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Course business

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Projects in and near Greensboro, AL ... Admixtures and pigments also problematical. Concrete-'Green'???? Reduce reliance on cement ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Course business


1
Course business
  • Updated course schedule
  • Log your hours on SL PRO!
  • Date for a field trip
  • Alternative green houses in Northport
  • Green building project in Tuscaloosa
  • Projects in and near Greensboro, AL
  • Environmental Fair This Tuesday, Feb 17th, 1201
    15th Street from 5-8pm. Mandatory.

2
Reflection question 1 for next time
  • Write 500-1000 words
  • And put word count in heading of the piece
  • What makes a building or space livable? What
    features or characteristics contribute to the
    health or well-being of the occupants? How does
    this intersect with sustainability?

3
Reflection question 2 for next time
  • Write 500-1000 words
  • And put word count in heading of the piece
  • What does home ownership mean in America? Is
    having a healthy place to live a human right?

4
Next time
  • Meet in 109 Carmichael for surprise lecturer
  • Faculty candidate in New College seminar
  • LEED in-class and take-home assignment
  • LEED/Homes
  • Semester project brainstorming
  • Division into working teams (3)

5
Green materials
6
The average American in their lifetime accounts
for the use of 540 t of construction materials,
18 t of paper, 23 t of wood, 16 t of metals, and
32 t of organic chemicals. (p. 11, Worldwatch
Paper 121, The Next Efficiency Revolution
Creating a Sustainable Materials Economy, John E.
Young Aaron Sachs, September 1994)
7
Outline
  • Commercially available products that are
    alternatives to conventional materials in
    residential/commercial construction
  • Wood - framing
  • Insulation
  • Flooring
  • Siding
  • Concrete, brick, etc
  • Paints, adhesives, foams, etc
  • Other materials
  • Advantages and disadvantages
  • Overview of alternative alternative materials
  • Often used outside code purview

8
All materials cost money, all have an impact on
the environment
  • Reduce reuse recycle
  • In that order
  • The greenest structure is one that isnt built
  • With green building, we want to MINIMIZE impacts
    of construction, operation, and maintenance of
    structures on the environment

9
Green materials…
  • Work within the pattern of natures cycles, as a
    part of the ecosystem
  • Are non-toxic to humans, pets, other animals, and
    the environment
  • Are made from recycled materials
  • Are reused
  • Are energy and water efficient
  • Have a low carbon footprint
  • Embody low energy
  • Are local
  • Incorporate these principles in manufacture,
    distribution, use, and recycling

10
Challenges
  • Green materials may not be available
  • Often require creativity to use
  • Changing how our buildings look
  • Contractors may not be familiar with alternative
    building materials
  • And dont want to risk making costly mistakes in
    an unfamiliar medium
  • Resistance to alternative materials
  • Green building is just a little too green
  • They look, feel, and ARE DIFFERENT
  • Code restrictions
  • Sometimes clear, sometimes not

11
Context
  • Materials are the most difficult problem to
    address in sustaining the built environment
  • What are green materials?
  • How do we evaluate them?
  • What is the best we can do?
  • What are the limitations?
  • How do we make industry change?
  • Materials flows between all economic sectors,
    construction uses about 40 in U.S.

12
Principles of Sustainable Construction
  • Minimize resource consumption (Conserve)
  • Maximize resource reuse (Reuse)
  • Use renewable or recyclable resources
    (Renew/Recycle)
  • Protect the natural environment (Protect nature)
  • Create a healthy, non-toxic environment
  • (Non-Toxics)
  • Apply Life Cycle Cost Analysis (Economics)
  • Pursue Quality in creating the built environment
    (Quality)

