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Title: Virtualization%20Technology%20Trends


1
Virtualization Technology Trends
Intel Corporation 21 July 2008
2
Agenda
  • Virtualization Technology evolution
  • VMMs
  • Hybrid virtualization
  • Open Virtualization Format Specification
  • Virtual Machine Interface
  • Usages evolution

3
Intel Virtualization Technology Evolution
  • Assists for IO sharing
  • PCI IOV compliant devs
  • VMDq Multi-context IO
  • End-point DMA translation caching
  • IO virtualization assists

Core support for IO robustness performance via
DMA remapping
Interrupt filtering remapping VT-d extensions
to track PCI-SIG IOV
Richer/faster Intel VT FlexPriority,
FlexMigration EPT, VPID, ECRR, APIC-V
Close basic processor virtualization holes in
Intel 64 Itanium CPUs
Perf improvements for interrupt intensive env,
faster VM boot
Software-only VMMs Binary translation
Paravirtualization Device emulations
Simpler and more secure VMM through use of
hardware VT support
Better IO/CPU perf and functionality via
hardware-mediated access to memory
Richer IO-device functionality and IO resource
sharing
All timeframes, dates, and products are subject
to change without further notification
4
Intels Next Ecosystem of Virtualization
Innovation
  • Solution
  • Challenge
  • Industry Efforts
  • Designed for Multi-Core Processors
  • Deliver scalable performance for Intel multi-core
    servers

Other names and brands may be claimed as the
property of others.
5
Gigabit Virtualization Evolution Next Generation
Usage Models Through Virtualization Innovation
Whats Coming
Todays Networking
Wire Speed Rx Side Performance With VMDq on
Intel 82598 10 Gigabit Ethernet Controller
VM1
VM2
VMn

vNIC
vNIC
vNIC
VMM
Layer 2 Software Switch
NIC

Layer 2 Sorter
w/ VMDq
MAC/PHY
LAN
6
Virtualization Performance Robust Tick Tock
Roadmap
Roadmap will continue to deliver higher raw
performance (Moores Law), and architectural
enhancements to improve efficiency in virtualized
environments
All timeframes, dates, and products are subject
to change without further notification
7
Intel virtualization in embedded devices
All timeframes, dates, and products are subject
to change without further notification
8
PC vs. Devices
  • VM in KVM (along with Qemu) means PC
  • Legacy devices, interrupt controllers, timers,
    ACPI/BIOS, PCI devices, monitor, keyboard, mouse,
    etc.
  • There are various devices or computers that are
    not compatible with PC
  • Network routers, , robots, , toasters, ,
    PDAs/MIDs,
  • Some can afford very small amount of memory (e.g.
    128MB)
  • And various operating systems and apps have been
    developed for those
  • Porting such (legacy) OS, drivers, and apps to
    PC is not straightforward

All timeframes, dates, and products are subject
to change without further notification
9
Benefits of Using Virtualization for Embedded
Systems
  • Portability Maintainability
  • Provides simplified and uniformed VM to
    minimizing porting and maintenance efforts
  • Once virtualized, its independent of H/W
  • Scalability Consolidation
  • Legacy operating systems often support UP only
  • Multiple instances of VMs
  • Reliability Protection
  • Tolerate and isolate fatal errors in legacy OS
    guest and software to avoid system crash
  • Sandboxing

All timeframes, dates, and products are subject
to change without further notification
10
Whats Mini-VM and Why?
  • Bare minimum and simple VM
  • CPU(s), memory, abstracted (PV) devices
  • Timer, front-end devices (or virtio)
  • Start from protected (or 64-bit) mode with paging
    enabled no real mode No BIOS
  • Protected execution environment by H/W
  • Run under H/W-assisted virtualization
  • Allow Ring-0 operations, eliminating burden of
    para-virtualizingCPU
  • Low virtualization overheads
  • Use hybrid virtualization (PV H/W-assisted
    virtualization)
  • Real-time (e.g. direct paging mode)
  • Check at the Mini-VM project

All timeframes, dates, and products are subject
to change without further notification
11
Hybrid virtualization
  • Use hardware-assisted virtualization
  • The cost of VM exit/entry will be even lower in
    the future
  • Cost of VMCALL is lower than other VM exits
  • Use para-virtualization on focused areas
  • Starting from hardware-assisted
    full-virtualization
  • Easier to share the kernel binary with the native
  • Reduce paravirtual operations significantly
  • The kernel regains the native CPU features lost
    in software only para-virtualization
  • Fast system calls
  • Global pages
  • Paging-based protection (U/S), etc.
  • Privileged instructions
  • GDT, IDT, LDT, TSS, cli/sti, etc.
  • Standard exceptions/interrupts

12
Focus areas for hybrid virtualization
  • Timer
  • Scheduling
  • Idle handling
  • Interrupt controllers
  • MMU
  • Memory overcommit
  • Or hardware-assisted (i.e. EPT or NPT)
  • Inter VMs communication

