?triglyceride
  • Fatty acid e.g stearic, palmitic, oleic
  • Saturated single bond, stable
  • Unsaturated double bond, less stable
  • Bond converted from double Unsaturated to single
    Saturatedhydrogenation

18
Hydrogenation
  • Change chemical and physical -gtharder, raise
    melting point
  • Saturated single bond (palmitic,
    steariclard )
  • Monosaturated 1double bond (oleicolive)
  • Polyunsaturated gt 1double bond (linoleiccorn)

More hydrogen is introduced chemically
19
Rancidity Solubility
  • In dairy product is due to liberation of free
    fatty acid as a result of hydrolysis of
    triglyceride by bacteria.
  • Non dairy product exposure to O2 cause oxidation
  • Emulsion suspension of minute particle

20
Sources
  • Animal
  • high in cholesterol
    (fat, butter, egg, milk)
  • Vegetable
  • plant sterols that are poorly absorbed by man,
    not cholesterol (olive , cotton, corn)

21
Digestion
  • In the duodenum
  • fat pancreatic lipase f.f.acidmonoglyceride
  • Enter mucosal cell to form triglycerides, combine
    with protein and cholesterol to form lipoprotein
  • The remainder are absorbed into portal
    circulation as fatty acid and glycerol

22
Function
  • Provide energy 37kj -gt 9kcal/g
  • Incorporation into body structure brain and
    nervous system
  • Protection cover vital organs
  • Insulation prevent heat loss from the body
  • Satiety
  • Fat soluble vitamins ADEK

23
Stores intake
  • Under skin, around abdominal organs
  • Theres no definite amount of fat is known to
    maintain health
  • Food as fat source
  • High fat sources gt10
  • Moderate fat sources 3-10
  • Poor fat sources lt2

24
Essential fatty acid
  • They are polyunsaturated fatty acid needed for
    the body (linoliec, linolenic, arachinodic)
  • Deficiency due to malabsorption or prolonged IV
    intake
  • Vit. E important in preserving there chemical
    structure

25
  • Cholesterol
  • synthesized in the liver, attach it self to
    lipoprotein to be able to transfer in the body
  • LDL bad cholesterol (lt160mg/ml)
  • HDL good cholesterol (gt40mg/ml)

26
  • Phospholipid
  • Fatty material, integral part of the body (brain,
    nervous system)
  • Present in blood plasma
  • Lipoprotein
  • Plasma protein in which fat combine with them to
    be in the soluble form in the plasma

27
Proteins
  • Principle constituent of the cell
  • Composed of amino acid
  • Animal synthesis protein from A.A but not vice
    versa
  • Plant synthesis A.A from CO2, H2O, Nitrogen
  • Protein is the only source of nitrogen in the
    body

28
  • By shape fibrous, globular
  • Protein in food like
  • myosin? meat
  • Albumin, vitellin? egg
  • Casein? milk
  • gluten? wheat

29
Essential Amino Acid
  • A.A that the body are unable to make or make in
    insufficient amount
  • Histidine lysine methionine
  • Valine leucine isoleucine
  • Tryptophan phenylalanine threonine

30
  • Biological value Protein food that contain all
    A.A in the proportion needed for man is said to
    be high biological value (egg, human milk)
  • Limiting A.A essential A.A that food lack
  • wheat lysine
  • soya beans methionine
  • maize trypyophan
  • This problem can be overcome by eating food that
    contains needed A.A

31
Function
  • Replace protein loss (wear tear )
  • Produce new tissue (growth, pregnancy)
  • Manufacture o new protein (enzyme)
  • Source of energy

32
Nitrogen balance
  • 6g protein? 1g nitrogen
  • To be in nitrogen balance intakeoutput
  • Normal lose 14g
  • ve nitrogen balance intake gtloss (growth)
  • -ve nitrogen balance intake lt loss (burns)

33
Digestion, absorption excretion
  • Stomach proteolytic enzyme large polypeptides
  • Duodenum pancreatic enzyme peptidesA.A
  • peptidesA.A enter the intestinal cell
  • Build structural proteins
  • Converted to other A.A
  • Produce energy

Excreted by kidney in the form of urea
34
Intake
  • If Insufficient impair healing increase
    infection
  • Deficiency may arise as a result of
  • If energy requirement increase
  • Burn , fracture, injuries
  • Failure to utilize protein
  • Excessive loss

35
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
  • Kwashiorkor
  • lack of protein, other energy sources
  • Result in growth retardation, infection, slow
    recovery,
  • Signs
  • edema, muscle wasting ,liver enlargement,
    change in pigmentation

36
Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM)
  • Marasmus
  • lack of energy and protein
  • Sings
  • muscle wasting, loss of S.C fat, growth
    retardation

Overcome by breast feeding, nutritional
supplement, nutrition education and improve
sanitation
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