13
Evolution of sustainable construction phases
14
Accelerating Progress- Closing Materials Loops
  • Products DfE
  • Embedded in emerging science of Industrial
    Ecology
  • Well-established in other sectors automotive,
    appliances, electronics
  • Materials selection and fastening systems are
    crucial
  • Design Ecological design
  • Appears in virtually definitions of sustainable
    construction/green building
  • Weakest link in sustainable construction-
    evolution has been slow
  • Must include detailed and comprehensive natural
    systems integration
  • End of Life Deconstruction
  • Whole/partial disassembly of buildings to enhance
    reuse and recycling
  • Design for deconstruction is an essential
    requirement

15
Ecological Design
  • Some definitions
  • the effective adaptation to and interaction with
    natures processes (Sim Van der Ryn)
  • proactive attempts to mitigate humanitys
    transformation and negative impact on particular
    natural systems (Peter Wheelright)
  • Needed
  • Resolution of the meaning of ecological design
  • Integration of natural systems as a key
    component
  • Application to energy, water, materials,
    ecosystem resources in sustainable construction
  • Model or metaphor?

16
Sustainability Issues
What are the sustainability issues connected to
materials? Renewable resources Recyclability Re
cycled Content Downcycling Waste Disposal Changing
linear processes to cyclical ones.
17
Basics of Building Materials
  • Materials vs. products
  • Recycling vs. Reuse
  • Building materials are traditional and change
    slowly concrete, steel, aluminum, wood, clay,
    rock, glass
  • New materials plastics, hamburger helper wood
  • New building materials emerge to replace others
    that become scarce or too costly
  • New building products creating problems
    composites, no secondary use, non-renewable
    resources
  • There is significant waste in the demolition and
    construction processes
  • ALL materials production creates environmental
    problems

18
Measures for Evaluation
Embodied Energy Emissions (Manufacture and
In-Place) Recyclability Reuseability Recycled
Content Durability Ecological Footprint
19
Embodied Energy (EE)
Embodied Energy Extraction
Manufacturing Installation Transport Energy
20
  • Products with Low Embodied Energy
  • Green Building Practices promote conservation of
    energy in production of building materials
  • Production of materials requires less energy
    using recycled content
  • 90 less for plastics
  • 50 less for steel and paper
  • 30 less for glass
  • It takes 2,400 less energy to produce aluminum
    using recycled material

21
EE-Some Common Building Materials
Material Embodied Energy (BTUs per
pound) Steel 19,200 Concrete
10,300 Linoleum 49,934 Vinyl Flooring
34,000 Nylon Carpet 63,500 Recycled
Plastic Carpet 45,800 Organic-Solvent Paints
20,500 Water-Based Paints 10,000
Wood 91,618 (30,000 for a 8 2x4)
22
EE-Carpeting
Type Embodied Energy, Btu/lb
Nylon 63,500 Polyester No
data Olefin 41,000 PET 45,800
Wool No data
23
Cardinal Rules for a Closed Loop Building
Materials Strategy
1. Buildings must be deconstructable. 2. Products
must be disassemblable. 3. Materials must be
recyclable. 4. Products/materials must be
harmless in production and in use. 5. Materials
dissipated from recycling must be harmless
24
Pragmatic View (EBN)
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26
General Materials Strategy
  • Reuse existing structures
  • Reduce materials use
  • Use materials from renewable resources
  • Reuse building components
  • Use recycled content and recyclable materials
  • Use locally produced materials

27
LEED-NC 2.2 MR
  • MRp1 Storage and collection of recyclables
  • MRc1 Reuse of existing buildings 75, 95, 50
    or inteio
  • MRc2Construction waste diversion 50, 75
  • MRc3 Materials reuse 5, 10
  • MRc4 Recycled content 10, 20
  • MRc5 Regional materials 10, 20
  • MRc6 Rapidly renewable materials 2.5
  • MRc7 Certified wood 50

28
Major Building Materials
  • Structure, shell, exterior
  • Steel
  • Concrete
  • CMU
  • Brick
  • Stone
  • Siding Vinyl, cement composite
  • Wood
  • Glass
  • Interior Finishes
  • Paint
  • Carpeting
  • Substrates
  • Insulation