13
Usage trends
  • Business continuity
  • High availability support through the
    synchronization of VMs
  • Reduction of unplanned downtime
  • Seamless management of resources
  • Livemigration
  • Service Oriented Architectures leveraged by
    Virtualization
  • Beginning of growth curve-expansion for desktop
    and application virtualization
  • Increased focus on security
  • Licensing issues/changing
  • Virtual Machines mobility
  • Open Virtualization Format Specification
  • Virtual Machines Interface
  • Live migration
  • Graphics virtualization
  • From a paravirtualization to a direct access
    approach

14
The future of Virtualization
15
Cloud computing
  • Cloud computing relates to the underlying
    architecture in which the services are designed
  • Applications run somewhere on the cloud we
    dont care where
  • Big news is for application developers and IT
    operations.
  • develop, deploy and run applications that can
    easily grow capacity (scalability), work fast
    (performance), and never or at least rarely
    fail (reliability)
  • Infrastructures should have these
    characteristics
  • Self-healing hot backup application
  • SLA-driven
  • Multi-tenancy built in a way that allows shared
    infrastructure
  • Service-oriented
  • Virtualized
  • Linearly Scalable The system shall be
    predictable and efficient in growing the
    application
  • Data management

16
Desktop/App virtualization Market expansion
According to a recent tracker study on the
Asia/Pacific excluding Japan (APEJ) thin client
market, total sales of thin clients in 1H 2007
reached 282,667 units, representing an increase
of 37.3 over the previous year. Revenue likewise
increased 29.2 over the same period Across the
various verticals, the predominant role of thin
clients across the region has shifted away from
government/education segment to financial
services as the leading vertical of thin client
adoption from 1H 2006 onwards
17
Open Virtualization Format Specification
  • OVF Specification from DMTF describes an open,
    secure, portable, efficient and extensible format
    for the packaging and distribution of software in
    (collections of) virtual machines
  • Optimized for distribution
  • Optimized for a simple, automated user experience
  • Supports both single VM and multiple-VM
    configurations
  • Portable VM packaging
  • Vendor and platform independent
  • Extensible
  • Localizable
  • Open standard

18
OVF Packages
  • package.ovf -gt metadata descriptor (required)
  • package.mf -gt manifest (optional) containing the
    SHA-1 digests of individual files in the package
  • package.cert -gt signature of the digest
    (optional) along with the base64-encoded X.509
    certificate
  • de-DE-resources.xml -gt OVF Envelope describes VMS
    metadata
  • vmdisk1.vmdk -gt no specific disk format to be
    used is required
  • vmdisk2.vmdk
  • resource.iso -gt (optional)
  • Distribution
  • OVF package can be made available as a set of
    files
  • OVF package can be stored as a single file using
    the TAR format. The extension should be .ova
    (open virtual appliance or application)

19
Virtual Machine Interface
  • In 2005, VMware proposed a paravirtualization
    interface, the Virtual Machine Interface (VMI),
    as a communication mechanism between the guest
    operating system and the hypervisor
  • An implementation of this standard was merged in
    the main Linux kernel version 2.6.21
  • Motivations
  • Portability it should be easy to port a guest OS
    to use the API
  • High performance the API must not obstruct a
    high performance hypervisor implementation
  • Maintainability it should be easy to maintain
    and upgrade the guest OS
  • Extensibility it should be possible for future
    expansion of the API
  • No considerable adoption of the proposed VMI
    architecture, although a pending need to be
    satisfied (considering HVM additions as new x86
    support)
  • What about proposing an interface from the
    platform?

20
Wrap up
  • Virtualization Technology Introduction
  • Beginnings of Virtualization Technology in x86
  • Approaches to server and client virtualization
  • Virtualization Usages in Servers
  • IT business needs behind Virtualization
    Technology
  • VMMs / Hypervisors
  • Deep dive in the open source Xen hypervisor
  • Overview of KVM, VMware, OpenVZ
  • Hardware assisted Virtualization
  • Software solution for x86 virtualization
  • Enhancements through hardware assisted
    virtualization
  • Intel VT features
  • Virtualization Technology trends
  • VMMs standardization and VMs mobility
  • Virtualization in every platform

21
How to start
  • Do I need virtualization?
  • Consider the server side
  • Lab in the University
  • Data Center consolidation
  • Environments for server applications development
  • Consider the clients side
  • VMs for each student
  • VMs for users with low processing power needs
  • Which do I choose?
  • Open source for teaching/learning purposes
  • Choose the right one for your needs
  • Commercial solutions for highly dynamic data
    centers
  • Can I do some research in the area?
  • Several open source projects in the software side
    with pending topics
  • Standards to integrate virtualization through
    manageability

22
Gracias! Thank You!
23
Backup
24
Additional information sources
  • For specifications and to learn more
  • Intel VT Web Site
  • http//www.intel.com/technology/platform-technolog
    y/virtualization/
  • Intel Virtualization Software Community
  • http//www.intel.com/software/virtualization
  • Online collateral on Intel VT-x/VT-i
  • http//www.intel.com/products/processor/manuals/in
    dex.htm?iidtechnology_virtualizationengagebody_i
    ntel64manual

