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Inquiry and Reading in the Content Areas

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Title: Inquiry and Reading in the Content Areas


1
Inquiry and Reading in the Content Areas
  • ITS REAL
  • Unit Modification and Review

2
Stages of Inquiry in the Classroom
  • Encountering the Issue
  • getting the big idea
  • making connections
  • Making Connections
  • Text to text, text to self, text to
  • world
  • Open and closed word sorts
  • Making Connections
  • Text to text, text to self, text to
  • world
  • Open and closed word sorts
  • Task Analysis
  • defining the task
  • asking questions
  • Asking Questions
  • Right there, think and search
  • Author and you, in your head
  • Investigating Information
  • seeking, organizing, analyzing,
  • applying to project
  • Determining Importance
  • Features, structures of text
  • Note taking, graphic organizers
  • Facts to main ideas, summaries
  • Reasoning with Information
  • evaluating, creating, judging,
  • inferring, visualizing
  • making decisions
  • Inferring and Visualizing
  • creating models
  • using text clues and prior knowledge
  • using implicit and explicit information to
    reach conclusions
  • Acting on Decisions
  • synthesizing
  • communicating findings

  • Synthesizing
  • text to text, self and world
  • applying to new settings and contexts
  • in your head

3

CONTEXT
CONTENT
Engaging the Learner
Teaching and Learning Events
Goals/Standards (S)
Final Team Performance
Individual Student Assessments
??? outcome is assessed (Number refers to
assessment)
Numbers after Teaching and Learning Events refer
to assessments
?Emily Alford, 1998
4
Template Section 1 Encountering the Issue
  • Hook
  • Opening activity
  • Is of personal relevance/interest to students
  • Allows ALL to participate
  • Introduces the big ideas of the unit
  • Authentic Connection
  • Letter (1st unit)
  • Audience awareness
  • Describes FTP (final team performance/product)
  • Has standards/benchmarks embedded

5
Template Section 2 Final Team Performance
  • Is created and revised throughout the unit, not
    at the end of the unit
  • Constructed in sections to allow students to
    apply and synthesize new knowledge and skills as
    they are learned
  • Has a real use
  • Created for a real audience
  • Has a purpose

6
The Learning Pyramid
Average Retention Rates
5
10
20
30
50
75
90
The Learning Pyramid National Training
Laboratories, Bethel, Maine
7
Final Team Performance
  • Reflects mastery of all benchmarks
  • Is a synthesis of individual team work, not a
    collection of individual pieces
  • Students use technology in order to communicate
    demonstrate learning

8
Template Section 3. Goals/Standards
  • BENCHMARK
  • Concepts that students need to know for the rest
    of their lives.
  • Concepts that students use to build an
    understanding of the world.
  • Concepts that allow students to scaffold to new
    understanding and add to their schema.
  • Show connections between concepts on map

9
Template Section 5 Assessment
  • Individual accountability and team responsibility
  • Each benchmark is assessed individually AND
    COMPLETELY!
  • Assessments are guides to student progress
  • Can be used by teams to create part of FTP
  • Can be holistic or analytical

10
Holding Individuals Accountable
Information
Product Final Team Performance
First individual assessment
  • Checks along the way

Teams work on FTP
Second individual assessment
  • Checks along the way

Teams work on FTP
Third individual assessment
  • Checks along the way

Teams work on FTP
Unit Ends
Final Team Performance completed and evaluated by
team
11

CONTEXT
CONTENT
Engaging the Learner
Teaching and Learning Events
Goals/Standards (S)
  • students read letter and complete task analysis
    ask questions based on opening activities and
    letter

In modeling the opening we
  • brainstormed appliances
  • inquiry begins with students seeking information
    from
  • a variety of sources
  • calculated costs
  • received the letter
  • jigsaw information in teams, organize and share
    with
  • class
  • determined coal usage
  • mini lessons begin
  • activity
  • activity
  • activity
  • activity

Benchmark
  • Individual assessment
  • teams create slides, pictures, textfor FTP
  • Students continue asking questions seeking
    answers
  • Ongoing vocabulary work

Benchmark
  • activity
  • activity
  • activity

Final Team Performance
Individual Student Assessments
??? outcome is assessed (Number refers to
assessment)
Numbers after Teaching and Learning Events refer
to assessments
?Emily Alford, 1998
12

