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Roman Civilization

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Duty. Valor. Courage. Bravery. Sacrifice. Self sacrifice. Not self glorifying. Good of whole ... First war outside of Italy for Romans. 2nd Punic War (218 201 BCE) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Roman Civilization


1
Roman Civilization
2
The Empire
3
From City-state to World State
  • City State
  • Local citizenship
  • Exclusive
  • Fragmented
  • World state
  • Geographically larger
  • Political unity
  • Law
  • Taxation
  • Empire-wide citizenship
  • Commonly shared culture

4
Early Problems
  • Troublesome neighbors
  • Marauding outsiders (pirates)
  • Dangers from foreigners
  • Greeks / city-states in southern Italy
  • Gaul
  • Cathagians

5
Periods
  • Age of Monarchy
  • 753 509 BCE
  • end of Etruscan rule
  • Roman Republic
  • 509 31 BCE
  • Ends with age of Augustus
  • Imperial Age
  • 31 BCE - ???
  • 476 CE last emperor outside of Rome
    (Constantinople)
  • 1453 CE Turks invade Constantinople

6
Geography
  • Latium flat land
  • Etruria - North
  • Apennine Mountains East
  • Rivers
  • Po / Arno / Tiber / Rubicon
  • Ruma By the River
  • Rome established by Etruscans
  • Volcanic territory
  • Very rich soil
  • Supported large populations ( 5x population per
    acre)

7
Citizenship
  • Flexible legal category
  • Can make another legal citizen
  • Favored
  • Used as a reward / expansion
  • Italy
  • Cathage
  • Greece
  • Eastern Mediterranean
  • Western Mediterranean

8
  • Romulus Remus

Aeneas
ROME
9
Viritus
  • Vir man
  • Virtue
  • Duty
  • Valor
  • Courage
  • Bravery
  • Sacrifice
  • Self sacrifice
  • Not self glorifying
  • Good of whole
  • Strong sense of collective actions

10
SPQR
  • Senatus Populsque Romanus
  • Senate and Roman People
  • Ruling together to run society
  • Emperor derives power from SPQR

11
Italic People
  • Patron / Client relationship
  • Life-long continuous relationship
  • No interruption in support system
  • No break in generation
  • Competition
  • Patrons compete for clients
  • Status Symbol
  • Clients mean status
  • Client vote

12
Roman Republic Three Branches
  • Assemblies
  • Democratic element
  • Senate
  • Oligarchic element
  • Aristocrats only ones who pass laws
  • Magistrate
  • Royal element

13
Officials
  • Consuls
  • Pinnacle of Roman politics
  • Two Serve
  • One in Rome / One outside of Rome (Imperium)
  • Tribunes
  • Aristocrats
  • Watchdog of citizens
  • VETO power

14
Citizenship (part 2)
  • Extended to allies
  • Provide military service / protection from Rome
  • My enemies are your enemies and vice versa
  • Remain in control of local affairs
  • Civic obligation to Rome
  • Interest in Roman affairs

15
Military
  • Hoplite Phalanx not successful
  • Squads
  • Compact units
  • Defense on all sides
  • Samnites (southeastern Hills)
  • Stop the Romans theyll take over
  • Finally allied with Rome

16
Roman Confederacy
  • Rome / patron
  • Town-regions / client
  • Little resistance from conquered
  • Network of Alliances
  • Man-power from any region
  • Not exploiting areas
  • Roman rule unobtrusive

17
Carthage
  • 1st Punic War (264 241 BCE)
  • Rome v. Carthage for Sicily
  • First war outside of Italy for Romans
  • 2nd Punic War (218 201 BCE)
  • Carthage expanding into Spain
  • Roman allied convinced to turn against
    Carthagians
  • Hannibal (march across the Alps to Rome)
  • 3rd Punic War (149 146 BCE)
  • Rome sacks Carthage

18
Roman Problems (133- 31 BCE)
  • Reluctant Conquerors
  • New Citizen army volunteer
  • Gaius Marius commander
  • Senate trying to undercut
  • Successes raise expectations
  • Harder to prove viritus
  • Competition among aristocrats
  • Driven by need to do well (as ancestors)
  • Elections extensively manipulated

19
Problems (cont.)
  • Growing inequalities in wealth
  • Latifundia Plantation
  • Administrative Problems
  • Populares / Optimates
  • Civil War (88 - 82 BCE)
  • Sulla v. Marius
  • Sullas army seizes power

20
First Triumvirate (62 BCE)
Crassus Pompey Caesar

21
Crassus
  • Older member of Senate
  • Extremely wealthy
  • Put down Slave Revolt in 71 BCE

22
Pompey
  • Military general
  • Hailed as hero
  • Command in Spain
  • Made co-consul at age 28
  • In 70 BCE
  • Technically ineligible

