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Title: SATELLITEBASED SPACE SCIENCE IN INDIA


1
SATELLITE-BASED SPACE SCIENCE IN INDIA
George JosephINDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION
2
SPACE SCIENCES
  • ASTRONOMY AND ASTROPHYSICS
  • PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES AND AERONOMY
  • EARTH SCIENCES AND SOLAR SYSTEM STUDIES
  • GROUND TELESCOPES
  • BALLOON FACILITY
  • SOUNDING ROCKETS
  • SATELLITES
  • PROGRAMMES
  • IGBP
  • IMAP
  • ISTEP
  • INDOEX

3
Giant Meter wave Radio Telescope (GMRT) of
National Center for Radio Astrophysics of TIFR in
India
  • GMRT IS WORLDS LARGEST AREA RADIO TELESCOPE AT
    METER WAVELENGTH IE. IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE OF
    100 MHZ TO 1400 MHZ.
  • CONSISTS OF 30 PARABOLIC SHAPE ANTENNAS EACH
    WITH A DIAMETER OF 45 METERS.
  • THE ANTENNAS LOCATED AS A Y-SHAPE ARRAY IN A
    REGION WITH SIZE OF 25 KM. IT IS AN APERTURE
    SYNTHESIS TELESCOPE WITH CAPABILITY OF OBSERVING
    IN THE FREQUENCY BANDS AT 150, 235, 327, 610 AND
    1420 MHZ.
  • IT HAS SENSITIVITY OF 0.10 MJy AT 1420 MHZ IN
    HOUR OF INTEGRATION.
  • IN APERTURE SYNTHESIS MODE IT HAS BEAM SIZE OF 2
    ARC SEC AT 1420 MHZ.
  • POWERFUL INSTRUMENT FOR STUDIES OF RADIO
    PULSARS, SNRS , RADIO GALAXIES ETC.

4
Close up View of a 45 meter size parabolic
antenna of GMRT. Several other similar antennas
of the central array are visible in the
foreground.
5
Radio Image of the Supernova Remnant G11.2 0.3
from 610 MHz observations with the GMRT
6
Homi Bhabha
7
National Balloon Facility of TIFR-ISRO at
Hyderabad, India
BALLOON FACILITY PROVIDES BALLOON DESIGN AND
FABRICATION OF BALLOONS WITH A VOLUME OF UP TO
27MILLION CUBIC FEET . CAPABLE OF TAKING 600
TO1000 KG PAYLOAD TO ALTITUDE IN THE RANGE OF
ABOUT 38 TO 41 KM. BF LAUNCHED MORE THAN 450
BALLOON FLIGHTS SO FAR FOR COSMIC RAYS, X-RAY
ASTRONOMY , GAMMA-RAY ASTRONOMY , INFRARED
ASTRONOMY , ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCE AND OTHER AREAS
OF RESEARCH. HIGHEST ALTITUDE ATTAINED 41.5 KM
FOR X-RAY ASTRONOMY PAYLOADS. HEAVIEST LAUNCHED
PAYLOAD IN 1 METER APERTURE FAR-INFRARED
ASTRONOMY TELESCOPE WEIGHING ABOUT 1000
KG. BALLOON MATERIAL, LOAD TAPES ETC. ALL MADE
IN INDIA. PROVIDES TELEMETRY AND TELECOMMAND
PACKAGES TO THE EXPERIMENTERS. S-BAND USED FOR
THE UP AND DOWN LINKS.
8
Hard X-ray detector balloon payload
9
Filled Balloon getting ready for launch
10
Launch truck with a payload suspended from the
load line.
11
SOUNDING ROCKETS
ISRO has a range of Sounding Rockets known as
Rohini Sounding Rockets for conducting scientific
investigations. The sounding rocket launch
services are available to others for flying
scientific payloads.
12
Satellites     q Early satellites  
ARYABHATTA ( 360 kg )  
ROHINI ( 40 kg )  
Stretched ROHINI Series ( 150 kg )  
BHASKARA I II ( Remote Sensing )  
APPLE ( Communication )   q
Indian Remote Sensing Satellites ( IRS
Polar)   q Indian National Satellites
(INSAT Geosynchronous )
13
X-ray Astronomy studies began in India using
balloons from Hyderabad and later with rockets
from Thumba. The experiments mainly aimed at
temporal and spectral measurements of bright
X-ray Binaries. Balloon Experiments are still
conducted to evaluate the performance of new
detector systems for the future satellite
missions and study selected X-ray binaries.
Evolution of X-ray Astronomy in India
14
Gamma ray Burst expt. on SROSS (1994)
15
IXAE on IRS-P3 (1996) Indian X-ray astronomy
experiment (IXAE) (TIFRISAC)
  • Scientific objectives
  • Pointed mode observations (first from Indian
    satellite) of periodic and aperiodic intensity
    variations of galactic X-ray sources .
  • Detailed timing studies to measure pulse and
    orbital periods of x-ray binaries to understand
    accretion process.
  • Search for long term variabilities in
    extragalactic sources
  • Indigenous gas multi-layer gas filled
    proportional counters with slat collimator