CONTEXT
CONTENT
Engaging the Learner
Goals/Standards (S)
Teaching and Learning Events
  • use ratio and proportion and draw to scale

Final Team Performance
Individual Student Assessments
Return to your local benchmarks and standards.
Ask yourself How will I know if each student
has the knowledge and reasoning to communicate an
understanding of the concept(s)? Select a
format for checking student knowledge.
  • create a garden design using measurements given
    for area at a scale of 51 graph location of
    plants in courtyard using given coordinates

??? outcome is assessed (Number refers to
assessment)
?Emily Alford, 1998
13
IBL/Reading Infusion Review
14
Inquiry
  • a seeking for truth, information, or knowledge
    seeking information by questioning
  • Focused on using learning content as a means to
    develop information-processing and
    problem-solving skills
  • Traditional learning focuses on LEARNING ABOUT
    THINGS (LOTS). Inquiry focuses on LEARNING
    THINGS! (HOTS)

15
Modeling the Inquiry Method Buying a Car? Senior
Going to College? Sick Relative? Vacation?
  • Encountering the Issue
  • Task Analysis
  • Investigating Information
  • Reasoning with Information
  • Acting on Decisions

16
Seven Comprehension Strategies
Making Connections
Asking Questions
Determining Importance
Visualizing
Inferring
Synthesizing
Repairing Comprehension fix-up strategies
17
Making Connections THE HOOK
Creating Interest
Making Connections
Activating Prior Knowledge
Take a guess
18
THE HOOK
The teacher introduces the unit by having teams
participate in a taste test one cup is chocolate
and water, one is chocolate and milk, and one is
chocolate mixed with salt water. They must rate
the three drinks and give their preference. Then
students read Goldilocks and the Three Bears
(readers theater). Following the reading teams
look on the bottom of the glasses to reveal a
picture of Venus, Earth, and Mars. Earth
is considered the Goldilocks Planet and it is
their task to discover why.
19
Authentic Connections
20
AUTHENTIC CONNECTIONLevels of Authenticity
  • Someone from within the classroom
  • Someone from within the school
  • Someone from the local community or from outside
    the community

21
Sample Letters
  • Letters MUST be authentic, not fiction. Unless
    the students are told it is a simulated event,
    you cannot move forward as if the partnership
    between the class and the designated connection
    were real. Otherwise, it becomes an ethically
    questionable process whereby students are lead to
    believe the letter is real when it is not.
  • The teacher must reach out to people in the
    community to move the content beyond the
    constraints of a textbook.
  • The letter should outline the need that will be
    served and introduce the target audience.
  • Information needed by the audience should be
    outlined and the format for presentation
    specified (PowerPoint, etc.).

22
Genetics and The Cell
  • The Belvedere Humane Society would like people
    to understand the genetic problems pure breeds
    may encounter. They would like help in
    advertising information about the value of
    adopting mixed breed dogs. Their hope is that
    people will want to adopt a dog or cat as a pet.

23
Belvedere Humane Society Dear Students, As a
representative of the local humane society, I
work with animals that have been cast off by
society. Day after day I walk past cages of
animals whose eyes follow me no matter where I
go. Often at night, I imagine I can hear their
whines and cries as Im trying to fall
asleep. The objective of the humane society is
to find homes for these animals. We need your
help to accomplish this overwhelming task. We
are especially concerned about placing our canine
friends. While the cute, cuddly purebred dogs
are the first to get picked, the mixed-breed dogs
are often left behind. We feel that the
community would respond to a guidebook on dogs
more that just a letter from us. Perhaps you
could create such a book to make the public aware
of the desirability of adopting mixed breed dogs
as well as purebreds. If at all possible we
would like your guidebook to include the results
of a community survey on ownership of purebred
dogs versus mixed-breed dogs. Please include
information about the value of mixed breed dogs.
It would be helpful for people to understand the
genetic problems pure breeds may encounter. What
are the probabilities of dogs inheriting hip
dysphasia? How are traits inherited? A better
understanding of these issues will lead to better
decision making and more successful
adoptions. Thank you for your willingness to
help on this project! Sincerely, The Humane
Society
24
AUTHENTIC CONNECTION Highest Level of
AuthenticityStudent-generated connections
  • If students have had inquiry experiences in which
    a letter delivered the challenge then it is most
    appropriate to use another form of invitation
  • Students with high competency levels in using
    inquiry strategies can be challenged to explore
    connections to up-coming unit topics and advise
    the class about possibilities
  • The teacher could also encourage teams of
    students to work on different projects connected
    to authentic needs in the school, community or
    world at large.

