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Ballet and Modern Dance


The king's own dancing master and perhaps the first great French dancer, Pierre ... The interracial company won a new audience for ballet and opened opportunities ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ballet and Modern Dance

Ballet and Modern Dance
Italian Beginnings
Italian Beginnings
  • Gugliemo Ebreo (William the Jew), teacher of
    dance to the nobility, wrote a study of dance
    that includes first examples of choreography.
  • Dance moved from court feasts to ballrooms to the
    theatres.Intermezzos dances performed between
    acts of classical drama or operas
  • Balletti originally used to refer to dance in
    ballrooms, came to be used to refer to dance in

Le Balet Comique De La Reine Performance
commissioned by Catherine de Medici at the Valois
Court of Henri III
Le Balet Comique De La Reine
  • 1581 First ballet -- Le Balet Comique de la
    Reine aka Circe composed by Balthazar Beaujoyeulx
  • Court entertainment for wedding festivities at
    the French Valois Court
  • Three geometrical dance entries carefully woven
    into the plot of the production
  • First conscious effort to blend verse, music,
    dance, scenic elements and costume into a unified
    and coherent theatrical statement.

Ballet de Cours Court Ballet at Versailles
Ballet de Cours Court Ballet at Versailles
  • Ballet as Western civilization knows it is an
    invention of artists associated with the French
    court of the Sun King, Louis XIV
  • The king's own dancing master and perhaps the
    first great French dancer, Pierre Beauchamps, was
    head of the Dance Academy. Court composer
    Jean-Baptiste Lully oversaw all productions.
  • The ballet de cour dancers traced inventive
    patterns on the stage as one component of an
    elaborate stage presentation.
  • The codification of technique helped to create
    the later dance vocabulary and the self-contained

Romantic Ballet
Romantic Ballet
  • A trend toward a greater degree of
    self-expression began early in the 18th century.
  • Marie Camargo introduced new steps to the
    vocabulary and raised her skirt several inches to
    show off her technique.
  • Emphasis on en pointe dancing.
  • 19th century ballerinas, Marie Taglioni, Carlotta
    Grisi, Fanny Cerrito ,Lucile Grahn and Fanny
    Elssler symbolize the essence of Romantic ballet,
    a style that stresses above all else an ethereal
    and floating lightness. Title roles were created
    in such works as La Sylphide and Giselle that
    exploited their airiness and other-worldliness

Ballet dAction Story Ballet
Ballet dAction Story Ballet
  • Ballet tells a self-contained story.
  • French choreographers in the vanguard
  • Pierre Rameau codified the five absolute
    positions of the feet and encouraged a livelier,
    less earthbound style of dancing
  • Jean-Georges Noverre, the father of the ballet
    d'action, urged a full range of facial and bodily
    gestures be used to express emotion.
  • Milanese Carlo Blasis Code of Terpsichore, a
    manual of instruction became the standard ballet
    handbook throughout Europe

Russian Ballet
Russian Ballet
  • Marius Petipa came from Italy to St. Petersburg
    in 1847.
  • As ballet master of the Imperial Maryinsky (now
    the Kirov) Ballet, Petipa created the core of the
    Russian repertoire with such works as Don
    Quixote, Swan Lake, The Nutcracker, and Sleeping
  • Important composers such as Tschiakovsky
    collaborated with Petipa.
  • Rigorous training for dancers from a young age
    ensured brilliant technique.

Diaghilevs Ballets Russe
Anna Pavlova
Diaghilevs Ballets Russe
  • Preeminent Ballet Company of first three decades
    of 20th C.
  • Led by Serge Diaghelev, the companty toured
    Europe and N.and S. America
  • Choreographers included Fokine, Massine, Nijinsky
    and Balanchine
  • Dancers included Pavlova, Nijinsky and Karasavina
  • Scenic designers included Leon Bakst and Pablo
  • Composers included Stravinsky, Debussy, and Satie
  • When company disbanded after Diaghelevs death in
    1929, many artists moved to America

Diaghilevs Ballets Russe
  • Diaghilevs Ballets Russe

New York City Ballet
  • After the Ballets Russes disbanded, Balanchine
    was asked by Lincoln Kirstein to form a ballet
    company in America.
  • In 1933 the School of American Ballet accepted
    its first students.
  • A succession of companies evolved to become the
    New York City Ballet in 1948.
  • Balanchine created a body of works unequaled in
    stylistic range and emotional variety --
  • Collaborated with Stravinsky and moved ballet to
    a purer, abstract expression
  • NYCB stars include Suzanne Farrell, Jacques
    d'Amboise, Edward Villella, and Peter Martins.