Gas Proportional Counters
IRS -P3 Satellite
  • Area 1200 sqcm.
  • 2-18 keV
  • FOV 2.3 X 2.3

16
IXAE on IRS-P3 (1996)
X-ray light curve from GRS 1915105
17
Two recent initiatives in Space Science
  • ASTROSAT
  • A multiwavelength astronomical observatory
  • CHANDRAYAAN-1
  • Indias first mission to the Moon
  • These will be the first dedicated science
    missions of the Indian Space Research
    Organization (ISRO)

18
ASTROSAT A Broad Spectral Band Indian Astronomy
Satellite
An Indian National Space Observatory A
Collaborative Project of Tata Institute of
Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai ISRO
Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore Indian
Institute of Astrophysics (IIA),
Bangalore Inter-University Centre for Astronomy
Astrophysics, Pune. Raman Research Institute,
Bangalore Physical Research Laboratory,
Ahmedabad Canadian Space Agency With
participation of Bhabha Atomic Research
Center,Mumbai Aryabhatta Research Institute of
Observational Science,Nainital Center for Space
Research,Kolkata Many Indian Universities
19

20

                                                
                           
Galaxy M81 as seen in the Ultraviolet light.
Spiral structure of the Galaxy is traced by Young
Hot stars.
Image of M81 in the Visible Light
21
                                                  
              The High Energy Crab Nebula
22
Astrosat Instruments  Four X-ray Astronomy
Instruments and one Ultraviolet Instrument
With two Telescopes   1. LAXPC Large
Area X-ray Proportional Counters with Aeff
6000 cm2 at 20 keV, FOV 10 X 10,
sensitive in 3-80 keV band with low
spectral resolution (E/?E 5 to 12) .
2. CZT Imager A new generation X-ray
detector CdZnTe (Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride)
array with a coded mask aperture having
Aeff 500 cm2 and medium spectral resolution
(E/?E 20 to 30).
3. SXT
Soft X-ray Imaging Telescope using conical-foil
mirrors with medium angular (3' ) and
spectral (E/?E 20 to 50)
resolution in 0.3-8 keV with A eff 200 cm2 at
1 keV.
23
4. SSM Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM)
using 3 PSPCs with coded
mask aperture , each
with Aeff 30 cm2 and energy band
of 2-20 keV.
 
5. UVIT Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope
(UVIT) has two similar
telescopes each
with 38 cm aperture primary mirror and
photon counting imaging
detectors
covering simultaneously near-uv , far-uv
and visible bands.


A Charged Particle Monitor (CPM) as an
auxiliary instrument for the control and
operation of the Astrosat Instruments.  
24
  • Schematic View of a
  • LAXPC
  • Parts of LAXPC
  • Detector with
  • Xenon at 2 to 3
  • atmosphere
  • WSC with
  • 5 deg X 5 deg FOV
  • Main FOV
  • Collimator with
  • 1 deg X 1 deg FOV
  • Front-end
  • Electronics and
  • HV unit in the
  • back plate of each
  • LAXPC


25
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26
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27
LAXPC with Field of View Collimator installed for
Balloon Experiment
28
CZT Imager
Energy Range 10 100 keV Resolution 5 _at_ 60
keV Effective area 1000 cm2
29
Scanning X-ray Telescope (SXT) X-ray Telescope
(grazing incidence) X-ray CCD camera
Energy Range 0.3 8.0 keV Effective Area
200 cm2 _at_1.5 keV
20 cm2 _at_6.5 keV Telescope
2.0m focal
length Telescope Mirrors Conical
shells Telescope PSF lt3 - 4
arcmin (HEW) Detector
MAT CCD-22 (Cooled lt -80 deg C) Detector Format
600 x 600 pixels Detector Readout
Modes Photon counting, Imaging Timing Field
of view 41.3 x 41.3 arcmin Pixel Scale 4.13
arcsec/pixel Sensitivity
1.4 cps/milliCrab Position Accuracy
30 arcsecs
30
Scanning Sky Monitor (SSM)
Energy range
2-10 keV Field of view
6x 90 (FWHM) Source location
capability 8-12' depending
on intensity of the transient. Sensitivity 30
mCrab in 5 min integration Coded mask
minimum slit size 0.95mm No. of
sky monitors 3 ) Event rate nominal
200c/s max 5000c/s Position resolution
1.5mm FWHM along the wire
31
Two similar
coaligned telescopes Primary
Mirror aperture 38 cms
Secondary 14 cms Focal
length 503 cms f/ratio
13
Configuration RC with focal plane

corrector
Corrected field 0.5
Passband Channel l
120-180 nm Channel I 180 300
nm Optical 350-650 nm