25
The Invitation
Introduce the Young Producers Contest from
www.earthsky.org/Teachers/YP/ The Young Producers
Contest What is the Young Producers
Contest? The Young Producers Contest is an
annual event sponsored by the Earth Sky radio
series and the National Science Foundation. Each
year, students around the world create their own
science radio programs. We choose the five best
and air them on the Earth and Sky program in the
spring. Teams will share scripts with fifth
grade students who are studying the planets to
help them learn about space and to get feedback
before submitting their scripts. Conclude with
readers theater, The Goldilocks Problem.
Authentic Connection
26
Student Decision Making Levels of Empowerment
  1. Staff member requests help in some aspects of
    planning
  2. Staff member and students collaborate during
    planning and implementation
  3. Students assume leadership with feedback and
    suggestions from staff
  4. Students define issue, develop and implement
    action plan and operate within parameters
    established by teacher and class

27
Stages of Inquiry in the Classroom
  • Encountering the Issue
  • getting the big idea
  • making connections
  • Making Connections
  • Text to text, text to self, text to
  • world
  • Open and closed word sorts
  • Task Analysis
  • defining the task
  • asking questions
  • Asking Questions
  • Right there, think and search
  • Author and you, in your head
  • Investigating Information
  • seeking, organizing, analyzing,
  • applying to project
  • Determining Importance
  • Features, structures of text
  • Note taking, graphic organizers
  • Facts to main ideas, summaries
  • Reasoning with Information
  • evaluating, creating, judging,
  • inferring, visualizing
  • making decisions
  • Inferring and Visualizing
  • creating models
  • using text clues and prior knowledge
  • using implicit and explicit information to
    reach conclusions
  • Acting on Decisions
  • synthesizing
  • communicating findings

  • Synthesizing
  • text to text, self and world
  • applying to new settings and contexts
  • in your head

28
Comprehension Strategies
  • Making Connections

Asking Questions
  • Determining Importance

Drawing Inferences
Synthesizing
29
Text-to-Self
  • Connections that readers make between the text
    and their past experiences or background
    knowledge.
  • Goudvis Harvey 2000

30
Text-to-World
  • Connections that readers make between the text
    and the bigger issues, events, or concerns of
    society and the world at large.
  • Goudvis Harvey 2000

31
Text-to-Text
Connections that readers make between the text
they are reading and another text. Goudvis
Harvey 2000
32
Making Connections with Words
Vocabulary knowledge is the single most important
factor contributing to reading comprehension. J.
G. Laflamme, The effect of the Multiple Exposure
Vocabulary Method and the Target Reading Writing
Strategy on Test Scores. 1997
33
Vocabulary Connections Open Word Sort
beliefs latitude carrying capacity
architecture soil arable consumption
demographics agglomeration
longitude land use population
die-off clothing government industries
language homes climate
education overshoot crash
collapse drawdown
34
Vocabulary Connections Closed Word Sort

latitude longitude soil arable
demographics climate land use population
architecture
clothing government industries agglomeration
language homes beliefs education
Human Interactions
Location and Place
  • Categories
  • Location and Place
  • Human Interactions
  • Sustainability
  • no clue

consumption drawdown overshoot carrying
capacity crash die-off collapse
Sustainability
35
Making Connections with Words
Connect Two
consumption drawdown overshoot carrying
capacity crash die-off collapse
clothing government industries agglomeration
language homes beliefs education
  • Latitude
  • longitude
  • soil
  • Arable
  • demographics
  • climate
  • land use
  • Population
  • architecture

______________ and _________________ are
connected because _________ _____________________
___________________________________________.
36
Continuing Word Connections
Word Use in Text Page