29
Wood general use
  • Wood from sustainably managed local forests may
    be among the greenest available materials
  • Often not local or sustainably managed

30
Wood - Green
1. Certify Wood Products FSC or AFPA FSC
Forestry Stewardship Council AFPA American
Forest and Paper Association 2. Reduce wood
waste in manufacture 3. Reduce wood waste in
construction 4. Better reuse of wood products
31
Wood-Current (1)
  • Only renewable material suitable for structure
  • Lumber is 50 of worlds wood production
  • US consumption of timber products 450 m tons -
    25 is structural lumber
  • Products framing lumber, plywood, OSB,
    engineered wood products
  • Problems and Issues
  • resource depletion, old growth forests
  • removal of environmental function (CO2
    sequestering)
  • forestry practices, and certification
  • wood waste production and in construction
  • CO2 generation via deforestation (2 gigaton/yr
    vs. 5 gigaton/yr fm fossil fuels)

32
Wood-Current (2)
  • Treated lumber- fungus and termite resistant
  • 95 is pressure treated
  • Ammonical-chromium arsemate (ACA) and chromated
    copper arsenate (CCA) are most common
  • ACA and CCA are water soluble salts and toxic to
    fish and other water species

33
Sustainable Forestry To
practice sustainable forestry to meet the needs
of the present without compromising the
ability of future generations to meet their own
needs by practicing a land stewardship
ethic which integrates the reforestation
managing, growing, nurturing, and
harvesting of trees for useful products with the
conservation of soil, air and water
quality, wildlife and fish habitat, aesthetics.
Responsible Practices
To use in its own forests,
promote among other forest landowners,
sustainable forestry practices that are
economically environmentally
responsible. Forest Health
and Productivity To protect
forests from wildfire, pests, diseases, and other
damaging agents in order to maintain and
improve long-term forest health and
productivity. Protecting
Special Sites To manage its
forests and lands of special significance (e.g.,
biologically, geologically, or
historically significant) in a manner that takes
into account their unique qualities.
Continuous Improvement
To continuously improve the practice
of forest management and also to monitor,
measure and report the performance of our
members in achieving our commitment to
sustainable forestry.
34
Forestry Stewardship Council Certification
Programs
  • Rainforest Alliance Smart Wood Program(US)
  • SGS Qualifor Programme (UK)
  • Soil Association Responsible Forestry Programme
    (UK)
  • Scientific Certification Systems Forest
    Conservation Program (U.S.)

FSC Oaxaca, Mexico
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Sustainable forests
  • Not monoculture pine plantations
  • You cannot plant a forest they are, to some
    extent, non-renewable resources
  • Depends on your point of view

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39
Introduction to the Forest Stewardship Council
40
Who is the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC)?
The FSC is an international certification and
labeling system that guarantees that paper and
wood products carrying the FSC label come from an
environmentally and socially responsible source.
The FSCs mission is to promote the
environmentally appropriate, socially beneficial
and economically viable management of the
world's forests through standards development
and certification
Introduction to the FSC
What is CoC Certification?
Becoming Certified
Links and Resources
41
Who is the Forest Stewardship Council?
Voluntary, market based tool for forest
conservation.
Introduction to the FSC
What is CoC Certification?
Becoming Certified
Links and Resources
42
Our 10 Guiding Principles
  • Compliance with Laws and FSC Principles
  • Tenure and Use Rights and Responsibilities
  • Indigenous Peoples' Rights
  • Community Relations and Worker's Rights
  • Benefits from the Forest
  • Environmental Impact
  • Management Plan
  • Monitoring and Assessment
  • Maintenance of High Conservation Value Forests
  • Plantations

Introduction to the FSC
What is CoC Certification?
Becoming Certified
Links and Resources
43
What does it mean for forests?
  • Waterways are protected
  • Wildlife habitat and species are protected
  • High conservation value forests are preserved
  • Forest management practices are monitored
    annually
  • Genetically modified trees are not used
  • Local people are involved in forest mgmt.
  • The rights of Indigenous Peoples are respected.