32
  • Astrosat Mission Characteristics
  • Mission life of at least 5 years. Circular orbit
    of 600 km altitude and inclination of 8.
    Orbital period of 100 minutes.
  • Launch by well proven Indian Polar Satellite
    Launch Vehicle (PSLV) from Satish Dhawan Launch
    Center at Shriharikota (India).
  • Mass of satellite 1608 kg including 868 kg mass
    of science payloads.
  • Total Power generation 1250 Watts , Payload
    Power needed is 488 Watts.
  • Large number of On/Off, Data Commands and
    Time-tagged commands available for the control
    and operation of the Science Instruments .
  • Data transmission by two X-band carriers at a
    rate of 105 Mbits per sec.
  • A Charged Particle Monitor to control the
    operation of the instruments in zones of high
    fluxes of particles.

33
ASTROSAT
34
INDIAN MISSION TO MOONCHANDRAYAAN-1
  • PROGRAMME INITIATED BY DR K. KASTURIRANGAN,
    CHAIRMAN, ISRO.
  • HALF-DAY SYMPOSIUM ON INDIAN MISSION TO MOON AT
    65TH ANNUAL MEET OF INDIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AT
    LUCKNOW, OCTOBER, 1999.
  • SYMPOSIUM OF THE ASTRONAUTICAL SOCIETY OF INDIA
    AT AHMEDABAD, FEBRUARY, 2000.
  • CHAIRMAN, ISRO CONSTITUTED IN OCTOBER, 2000, A
    NATIONAL TASK FORCE TO STUDY VARIOUS ASPECTS TO
    REALISE A MISSION TO MOON.

35
Chandrayaan-1 payloads
International Joint
36
Objectives of the First Moon Mission
selected experiments
  • Simultaneous Mineralogical, Chemical

Photogeological mapping
  • To map the South Pole Aitken region (ejecta and
    basin surface) for elements Mg, Fe, (Mg) and Ca
    etc. to verify crustal evolution models.
  • To detect any 222Rn (16.7 KeV) leaking from the
    lunar interior
  • To detect any 210Pb (46.5 KeV) depositing at
    polar or cold regions due to transport and decay
    of radon
  • To improve upon the gravity models of the Moon

37
Chemical Mapping
The best technique for Chemical Mapping is X-ray
fluorescence.
Radiation Environment of Moon
38
Mineral Mapping
39
Topographic Mapping
  • Imaging with 3 Cameras eliminates occlusion
    produced by oblique view .Complete 3D coverage
    even for highly undulating terrains
  • Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC) is designed to
    have 5m

spatial resolution and will cover the whole moon
in 6 months.
  • Height resolution of 5m can be achieved and we
    may get

better Digital Elevation Map of the whole Moon.
40
What is new about the proposed mission?
  • First attempt to study the energy region of
    10-200 keV

(X-? ray region)
210Pb mapping of the lunar surface, particularly
at the lunar poles and degassing and transport of
volatiles on the lunar surface can be understood
  • Better Spatial resolution (10 20 Km)
  • Terrain Mapping Camera for 5m spatial resolution

Population of small meteorites and better DEM
41
CHANDRAYAAN-1
Terrain Mapping Camera TMC
Ground Resolution 5 M (from 100Km
orbit) Swath 20
KM Optics Refractive Optics
with mirror Dimension 415 x 240 x 160
(EO Module) Mass
6.0 Kg Power 13 watts Field of
view 25.02º (along track) 5.7
º (across track) TMC consists of Two units EO
module Pay load electronics
  • Imaging with 3 Cameras eliminates occlusion
    produced by oblique view