37
Continuing Word Connections
38
Making Connections Anticipation Guides
Mosquitoes eat plant nectar and pollinate plants.
Mosquitoes make great food for fish.
Honeydew is a favorite food of the male mosquito.
The larvae do not breed successfully in water
that has fish or frogs.
Mosquitoes are the most dangerous animal in the
world.
39
Connecting Through Journal Topics
Explain how _________(topic of the day) plays a
part in your life. Write a sentence telling how
knowing about ________(new topic) might be useful
to you personally. How do you think your
feelings about ________(new topic) is different
from your teachers (or friends or parents)?
40
Book Bits
  • Give each student a short excerpt from a piece of
    text that everyone will be reading.
  • Each child reads his/her excerpt silently.
  • Each child then writes a prediction/questions
    about the entire article.
  • Students are placed in groups of 3-4 to share
    excerpts with other students. Each child reads
    to and listens to 2-3 other students. They must
    read their excerpts exactly as written.
  • Students now return to their seats to make new
    predictions or ask questions concerning the text
    they will read.

41
Benefits of Book Bits Activity
  • Builds fluency
  • Activates prior knowledge (Making Connections)
  • Builds questioning skills (Asking Questions)
  • Provides a purpose for reading
  • The Reading Teacher Volume 57, 3, November
    2003, Ruth Helen Yopp Hallie Kay Yopp, page
    284 Time with Text

42
Mini Lessons for Making Connections
  • Engaging the Learner (jigsaw and letter)
  • (T/S, T/W, T/T)
  • Open Sort/Closed Sort
  • Connect Two
  • Word Splash
  • Anticipation Guides
  • Reflection Journals
  • Book Bits

43
Template Section 1 Encountering the Issue
  • Hook
  • Opening activity
  • Is of personal relevance/interest to students
  • Allows ALL to participate
  • Introduces the big ideas of the unit
  • Authentic Connection
  • Letter (1st unit)
  • Audience awareness
  • Describes FTP (final team performance/product)
  • Has standards/benchmarks embedded
  • Letters MUST be authentic, not fiction.

44
Planning Reading Connections for Your Unit
  • Include
  • Reading (articles or books) for the opening
    jigsaw
  • Note taking format e.g. Semantic Features Chart
  • Vocabulary activities (introductory ongoing)
  • Method of tracking
  • Optional
  • anticipation guides
  • structure journal writing (format and stems)
  • mandatory
  • optional

45
Stop, Peer Review, Revise
  • Review the Engaging the Learner section of the
    template using the continuum
  • Review the hook authentic connection
  • Review first section of Teaching Learning
    Events
  • Review the Making Connections activities
  • Review the opening jigsaw activity
  • Review the opening/ongoing vocabulary activities

46
Template Section 4 TEACHING LEARNING EVENTS
  • Activities in which students will participate
    to help them reach the benchmark and develop the
    product.

47
Important Points About T/L Events
  1. Your T/L events are just a sentence or two.
    Lesson plans are written later.
  2. Every T/L Event should tie directly to at least
    one of your benchmarks.
  3. T/L Events can be science experiments,
    interviews, field trips, demonstrations,
    simulations, text book work, video, Webquests,
    software.
  4. Some of your T/L Events will be used as
    individual assessments.
  5. Technology should be used throughout your
    teaching and learning events.

48
Stages of Inquiry in the Classroom
  • Encountering the Issue
  • getting the big idea
  • making connections
  • Making Connections
  • Text to text, text to self, text to
  • world
  • Open and closed word sorts
  • Task Analysis
  • defining the task
  • asking questions
  • Asking Questions
  • Right there, think and search
  • Author and you, in your head
  • Investigating Information
  • seeking, organizing, analyzing,
  • applying to project
  • Determining Importance
  • Features, structures of text
  • Note taking, graphic organizers
  • Facts to main ideas, summaries
  • Reasoning with Information
  • evaluating, creating, judging,
  • inferring, visualizing
  • making decisions
  • Inferring and Visualizing
  • creating models
  • using text clues and prior knowledge
  • using implicit and explicit information to
    reach conclusions
  • Acting on Decisions
  • synthesizing
  • communicating findings

  • Synthesizing
  • text to text, self and world
  • applying to new settings and contexts
  • in your head

49
First TLE-Task Analysis
  • Answers the questions, What do we need to
    know? and What do we need to do?

50
Next step Letter announcing partnership and
tasks.
51
Complete Task Analysis (Life Skill)
Ask, What are we expected to do?
Record responses on chart paper
Define the Task
Ask Questions
  • Create infomercials so that our community can
    better understand
  • Population sustainability
  • Impact of human population on wildlife and the
    environment
  • Connections to and clues from ancient
    civilizations
  • The need to support organizations that take care
    of our environment and endangered animals
  • What questions do we have now?