Introduction to the FSC
What is CoC Certification?
Becoming Certified
Links and Resources
44
What is FSC Certification?
Forest certification is a market-based,
non-regulatory forest conservation tool designed
to recognize and promote environmentally-responsib
le forestry and sustainability of forest
resources through the verification of forest
management practices and product labeling. By
certifying forest lands to FSC standards and
tracking all wood fiber coming out of these
certified forests, final products like paper,
furniture, lumber and so forth can be labeled,
recognized and demanded by consumers who want to
support sustainable forest management.
Introduction to the FSC
What is CoC Certification?
Becoming Certified
Links and Resources
45
How Does FSC Certification Work?
It is a voluntary, market based tool for forest
conservation. It tracks products from forest to
shelf. Responsibly produced forest products are
identified with the FSC logo.
2. Chain of Custody certification
1. Forest Management certification
3. Product Labeling
Introduction to the FSC
What is CoC Certification?
Becoming Certified
Links and Resources
46
FSC
  • FSC lumber nearest source to us is Arkansas
  • 71 million acres of forest area in the USA
  • May not be local, so tradeoffs!
  • Chain of custody

47
Other certified wood (not yet recognized by
LEED)
  • American Tree Farm System (ATFS)
  • 35 million acres
  • Canadian Standards Association (CAN/CSA-Z809)
  • 182 million acres
  • Sustainable Forestry Initiative (SFI)
  • 143 million acres
  • Accreditation by the Programme for the
    Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC)
  • International body

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49
Scientific Certification Systems (SCS) is an
internationally recognized neutral third-party
organization providing verification of
manufacturer claims such as recycled content,
biodegradability, water efficiency, no
smog-producing ingredients, etc. Under the
Forest Conservation Program, SCS certifies
forestry management practices to determine the
degree to which timber resources and the
surrounding ecosystem are being protected, and to
verify that the timber operation is having a
positive impact on the surrounding communities.
50
Concrete-Current (1)
  • Cement use in U.S. 100 million tons, 70 million
    domestically produced.
  • Cement production creates environmental problems
  • mining activities runoff from tailings waste,
    turbidity of surface waters, increase in BOD,
    fishkills
  • crushing operations energy use
  • kilning operations energy use, use of waste
    tires, cement kiln dust (CKD), dioxin emissons
  • CKD collected by air pollution control devices
    12.7 m tons, 65 recycled in plant

51
Concrete-Current (2)
  • Greenhouse warming gases CO2 from combustion and
    from calcining limestone into lime
    CaCO3------gtCaOCO2 produces 1 to 1.2 tons of
    CO2 per ton of cement
  • Note over several years concrete reabsorbs CO2
    20 lbs per 100 lbs of portland cement
  • Other emissions NOx, SO2, dioxins, metals (Pb,
    Cd, Cr)
  • Use of non-renewable fuels shift from coal to
    natural gas
  • Cement production is regional 60 in 100 mile
    radius, rarely gt 200 miles
  • Admixtures and pigments also problematical

52
Concrete-Green????
  • Reduce reliance on cement
  • substitute flyash for cement, up to 70 possible
  • Recycle aggregate
  • Alternative aggregates
  • Increase durability
  • Earth-cement mixtures
  • Geopolymers….

53
  • Fly-ash from coal fired electrical generating
    plants is typically used as a substitute for
    cement in block and concrete manufacturing up to
    40 of the cement content. Class C fly ash, from
    lignite and sub-bituminous coal west of the
    Mississippi is preferable to Class F fly ash from
    anthracite and bituminous coal in the eastern US.