25
References
  • http//www.dmtf.org/standards/published_documents/
    DSP0243_1.0.0.pdf
  • http//www.vmware.com/pdf/vmi_specs.pdf
  • http//www.vmware.com/interfaces/
  • http//lists.xensource.com/archives/html/xen-merge
    /2005-08/msg00076.html
  • http//download.microsoft.com/download/a/f/d/afdfd
    50d-6eb9-425e-84e1-b4085a80e34e/SYS-T312_WH07.pptx
  • http//wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/Open_Topics_For_
    Discussion?actionAttachFiledogettargetXenLoop
    _ATransparentHighPerformanceInter-VMpdf
  • http//wiki.xensource.com/xenwiki/Open_Topics_For_
    Discussion?actionAttachFiledogettargetMemory
    Overcommit.pdf

26
Virtualization Is Mainstream
27
Benchmarking In A Virtualized Environment
  • Traditional benchmarking covers Performance,
    Power, Scalability
  • Metrics Throughput (MB/s), Response time,
    users, etc
  • Micro-architecture focus cache sizing,
    frequency, bandwidth, etc.
  • New technology requires new areas of analysis
    and metrics
  • Areas of focus driven by use models.
  • E.g., VM migration time, VM utilization
  • Need to measure how Intel Virtualization
    technology benefits end-users and ISVs

28
Benchmarking Challenges
  • Virtualization presents unique challenges
  • Which configurations to focus on
  • Homogeneous or heterogeneous OS
  • Number Virtual Machines
  • Configuration of individual VMs (CPU, Memory,
    NIC, HBA, HDD)
  • Measuring performance
  • Virtual clock accuracy induces platform dependent
    error
  • Availability of performance monitoring
    capabilities
  • Consolidation use case adds additional testing
    challenges
  • Synchronicity Use automation scripts
  • Utilization Avoid harmonic bottlenecks
  • Steady State Easy, repeatable measurements
  • Only way to overcome the challenges is to develop
    the benchmarks
  • Tier consolidation using SAP SD
  • vConsolidate a server application consolidation
    benchmark

29
Server Consolidation Benchmark vConsolidate
  • Description
  • Benchmark that represents predominant use case -gt
    server application consolidation
  • Application types selected for consolidation
    guided by market data
  • vConsolidate provides
  • A methodology for measuring performance in a
    consolidated environment
  • A means for fellow travelers to publish
    virtualization performance proof points
  • The ability to analyze performance across VMMs
    and hardware platforms
  • Knowledge obtained ? SPEC virtualization workload

Percent of Application Types Consolidated
Application Type Application Type
Business Processing 26.2
Database 28.5
Decision Support 9.2
Collaborative 8.4
Application Development 12.0
Web Infrastructure 6.8
IT Infrastructure 4.8
Technical 3.5
Other 0.6
(Data based on IDC Multiclient Report Server
Virtualization 2005)
30
vConsolidate Framework
  • 5 Virtual Machines
  • 3 Clients Controller, Mail, and Web

31
Software Stack
Database Sysbench Windows/SQL Server or
Linux/MySQL
Mail Microsoft LoadSim Microsoft
Exchange Microsoft Windows
Database
Java Modified Specjbb2005 BEA Jrockit Microsoft
Windows or RedHat Linux
Mail
Web Webbench Microsoft Windows/IIS or RedHat
Linux/Apache
Web
Java
Other names and brands may be claimed as the
property of others
32
vConsolidate CSU
  • Consolidation Stack Unit (CSU)
  • Smallest granule in vCon
  • Consist of 5 Virtual Machines
  • Database
  • Commercial Mail
  • Web Server
  • Java Application Server
  • Idle
  • Each CSU represents single score
  • Final score is aggregate of the individual CSU
    scores

Database
Web
Mail
Java
idle
Database
Web
1 CSU
Web
Java
idle
33
vConsolidate Profiles
Profile defines a CSU configurations
34
Methodology
  • Running vConsolidate
  • Controller application
  • Starts the tests via helper scripts Runs for 30
    minutes
  • Stops the test and reports score
  • Time measured in Controller Client ? external
    timer
  • Scoring
  • The Controller application calculates final
    score
  • SpecJBB, Sysbench and Loadsim -
    transactions/ second
  • WebBench throughput
  • CSU Final Score GEOMEAN (VM Relative Perfi)

35
What Is Intel Doing On Benchmarking?
New usage models
New benchmarks
  • Seeding Industry with Benchmark Workloads
  • vConsolidate Consolidated stack of business
    workloads consisting of Server Side Java,
    Commercial Database, Commercial Mail, Commercial
    Web Server on 4 VMs
  • Collaborating with Virtualization leaders
  • Microsoft and OEMs - consolidation workloads,
    methodology metrics
  • VMware VMmark consolidation stack
  • Establishing benchmarks with ISV/OSVs
  • Contributing to standard benchmarks through SPEC
    (long term)

Intel is working with the Industry to remove
barriers to adoption
Other names and brands may be claimed as the
property of others.
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