Next Task Analysis
52
TLE Comprehension Strategies
  • Making Connections

Asking Questions
  • Determining Importance

Drawing Inferences
Synthesizing
53
(No Transcript)
54

Goals/Standards (S)
CONTEXT
CONTENT
Engaging the Learner
Teaching and Learning Events
No questions no inquiry! Call it directed
research. Call it project-based learning. But,
do not call it inquiry-based learning!
State Goal 17. Understand world geography and the
effects of geography on society, with emphasis on
the United States. Standard A. Locate, describe,
and explain places, regions, and features on the
Earth.
In modeling the opening we
  • students read letter and complete task analysis
    ask questions based on opening activities and
    letter

People interact with their environment to create
cultures. If civilization depends on natural
resources then their demise may be the result of
overuse Students explore cultures that collapsed
because of this mistake. Teachers use an apple
to represent the Earth and slice away portions
that represent resources.
  • inquiry begins with students reading articles
    provided by teacher
  • jigsaw information in teams, organize and share
    with
  • class
  • mini lessons begin
  • Vocabulary activity

Benchmark
  • activity
  • activity
  • activity
  • activity

Students continue asking questions and seeking
answers throughout the unit.
Benchmark
State Goal 1. Read with understanding and
fluency. Standard A. Apply word analysis and
vocabulary skills to comprehend
selections Standard B. Apply reading strategies
to improve understanding and fluency. Standard C.
Comprehend a wide range of reading
materials. Read a variety of non-fiction
materials to identify, describe and locate
important information about trees
  • Note taking with graphic organizer
  • activity
  • activity
  • activity

Final Team Performance Teams create infomercials
promoting sustainable growth strategies and base
their reasoning on analysis of historical
patterns of human growth and development.
Individual Student Assessments
Numbers after Teaching and Learning Events refer
to assessments
?Emily Alford, 1998
55
The Question is the Answer
  • Main Types of Questions
  • Factual questions
  • One correct answer
  • If broad, can allow room for inquiry (Why does a
    curve ball curve?)
  • Inference questions
  • Go beyond immediately available information
  • Requires students to find clues, examine them,
    and discuss what inferences are justified
  • Evaluative questions
  • Students are asked for an opinion, belief, or
    point of view

Right There/Think Search
Author You
On Your Own
56
Which Questions Matter?
  • Prime Questions

WHY?
WHICH?
HOW?
57
WHY?
  • Requires analysis of cause-and-effect and an
    understanding of the relationship between
    variables.
  • The favorite question of four-year-olds. It is
    the basic tool for figuring stuff out
    (constructivist learning).
  • Leads naturally to problem-solving (the How
    question) or to decision-making (the Which is
    best? question).

58
WHY?
  • Why does the sun fall each day? Why does the rain
    fall? Why do some people throw garbage out their
    car windows? Why do some people steal? Why do
    some people treat their children badly? Why can't
    I ask more questions in school?

59
HOW?
  • The basis for problem-solving and synthesis.
  • The inventors favorite question
  • How? leads to the seeking of information that
    leads to a solution or understanding

60
WHICH?
  • Requires decision-making - a reasoned choice
    based upon clearly stated criteria and evidence.
  • Which school or trade will I pick for myself?
    Faced with a moral dilemma, which path will I
    follow? Confronted by a serious illness, which
    treatment will I choose for myself?