54
Autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC), also called
autoclaved cellular concrete--ACC) is produced by
about 200 plants in 35 countries and is used
extensively in residential, commercial, and
industrial buildings. At a density of roughly
one-fifth that of conventional concrete and a
compressive strength of about one-tenth, AAC is
used in load-bearing walls only in low-rise
buildings. In high-rises, AAC is used in
partition and curtain walls. The material is also
fairly friable and must be protected from weather
with stucco or siding. On the positive side, it
insulates much better than concrete and has very
good sound absorbing characteristics.
Hebel Block Installation
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60
Recommendation Wood vs. Steel in Residential
Framing (1) Where wood is available from a
certified well-managed forest, it's probably the
best choice environmentally. Air-dried lumber is
best of all because of its lower embodied energy.
(2) Do not use steel for exterior wall framing
without taking measures to control thermal
bridging. (3) Where steel framing can replace
wood treated with arsenical preservatives, it's
probably a worthwhile trade-off. If you can use
untreated wood or borate-treated wood, however,
the choice is much less clear, especially for
exterior walls. (4) Consider using steel for
interior framing, while sticking with wood for
the exterior. Using thinner (25 gauge)
non-load-bearing steel for interior framing
avoids the thermal bridging problem, and uses
less steel per member. It's also easier to work
with than load-bearing 18- or 20-gauge steel.
61
Classes of Potential Raw Materials for Recycled
Content Building Products
  • Post-Industrial (PI)
  • Post-Agricultural (PA)
  • Post-Consumer (PK)
  • Post-Construction (PC)
  • Post-Demolition (PD)

62
Post-Industrial Waste (PI)
  • slag
  • fly ash (Class C Class F)
  • mine tailings (feldspar)
  • gypsum
  • textile waste
  • wood waste (sawdust)
  • sludge (waste water treatment plants)
  • in-plant waste (metals, plastics)
  • not most industrial waste

63
Post-Agricultural Waste (PA)
  • straw
  • Wheat
  • Others

64
Post-Consumer (PK)
  • plastics
  • metals
  • glass
  • paper
  • cardboard
  • tires
  • other rubber
  • not ccompostables, carpet

65
Post-Construction
  • Concrete aggregate
  • Wood
  • Metals
  • Gypsum
  • Paper
  • Cardboard
  • Not plastics, glass, roofing materials, tiles

66
Post-Demolition
  • Wood
  • Metals
  • Masonry
  • Concrete
  • Reuse
  • Wood problem of regrading
  • Architectural items
  • fixtures
  • brick
  • Not others

67
Ideal Recycling System
PI PA PK PC PD
68
Actual Recycling System
PI PA PK PC PD
69
Observations
  • Ideal system Post-XYZ materials and waste are
    raw materials for another process, not a novelty
  • Recycling vs. Downcycling
  • Recycling metals
  • Downcycling tires-to-tiles-to?
  • 3 Levels of Design for Recycling
  • Raw materials use only materials that can be
    recycled
  • Products design for disassembly (bar coding)
  • Buildings design for disassembly
  • Questions
  • Composite materials -Plastics

70
Green Characteristics
  • Acceptable levels of environmental performance
    for each material need to be determined
  • The entire life cycle needs to be considered,
    from materials extraction to product disposal
  • No permanent environmental contamination should
    occur during production, use, or disposal
  • Materials in a pure rather than composite state
    are preferable
  • Building material production and application need
    to be energy efficient
  • Complete disclosure of ingredients is essential
  • Third party certification for certain products is
    desirable
  • Deconstruction after building use must be possible

71
Responsibility to Community
  • Local production and use should be promoted.
    Economic and ecological effects at local to
    global scales need to be considered.
  • Product choice should demonstrate a sense of
    intergenerational responsibility

72
Sustainable Building Materials
  • Example of biobased construction material that
    meets national standards and is approved for use
    in DOE Weatherization Assistance Program
  • Insulation (spray foam)
  • Made from soy
  • Density 0.5 lb/cu ft (ASTM D1622)
  • Compressive strength 20-30 psi (ASTM D1621)
  • Flame spread lt20 (ASTM E84)
  • Smoke development lt400 (ASTM D2863)
  • Contains/emits no VOCs, CFCs, formaldehyde, or
    HCFCs
  • Passed UPITT Test for off gassing toxins when
    burned