23
Gaius Julius Caesar
  • From well respected family
  • Not wealthy
  • Had good reputation as military leader

24
First Triumvirate
  • 3 most influential politicians in Rome
  • No legal standing (co-Consuls)
  • All backroom power-sharing
  • Crassus Syria (dies in battle, 53 BCE)
  • Pompey Spain then Rome
  • Caesar sent to Gaul / growing powerful

25
Pompey v. Caesar
  • Senators believed Pompey more controllable
  • Call for Caesar to return as citizen
  • Return without troops
  • Caesar refuses / moves troops towards Rome
  • Do Not Cross the Rubicon, 49 BCE
  • Pompey flees to Egypt
  • Egypt fears Roman retaliation

26
Hail Caesar, 48 44 BCE
  • Defeats last of enemies
  • Assumes complete control
  • Tyrant seized control illegally
  • Ignored Senate
  • Dictator for Life
  • Ides of March March 15, 44 BCE
  • Conspiracy formed against him
  • Brutus, right hand man
  • Death brings Civil War

27
Second Triumvirate, 31 BCE
  • Reign in civil war conspirators
  • Octavian
  • Caesars nephew
  • Wins over 2nd Triumvirate
  • Marc Antony
  • Caesars Lieutenant
  • Lepidus

28
Octavian, 31 BCE
  • Defeats Marc Antony
  • Marc Antony supported by Egyptians led by
    Cleopatra
  • Beginning of Roman Imperial Age
  • Principate- first man of senate
  • Senate still around

29
Imperial Age
  • Ruled by an Emperor
  • Shouted by soldiers
  • Title of respect given to a Great General
  • Octavian had No kingly goals
  • Claimed to be First man of the Senate
  • Octavian Augustus
  • Revered one

30
Political Maneuvering
  • 27 BCE staged retirement
  • Allowed others to be consul
  • Senate gave permanent imperium
  • Command soldiers
  • Wage battle
  • Requested to be made TRIBUNE / Principate
  • Can talk first
  • Veto power
  • Cannot be charged with offense / prosecuted
  • 45 years of political rule ( 31 BCE 23 CE)

31
Roman Empire
  • Rome unchallenged in Mediterranean world
  • Internal Stability
  • External Peace
  • Developed significant cultural advances
  • Spread of Romanitas (roman-ness)
  • Sense of sameness / shared culture
  • Professional Army

32
Army
  • 25 Legions
  • 150,000 men
  • Citizens
  • 20 years of service / bonus after 13
  • Permanently stationed at Frontiers
  • Easily moved to support other areas
  • Towns develop around armies
  • Natural Barriers
  • Sea / river / desert
  • Auxiliary
  • 150,000
  • Non-citizens
  • 25 years of service / citizenship for whole
    family

33
Pax Romana
  • Nearly 200 years
  • What to do with army?
  • Building projects
  • Roads / Transportation / Communication
  • Contributes to making urban centers
  • Expanding World-State

34
Mystery Cults
  • Romans receptive to variety of religious cults
  • Series of Initiations
  • secretive
  • Elaborate rituals
  • Affirms membership
  • Individual path to salvation
  • Sense of communal identity
  • Eternal life through union with savior god /
    goddess
  • Savior resurrection

35
Jewish People of Empire
  • 6 CE Judea kingdom now Roman province
  • Internal strife among Jewish people of Judea
  • Sadducees
  • Favored Roman control
  • Pharisees
  • Wanted Judea to be free of Romans
  • Did not advocate violent means to gain freedom
  • Zealots
  • Militants advocating overthrow of Roman control

36
Christianity
  • Mystery cult
  • Ignored by Romans
  • Urban centered
  • Judaism Messiah
  • Christianity Christ - Anointed one
  • Jesus
  • Born around 6 BCE
  • Crucified around 30 CE / reserved for political
    traitors
  • Gospels
  • Accounts of teachings
  • Matthew / Mark / Luke / John
  • Written between 70 100 CE

37
Message
  • Messiah would come soon
  • Judgment was imminent
  • Abandon sin / worldly interest
  • Follow Moral Code
  • Love / charity / humility
  • Critical of established Jewish priests
  • Did not reject Judaism
  • Be better Jews!

38
Saul of Tarsus
  • Disciples Go tell Good News
  • God offers Forgiveness
  • Saul Pharisee
  • Persecuted Church / followers
  • Traveled throughout Empire persecuting
  • Damascus (Syria)
  • Converted in 35 CE
  • Changes name to PAUL of Tarsus
  • Expanding message
  • Letters to Churches

39
Early Christianity
  • 70 CE Romans Destroy Jerusalem
  • 200 313 CE periods of alternating persecution
  • Empire wide persecution 303 -310 CE
  • Rapid Growth in Numbers
  • Appeals to women / lower classes
  • Anyone welcome who believes
  • Internal Organization
  • Catechumens / Priests / Deacons / Bishops
  • Martyrs
  • Christians heroes
  • Living symbols of truth in Gods word
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