61
Half of the QAR
In Your Head (Inference)
In the Book (Investigation Information)
Right There Queens Lay 1500 eggs each day.
Right There Drones mate with the queen bee.
  • Worker Bees
  • Make wax
  • Feed the larvae
  • Collect pollen
  • Store pollen
  • Make honey
  • Guard the hive

62
The Other Half of the QAR
In the Book (Gathering Information
In Your Head (Inference)
Author and You (Inference) Which bee is the
busiest? Why is it necessary for the queen to lay
so many eggs?
Right There Queens Lay 1500 eggs each day.
Right There Drones mate with the queen bee.
  • Worker Bees
  • Make wax
  • Feed the larvae
  • Collect pollen
  • Store pollen
  • Make honey
  • Guard the hive

On Your Own Do you know someone who works as
hard as the bee?
63
Mini Lessons for Asking Questions
  • QAR- Question and Answer Relationships Text or
    Art
  • Writing Team Questions
  • Developing Four Types of Questions
  • I wonder..
  • Question Trackers

64
Inquiry Begins!!!
Next Let them begin!
65
IBL Methodology
  • Investigating Information
  • Begin with Jigsaw to build background knowledge
  • Add questions to Task Analysis

Jigsaw
???
66
Semantic Features Chart
Note-taking organizer
67
Stop, Peer Review, Revise
  • Provide activities throughout the TLE for
    students to ask and answer questions
  • Create a QAR lesson for use in the unit
  • An additional task Create/Revise essential
    coaching questions for your unit.

68
Stages of Inquiry in the Classroom
  • Encountering the Issue
  • getting the big idea
  • making connections
  • Making Connections
  • Text to text, text to self, text to
  • world
  • Open and closed word sorts
  • Task Analysis
  • defining the task
  • asking questions
  • Asking Questions
  • Right there, think and search
  • Author and you, in your head
  • Investigating Information
  • seeking, organizing, analyzing,
  • applying to project
  • Determining Importance
  • Features, structures of text
  • Note taking, graphic organizers
  • Facts to main ideas, summaries
  • Reasoning with Information
  • evaluating, creating, judging,
  • inferring, visualizing
  • making decisions
  • Inferring and Visualizing
  • creating models
  • using text clues and prior knowledge
  • using implicit and explicit information to
    reach conclusions
  • Acting on Decisions
  • synthesizing
  • communicating findings

  • Synthesizing
  • text to text, self and world
  • applying to new settings and contexts
  • in your head

69
IBL Methodology
  • Investigating Information
  • Seeking, organizing, analyzing information from a
    variety of sources
  • Answering and asking more questions

70
Comprehension Strategies
  • Making Connections
  • Asking Questions

Determining Importance
Drawing Inferences
Synthesizing
71
Nonfiction Text Structures
  • Cause-Effect
  • Problem-Solution
  • Compare/Contrast
  • Description
  • Chronological Sequence
  • Episodic
  • Definition

72
Cutting Up With Facts
Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass
Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick
its enemies.
Ostriches have long nails.
Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body when
if it eats something bad.
Baboons live together in troups.
Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass.
Chameleons change colors to hide.
Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger.
Whales can talk to each other.
The starfish stomach goes out of its body and
into the shellfish
Meercats stand guard to warn of danger.
73
Cutting Up With Facts
Features
Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass
Ostriches have long nails.
Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body if
it eats something bad.
Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass.
Baboons live together in troups.
The starfish stomach goes out of its body and
into the shellfish
Behaviors
Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger.
Whales can talk to each other.
Chameleons change colors to hide.
Meercats stand guard to warn of danger.
Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick
its enemies.
74
Readers Theatre
  • Students stand or sit in semi-circle at front of
    classroom.
  • Students read aloud from a script adapted from a
    book.
  • No props, scenery, or staging required
  • Emphasis is placed on oral interpretation of text
    by readers
  • Emphasis is placed on listening skills of
    audience.

75
Readers Theatre
  1. Teacher read the text on which script is based
    and did lessons on fluency.
  2. Day 2-3 students met in small groups and read the
    script several times taking a different role
    with each reading.
  3. Day 4 students practice their roles
  4. Day 5 students perform

76
Research Findings
  • Based on a 10 week Readers Theatre experience
    following the 5 day format
  • dramatic gains in students reading fluency
  • high motivation to read and reread
  • students supported one another in preparation for
    performance

77
Semantic Features Chart
78
Change Over Time Life Cycle of a Tree
79
Category What is it?
Properties Describe it.
ANIMAL
Compare/Contrast What is it like?
HAS WINGS
BAT
MOUSE
MAMMAL
FRUIT
USES RADAR
INSECT-EATING
VAMPIRE
Illustrations What are some examples?
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A bat is an animal similarto a mouse. It is a
mammal, has wings and uses radar to locate prey.
Some examples are fruit, vampire and insect
eating bats.
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Activities for Determining Importance
  • Features of Nonfiction Text
  • The Structures of Nonfiction Text
  • Finding Important Information Rather Than One
    Main Idea
  • Key Points vs. Supporting Details
  • Taking Notes
  • Graphic Organizers