73
Sustainable Building Materials
  • Example of biobased construction material that
    meets national standards and is approved for use
    in DOE Weatherization Assistance Program
  • Roofing sealant
  • Made from soy
  • ENERGY STAR approved
  • Single-coat application
  • Exceeds UL
  • Class A Flame Ratings
  • 100 Resistant to mold, algae, bacteria (ASTM
    D3273)
  • 10-year labor and material warranty

74
Sustainable Building Materials
  • Example of recycled construction material that
    meets national standards
  • Paint
  • Tested at PNNL and ANL
  • Applies better than most high end paint
  • Coverage equal to any high end paint
  • Quality control to avoid volatile organic
    compounds and other hazardous ingredients batch
    testing
  • Mix to match
  • Available thru Sherwin Williams
  • GSA contract GS06F0012M
  • One half the price (9/gal)

75
Sustainable Building Materials
  • Example of biobased AND recycled construction
    material that meets national standards
  • Carpet
  • Backing 55 biobased content by weight
    (polyurethane from soybeans)
  • Secondary Backing 100 post-consumer recycled
    content
  • Facing 25 recycled content and recyclable into
    carpet fiber
  • Price Comparable to other high quality
    commercial carpets
  • Qualifies for LEED (Green Building Rating System)
  • Meets CRI requirements for volatile organic
    compounds (no vinyl)

76
Sustainable Building Materials
  • Example of energy efficient construction material
    that meets national standards
  • Lighting
  • Incandescent (75W) 13 lpw
  • Fluorescent (T8) 83 lpw
  • HID (Metal Halide) 100 lpw
  • SSL (White LED) 45 lpw
  • California has specifications for low mercury
    lights

77
Sustainable Building Materials
  • Example of water efficient construction material
    that meets national standards
  • Urinals
  • Tested at PNNL
  • Trap/sealant/gravity instead of flushing water
  • Complies with ADA, ANSI Z124.9, CSA, UPC, IAPMO
    C-3346 ICC-ES 2324
  • Avg water reduction 40,000 gallons/urinal/yr

78
Sustainable Building Materials
  • Example of energy AND water efficient
    construction material that meets national
    standards
  • Water Heaters Quick Flash and ENERGY STAR
  • Conserve Energy
  • Lower temperature maximum 120F
  • Insulate pipes with special foam
  • Install solar panels to heat water
  • Conserve water
  • Install low-flow shower heads, faucets, toilets
    (save 50)
  • Fix leaks (save 6-10 gallons/day)
  • Dont run water while washing hands, etc.

79
Homosote fabric covered acoustic wall panel made
from 100 newsprint cellulose fiber and burlap.
Reduced levels of formaldehyde used as binding
agent.
80
  • Gridcore panels developed by the US Forest
    Products Laboratory are 100 recycled cellulose
    fibers formed with moisture and heat-pressed
    without binding agents. Current application as
    substitute for plywood in set design and it is
    being developed for partitions, cabinetry
    substrate, and door panels.

81
Insulation walls
  • Formaldehyde-free fiberglass
  • Cotton batts made from textile scraps
  • Blue jeans!
  • Cellulose made from recycled paper with natural
    borates to retard fire and discourage pests
  • Air-krete made with magnesium oxide from
    seawater applied with compressed air foaming
    agent
  • Perlite manufactured from volcanic rock
  • Cardboard, straw, earth

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  • Cotton insulation made from 100 post-industrial
    textile manufacturing waste. Treated with borate
    for insect and flame resistance

84
Miraflex Fiberglass Batts, Owens Corning
Owens Corning, long famous for its pink
fiberglass, has just introduced a new fiberglass.
And it's white. The company calls their
revolutionary Miraflex(TM) fiber "the first new
form of glass fiber in nearly sixty years." It
is produced by fusing two different types of
glass together, which results in a curving,
twisted fiber that is naturally springy.
85
  • Amofoam expanded polystyrene (EPS) insulation
    made with pentane as the blowing agent and a
    minimum of 50 recycled content. This product is
    certified by Scientific Certifications Systems, a
    product environmental claims verification service.