New York City Ballet and George Balanchine
  • George Balanchine
  • New York City Ballet

Modern Dance
Isadora Duncan
  • First to raise the status of interpretive dance
    to that of creative art
  • Rejected ballet as unsuited to the American
  • Performed barefoot and without tights, preferring
    a filmy, loose-fitting tunic
  • Sought models and inspiration from ancient Greek
    arts, nature, social dances and American
  • Although she founded schools in Europe and
    America, her improvisational style proved
    difficult to replicate

Isadora Duncan
  • Isadora Duncan 1878-1927
  • Isadora Duncan Foundation for Contemporary Dance

Denishawn Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn
Denishawn Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn
  • Denishawn School of Dancing and Related Arts,
    dance school and company founded in 1915 by Ruth
    St. Denis and her husband, Ted Shawn
  • Fostered such performers as Martha Graham, Doris
    Humphry, and Charles Weidman
  • St. Denis turned to Oriental dances for ideas
    about dance as spiritual art later cofounded of
    Authentic School of Oriental Dancing, called
    Natya, in New York City
  • Shawn pioneered the role of male dancer, draining
    male dancers and creating dances based on Native
    American and Western folklore. Founder of
    Jacobs Pillow Festival

Martha Graham
  • Martha Graham was to modern dance what Pablo
    Picasso was to modern art.
  • In a career spanning 70 years, Martha Graham
    created 180 dance works using a variety of motifs
  • Fusion of abstract gestures to psychological
    symbols (Primitive Mysteries)
  • American mythic heritage (Appalachian Spring)
  • Classical tragedy (Medea, Clytemnestra)
  • Technique includes emphasis on the center of the
    body, not its extremities angular stances
    explosive, stylized gestures, spare and abstract
    stage settings
  • Trained or influenced every important modern
    dancer--José Limón, Paul Taylor, Merce
    Cunningham, and Twyla Tharp --and made America
    the center of modern dance.

Martha Graham
  • Martha Graham
  • Times 100 Most Influential Artists of the 20th
    C Martha Graham

Katherine Dunham
  • Anthropologist (PhD U of Chicago), dancer,
    choreographer and educator
  • Ethnic dance research in the Caribbean led her to
    found in 1940 the first all-black concert dance
    troupe, Les Ballets Negre, to perform 'Tropics
    and le Jazz Hot'
  • Choreography combined black island dances with
    ballet and theatrical effects.
  • 1945 the Dunham School of Dance was opened in New
    York City.
  • Choreographed opera (Aida, Treemonisha), Broadway
    (Cabin in the Sky), and film (Stormy Weather)
  • 1965-67 Senegals Cultural Minister
  • Ran inner-city school in East St. Louis teaching
    performing arts to gang members

Katherine Dunham
  • The Kennedy Center Honors Katherine Dunham
  • Katherine Dunham Centers for Arts and Humanities

American Ballet Theatre
  • The Ballet Theatre presented its first
    performance on Jan. 11, 1940.
  • Struck a balance between tradition and
  • Led for 40 years by Lucia Chase and Oliver Smith,
    ABT commissioned works by such leading
    choreographers as Anthony Tudor, Agnes DeMille
    and Jerome Robbins.
  • Celebrated performers have included Alicia
    Alonso, Rudolph Nureyev, Natalia Makarova, Antony
    Tudor, and Mikhail Baryshnikov, its artistic
    director from 1980 to 1989.

American Ballet Theatre
  • American Ballet Theatre

Dance Theatre of Harlem
  • Arthur Mitchell, the first black dancer to
    perform with the New York City Ballet, founded
    the Dance Theatre of Harlem in 1971
  • Began with 30 children in a church basement--two
    months later, 400 children were attending classes
  • The interracial company won a new audience for
    ballet and opened opportunities for young black
  • Repertory expanded to encompass classical,
    modern, and ethnically oriented works
  • "Dancing Through Barriers" is designed to make
    children worldwide aware of dance.

Dance Theatre of Harlem
  • Dance Theatre of Harlem

Alvin Ailey
  • Born in Texas in 1931, Ailey spent his formative
    years going to Sunday School --see Revelations
  • Trained with Lester Horton, Katherine Dunham and
    Martha Grahman, Stella Adler among others
  • 1958, Ailey founded his own company, the Alvin
    Ailey American Dance Theater, company dedicated
    to enriching the American modern dance heritage
    and preserving black cultural expression.
  • First American dance company invited to the
    Soviet Union.
  • 1969, Ailey founded the Alvin Ailey American
    Dance Center now training 3500 students a year

Alvin Ailey
  • Alvin Ailey Dance Theatre