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Stop, Peer Review, Revise
  • Review / Revise activities for Determining
    Importance

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Stages of Inquiry in the Classroom
  • Encountering the Issue
  • getting the big idea
  • making connections
  • Making Connections
  • Text to text, text to self, text to
  • world
  • Open and closed word sorts
  • Task Analysis
  • defining the task
  • asking questions
  • Asking Questions
  • Right there, think and search
  • Author and you, in your head
  • Investigating Information
  • seeking, organizing, analyzing,
  • applying to project
  • Determining Importance
  • Features, structures of text
  • Note taking, graphic organizers
  • Facts to main ideas, summaries
  • Reasoning with Information
  • evaluating, creating, judging,
  • inferring, visualizing
  • making decisions
  • Inferring and Visualizing
  • creating models
  • using text clues and prior knowledge
  • using implicit and explicit information to
    reach conclusions
  • Acting on Decisions
  • synthesizing
  • communicating findings

  • Synthesizing
  • text to text, self and world
  • applying to new settings and contexts
  • in your head

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IBL Methodology
  • Reasoning with Information
  • Asking further questions
  • Individual assessments occur as benchmarks are
    covered
  • Organized activities that structure work on FTP

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Comprehension Strategies
  • Making Connections
  • Asking Questions
  • Determining Importance

Drawing Inferences
Synthesizing
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What can we infer?
Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger.
Whales can talk to each other.
Chameleons change colors to hide.
Meercats stand guard to warn of danger.
Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick
its enemies.
Baboons live together in troupes.
  • Animal behaviors.
  • Behaviors help animals survive
  • Some run, some hide, some take flight, some fight
  • All have behaviors to communicate

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What can we infer?
Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass
Ostriches have long nails.
Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body when
if it eats something bad.
Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass.
The starfish stomach goes out of its body and
into the shellfish
The cheetah has a spotted coat.
  • Animal Features
  • Grass is difficult to digest so animals have
    special stomachs or eat droppings to digest it
  • Special features help animals survive
  • Some features help animals hide

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Inferential Thinking
ABCs of Inferring A B C D E
F G H I J
K L M N O P Q
R S T U V W X
Y Z Reading Strategy Inferential
Thinking
Animal Survival
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Poetry Reconstruction
  • Record a poem on sentence strips
  • Record the same poem on stiff paper for students
  • Cut the poem into phrases
  • Distribute strips randomly to students
  • Students work in teams to reconstruct the poem
  • Check their work against poem in pocket chart
  • Activity Seed, Sprout, Flower reconstruction

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Seed, Sprout, Flowerby Helen H. Moore
  • A seed is planted
  • First a sprout,
  • then stem,
  • and leaves,
  • and buds
  • come out.
  • Buds grow bigger,
  • smelling sweet,
  • bees and birds come
  • round to eat.
  • Bees and birds
  • help flowers spread
  • their new seeds on
  • the garden bed . .
  • A seed is planted.

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Concept Circles
  1. View a completed circle and name the concept
  2. Provide a concept and one word/picture add
    other words/pictures that fit
  3. Identify the word or picture that does not belong

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Concept CircleWhat concepts are represented?
Explain your choice __________________ _________
_________ __________________
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Concept CircleWhat other examples fit?
insects
Explain your choices ____________________ ______
______________ ____________________
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Concept Circle Which one does not belong?
Explain why ____________________ _______________
_____ ____________________
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Concept Circle What concepts are represented?
Explain your choice ____________________________
______ __________________________________
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Concept Circle Which one does not belong?
category
Explain why ____________________________________
__________ _______________________________________
_______ __________________________________________
____
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Mystery Bubbles
  • Select key concepts
  • Provide one clue related to the concept
  • Provide a list of vocabulary words including
    the concept words
  • Students must now complete the mystery bubbles
  • As students develop proficiency you may want to
    eliminate the word list
  • Students complete the bubbles on their own

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Mystery Bubbles
body hair
snake
mammals 3 middle ear bones reptiles scales
horse lay eggs
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DESERT
mid-America
Biomes / Habitats strata extreme
temperatures prairie equator temperate rainforest
little rainfall Sahara plains of grass
dense warm
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Mystery Bubbles without vocabulary list
MAYOR
brings bills
People in our Community
keepsus safe
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Stop, Review, Revise
  • Review your TLE for Reasoning with
    Information/Inferring activities
  • Create activities which support students in
    reasoning with information/inferring.