42
CHANDRAYAAN-1
Hyper Spectral Imager - HySI-VNIR
Ground Resolution 80 M (from 100Km
orbit) Swath 20
KM Spectral range 0.4-0.93 µm Optics
Refractive Optics Dimension (in
mm) 207 x 175 x 150 (EO Module)
Mass 3.1 Kg Power
16 watts Field of view
13º HySI VNIR consists of Two units EO
module Pay load electronics
43
CHANDRAYAAN-1
Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument LLRI
Vertical Resolution lt 5M (from 100Km
orbit) Laser Wave Length 1064 nm Laser
Energy 20 50 mJ Optics Transmitter
38mm Gallilean telescope Receiver
reflective 170mm Dimension (in mm) 350 x 350 x
240 (EO Module) Mass
lt 10 Kg Power lt 15
w LLRI consists of Two units EO module
Electronics module
44
CHANDRAYAAN-1
HIGH ENERGY X-RAY PAYLOAD HEX
SPACIAL RESOLUTION 20 40 KM ENERGY
RANGE 20 250 KeV Dimension (in
mm) 180 x 145 x 194 (EO Module) Mass
15Kg Power
24.2 w HEX consists of Two units EO module
HEX DIP (235x210x120)
45
CHANDRAYAAN-1
Low Energy X-ray Spectro Meter (CIXS XSM) (
LEX )
Swath 20 Km _at_ 100 Km Orbit Energy
Range 0.5 10 KeV Dimension (in mm) 185
x 112 x 140 (EO Module) Mass
5.2Kg Power 28
w CIXS consists of Two units CIXS XSM
46
CHANDRAYAAN-1
AO
MINIATURE IMAGING RADAR INSTRUMENT-MINI SAR
Resolution 100 m / pixel 10 m /
pixel in a spot light / low altitude Swath
40km(Range) 8km(azimuth) Frequency
2.5 GHz Antenna Dimension 600mm x 1800mm
Mass lt 7.0Kg Power
average 50 w Mini Sar
consists of Two units Antenna Radar Electronics
Dr. PAUL SPUDIS JHU/APL 11100 John Hopkins Road
Laurel MD USA
47
CHANDRAYAAN-1
Moon Minerology Mapper M3
Wave length range 0.7 3.0 µm Swath 20
km _at_100km orbit Special resolution 30 m /
pixel Dimension (in mm) 275 x 235 x 140
Mass 5.5
Kg Power 8.3 watts º
Dr. Carle M Pieters Brown University, Providence,
RI
48
CHANDRAYAAN-1
AO
SIR-2
Type of Instrument Grating NIR point
spectro meter Wave length range 0.93 - 2.4
µm Angular resolution Optics
72 mm aperture180mm focal
length Dimension (in mm) 260 x 171 x 143 (EO
Module) 146 x 125 x 33.5 (E-box) Mass
2.3 Kg Power
2.2 watts SIR-2 consists of Two
unit Instrument E-box Dr. U. Mall et. al Max
Planck Institute for Aeronomie Lindau Germany
49
CHANDRAYAAN-1
AO
Sub Kev Atom Reflecting Analyzer ( SARA )
SARA consists of Three units LENA, SWIM
DPU Energy Range 10 eV 2 KeV LENA
10
eV 15 KeV SWIM Dimension (in mm) 180 x 145
x 194 FOV 15º x 160º LENA
9º x 180º SWIM Mass
3.5Kg(total) Power
3.0 w (total) Dr. S. Barabash Swedish
Institute of Space Physics Kiruna, Sweden Dr.
Anil Bhardwaj SPL, VSSC Trivandrum
50
CHANDRAYAAN-1
AO

Radiation DOse Monitor ( RADOM )
Dimension (in mm) 76 x 80 x 25 Mass
0.16 Kg(total) Dr.
Tsvetan Dachev Solar Terrestrial
Influences Laboratory Bulgarian Academy of
Sciences Sofia Bulgaria
51
CHANDRAYAN-1
IMPACT PROBE
(Solar Wind Monitor) SWIM
RADOM (Radiation dose monitor)
(Chandrayaan Energetic Neutral Analyzer) CENA
LLRI (Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument)
TMC (Terrain Mapping Camera)
(Hyper Spectral Imager) HySI
(High Energy X-ray) HEX
M3
(Moon Mineralogy Mapper)
(Low Energy X-ray) CIXS
(chandayana Imaging X-ray Spectrometer)
SIR-2 (Infrared Spectrometer)
MINI-SAR
(Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar)
PAYLOAD ACCOMMODATION
52
Chandrayaan-1 Mission Phase
SUN
LOI
OPL. ORBIT
ETO 240 X 1,00,000 km
CAPTURE ORBIT
MCC
GTO 240 X 36,000
MCC
LTT 240 X 3,86,000 Km
PERIGEE MANEUVERS
PROGRESS OF MOON IN ITS ORBIT
53
  • LAUNCH VEHICLES
  • q POLAR SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE ( PSLV )
  •  
  • 1 1.5 ton satellite into polar
    orbit
  •         3 ton satellite into
    near-earth inclined orbit
  •         1 ton satellite in
    geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO)
  •  
  •  
  • q GEOSYNCHRONOUS LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)
  •  
  •        2.2 ton satellite into a GTO
  •   5 ton satellite in a near-earth
    inclined orbit

54
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