86
Walls and siding
  • Gypsum wallboard made from recycled wallboard
  • Earth plaster/cob
  • Many others

87
  • Strawmit wall panel made from 100
    post-agricultural waste material using
    formaldehyde reduced bio-resins and heat
    processing. This product is used as infill with
    studs to create non-loadbearing interior
    partition walls.

88
  • FiberSurfaces DURATEXTURE is a calcium sulfate
    base cement, acrylic polymers, and wood waste
    fiber simulated stone. There are no VOC
    emissions. Can be used a decorative paneling or
    horizontal surfacing.

89
  • Tricel panels are 100 recycled kraftpaper
    impregnated with phenolic resin for moisture,
    fungi and insect resistance. Honeycomb core
    provides high strength to material use ratio,
    suitable for shelving and display panels, other
    non-structural purposes.

90
  • Collins and Aikman carpet tiles using fibers made
    from 100 recycled polyethylene terephthalate
    (PET) plastic. The tiles themselves are removable
    and the fibers recyclable by the manufacturer.

91
  • Homosote structural acoustic floor decking and
    carpet underlayment made from 100 recycled
    newsprint cellulose. Treated against termites and
    fungi.

92
  • Fly-ash use in wide numbers of applications

93
Siding
  • Hardiboard/hardiplank
  • Many others

94
  • Hardiplank (siding) and Hardishake (roofing) are
    autoclaved recycled wood fiber and cement
    composite exterior sheathing materials.
    Hardiplank has been known to have better
    performance than Hardishake in harsh climates.

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  • Medite (Interior) and Medex (Exterior) fiberboard
    sheathing material used as a substitute for
    conventional particleboard and plywood.
    Manufactured from 100 post-consumer wood waste
    and non-formaldehyde based bioresins.

97
  • Domtar GYPROC made in the Savannah, GA
    manufacturing plant uses 100 synthetic gypsum
    made as a by-product from titanium dioxide
    production. The kraft paper facing is 100
    recycled paper.

98
  • Anagypta SUPADURABLE is patterned wallcovering is
    made from 90 post-industrial waste recycled
    cotton. It must be primed and painted.

99
  • Plastic lumber products using 100 recycled
    post-consumer HDPE. Applicable for exterior
    non-structural uses including car stops, decking,
    and furniture.

100
  • Homosote roof decking made from 100 recycled
    newsprint cellulose. Treated against termites and
    fungi. Interior exposed as ceiling finish.

101
Flooring
  • Renewable wood flooring
  • Cork, bamboo
  • Recycled rubber
  • Cob / earth
  • Others
  • Carpets made of recycled nylon non-toxic
    adhesives
  • It takes up to 20,000 years for synthetic
    materials in carpet to fully degrade in landfills

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  • Green Label Carpeting
  • Green Building Practices require
  • At least 20 post-consumer recycled content in
    new carpet
  • Carpet and adhesives conforming to Carpet and Rug
    Institute/Indoor Air Quality Carpet Test Green
    Label guidelines
  • Carpet wastes to be 100 recycled into carpet or
    other new products (highway derivatives and
    construction building materials)
  • Millions of tons of carpeting are placed in
    landfills each year

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  • Trex wood-plastic composite lumber, 100 recycled
    content using 50 post-industrial sawdust and 50
    HDPE post-consumer plastic. Principally for
    exterior decking.

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  • Summitville Tile impervious glazed porcelain
    pavers use 30 - 50 recycled feldspar mine
    tailings in the body of the tile.