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Stages of Inquiry in the Classroom
  • Encountering the Issue
  • getting the big idea
  • making connections
  • Making Connections
  • Text to text, text to self, text to
  • world
  • Open and closed word sorts
  • Task Analysis
  • defining the task
  • asking questions
  • Asking Questions
  • Right there, think and search
  • Author and you, in your head
  • Investigating Information
  • seeking, organizing, analyzing,
  • applying to project
  • Determining Importance
  • Features, structures of text
  • Note taking, graphic organizers
  • Facts to main ideas, summaries
  • Reasoning with Information
  • evaluating, creating, judging,
  • inferring, visualizing
  • making decisions
  • Inferring and Visualizing
  • creating models
  • using text clues and prior knowledge
  • using implicit and explicit information to
    reach conclusions
  • Acting on Decisions
  • synthesizing
  • communicating findings

  • Synthesizing
  • text to text, self and world
  • applying to new settings and contexts
  • in your head

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IBL Methodology
  • Acting on Decisions
  • Review of earlier FTP elements in preparation for
    final performance/publication
  • Completion of work on FTP
  • Presentation to target audience
  • Evaluation of performance by student, teacher,
    and audience

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Comprehension Strategies
  • Making Connections
  • Asking Questions

Drawing Inferences
Determining Importance
Synthesizing
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Synthesis at the highest level goes beyond
merely taking stock of meaning as one reads. A
true synthesis is achieved when a new perspective
or thought is born out of the reading. Goudvis
Harvey, 2000
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Synthesis
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Synthesizing / Reasoning with Information
evaluating, creating, judging, inferring,
visualizing, making decisions
  • You are a tree in the fall. Your leaves are
    changing color for the first time. Tell what you
    see and how you feel. What would you say?
  • I feel imbarrist because all the trees around me
    are pine trees and their leaves dont change
    color. Im scared because I wonder if somethings
    wrong. I dont like it because I liked it when
    my leaves were green. Im asking the pine trees
    if something is wrong but they dont know because
    they have not dad it happen to them. I dont see
    any other trees to ask so I dont know what will
    happen next
  • Uh-oh! Your leaves are turning brown and falling
    to the ground. Now how do you feel? What do you
    see? What would you say?
  • Im starting to wonder if Im goinjg to die. I
    dont know if this is something that should
    happen. Im glad I got throught the other thing
    but this is even worse. This is worse than
    having a kid climb you. This is terrible. I
    hate it. I like green way better than
    brown. 2nd grade

Benchmark Predict and verify the life cycle of
plants
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Response to writing prompt at the conclusion of
the unit
  • You are a tree in the fall. Your leaves are
    changing color for the first time. Tell what you
    see and how you feel. What would you say?
  • I look so pretty but I wish they were nice fresh
    green. The colors are so pretty but I wish it
    never happens. I will just haft to stay like
    this for a long time. At least I am alive. I do
    not like fall because it makes my leave turn
    different colors.
  • Uh-oh! Your leaves are turning brown and falling
    to the ground. Now how do you feel? What do you
    see? What would you say?
  • I look so bad and my leaves are falling off. The
    brown is werse than last time. I rather have
    colored leaves than brown. At least they will
    turn green again nest summer. I wish I was a
    needle leaf and not a broad leaf. 2nd grade

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Student-Produced Readers Theatre
  1. In teams review texts and notes to create script.
  2. Small groups meet and read the script several
    times taking a different role with each
    reading.
  3. Students practice their roles
  4. Readers Theatre is performed

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Final Product
  • The last TLE allows teams to review and refine
    the final product or performance
  • Students use the Final Product Organizer to guide
    activities
  • Students help create the rubric to assess the
    quality of the FTP

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