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The Rastra system is a stay-in-place concrete
forming system and uses 100 recycled expanded
polystyrene (EPS) foam, ground into small beads
and mixed with Portland cement. A proprietary
additive helps with the mixing process. Rastra
has some intriguing features, but estimates of
the pollution associated with its manufacture
show that it may not be significantly "greener"
than many competing systems.
106
Formaldehyne-Free Fiberglass Batt Insulation,
Schuller Internnational, Ltd.
Schuller International, Inc. of Denver, Colorado,
has just introduced a new commercial fiberglass
batt insulation that is produced with an acrylic
binder, rather than thephenol-formaldehyde binder
used with most fiberglass batt insulation.
Grid-SHIELD Rx is designed for installation above
suspended ceilings for both sound and thermal
control. It is currently being test marketed and
should be available nationally in a few months,
though it will not be actively marketed
initially. Within a year, two other products will
be added to this line Thermal-SHIELD Rx and
Sound-SHIELD Rx for commercial-building thermal
and acoustical insulation applications.
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Environ is a thermoset panel comprised of 40
recycled newspaper, 40 soy flour, and 20 other
ingredients mostly colorants plus a proprietary
water-based catalyst that converts the soy flour
into a resin. The resultant product is hard with
the looks of polished granite and the workability
of wood.
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Deconstruction Reuse
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Deconstruction
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Few notes about materials in construction
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  • Conventional Construction Waste Management
  • Throws out mixed waste materials (e.g., carpet,
    ceiling tiles, metal studs, gypsum wallboard)
    into countless dumpsters to be hauled to local
    landfills
  • 24 of municipal solid waste comes from
    construction waste
  • The U.S. produces nearly 3 pounds of
    construction waste per person per day

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  • Green Construction Waste Management
  • New Green Building Practices
  • Requires materials to be separated and recycled
    to reduce burden on community landfill facilities
  • Extends life of landfills
  • Prevents potential contaminants from reaching
    groundwater supplies
  • Reduces need to use virgin raw materials
  • 95 of construction waste is recyclable

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  • Re-use Salvaged Construction Materials
  • New Green Building Practices
  • Re-use salvaged construction materials generated
    on-site, through salvage purchasing and using
    warehoused stock (where performance standards are
    not compromised)
  • Where practical, existing walls and other
    interior materials are not demolished but
    incorporated into new space plan for re-use
  • 3 billion tons (40) of raw materials used in
    building industry each year

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  • Indoor Air Quality During Construction
  • Conventional construction practice creates
  • air contaminants
  • dust and debris
  • Typically released during construction process,
    absorbed and released during occupancy
  • Aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated solvents,
    lead, cadmium, mercury compounds, chromium VI and
    antimony (in paints), ozone-depleting CFCs and
    formaldehyde (from insulation applications) and
    chlorine gases (from vinyl products)

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  • Indoor Air Quality During Construction
  • New Green Building Practices enhance indoor air
    quality during construction by requiring use of
  • Formaldehyde-free and CFC-free blowing agents
    (for insulation applications)
  • Low Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) products
    (such as paints, wood finishes, adhesives,
    caulks, fireproofing materials, lubricants,
    cleaning products) and
  • Other Environmentally Preferred Products

119
And so….
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Product selection
  • 1. Identify material categories
  • 2. Identify building material options
  • Focus on local, low-cost
  • 3. Gather technical information
  • 4. Review all information
  • 5. Evaluate materials
  • 6. Select and document choice

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Availability in our area
  • Some are available through the big vendors
  • Some are harder to find
  • Ask around, research options

122
Conclusions
  • Rapid increase in types and numbers of materials
    responding to greening of construction.
  • But, rapid increase in questionable materials
    composites, downcycled materials, PI waste
  • But, questions of durability, service life
  • Too little emphasis on waste reduction
  • Critical need to redesign materials and buildings
    to foster reuse and recycling
  • Materials issues the most difficult
    sustainability issue
  • Green materials are the essence of green building
    for some
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