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Space Operations

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Subjective - Space models require expert interpretation for user context ... Crane is used only when necessary. ... is an older system, for the most part ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Space Operations


1
Space Operations and the Challenges of Space MS
Panel COL James Mitcham, TRADOC ADCSSA
LTC Kurt Woods, SMDC Ms. Patricia OBrien,
AFSPC Mr. Michael Conroy, NASA KSC
Mr. Tom Johnson, AGI Mr. Sam McNully, CG2 Mr.
Frank Grose, SAIC
2
Space Operations Transformation
  • LTC Kurt Woods
  • Space Missile Defense Battle Lab
  • Chief, Special Projects Division

3
Agenda
  • Why Space is Important
  • Space Mission Areas
  • Space Force Enhancement
  • Space Transformation
  • Current Experimentation

4
Space OIF/Desert Storm
  • SATCOM Usage Increased Dramatically
  • GPS Enabled PGMs
  • Unprecedented Missile Warning
  • Unequaled ISR

Space was Key Enabler for Information Dominance
5
Space Mission Areas
JP 3-14
6
Space Force Enhancement
  • Communications
  • Precision, Velocity, Navigation Timing (PVNT)
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Intelligence, Surveillance Reconnaissance
    (ISR)
  • Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment
    (ITWAA)

7
Space Enables Transformation
  • Access to a Global Information Grid of Knowledge
    Services
  • Common Operational Picture
  • Joint, Interagency, Multinational
    Interoperability
  • Self-healing, Self-configuring Networks
  • Joint Interdependent Battle Command
  • Communicate Off the Ramp
  • En-route Mission Planning
  • Distributed Effects Planning
  • Virtual Teaming
  • Network Fires

8
SATCOM Requirements
In 2010 33 Mbps Per person deployed 8.3
million Mbps for an Iraqi invasion force of 250K
personnel 20 T-1 Lines for every person
SATCOM Capacity in BPS Per Deployed Person
9
Transformation Experimentation
  • Space MS
  • Must Provide Accurate Appropriate
    Representation of Space
  • Should Focus on Space as a Medium for Collecting
    and Transporting Information
  • Is Critical for Accurate GIG Analysis
  • Affects the Continuum from Foxhole to Home
    Station

10
Space Operations and the Challenges of Space MS
Panel
  • Ms. Patricia OBrien
  • Studies and Analysis Division
  • Air Force Space Command

11
A New Era of Space
  • The first era of the space age was one of
    experimentation and discovery.We are now on the
    threshold of a new era of the space age, devoted
    to mastering operations in space. Space
    Commission Report, p. xi, Jan 11, 2001.
  • The military uses a variety of tools to simulate
    warfighting environments in support of exercises,
    experiments and wargames.  However, these tools
    have not been modernized to take into account the
    missions and tasks that space systems perform. 
    As a result simulation tools cannot be used
    effectively to understand the utility of
    space-based capabilities on warfare.
  • Further, the lack of modeling and simulation
    tools has prevented military commanders from
    learning how to cope with the loss or temporary
    interruption of key space capabilities, such as
    GPS, satcom, remote sensing or missile warning
    info.  To support exercises, experiments and
    wargames, the Department must develop and employ
    MS tools based on measures of merit and
    effectiveness that will quantify the effects of
    space-based capabilities.  Space Commission
    Report, p. xxix.

12
How does space contribute to military missions?
  • It depends
  • Static - Detailed engineering models do not
    interact with combat simulations
  • Subjective - Space models require expert
    interpretation for user context  
  • Inconsistent - Many data sources from multiple
    communities of expertise

13
Why are there so many visualization tools? 
  • Because this is rocket science
  • Different phases of space operations (launch,
    on-orbit, maneuvers, reentry)
  • Multiple reference systems and data sources
  • Complexity of missions

14
MS is not keeping pace with military uses of
space.
  • Growing dependence on space
  • Military space needs are not well documented
  • Military science of space operations is immature
  • Cross-Service issues and large user base for
    space effects

15
Mr. Mike ConroyNASA/KSC
  • Space Operations and the Challenges of Space MS

16
Some Thoughts
  • Spacecraft, for today, exist in multiple
    environments, each with their own challenges and
    characteristics
  • Space characteristics include
  • Micro Gravity, Extreme Temperatures, Sparse
    Population, Clean
  • Ground characteristics include
  • Gravity, People, Equipment, Close Environment,
    Dirty
  • Launch characteristics include
  • Vibration, Temperature Variations, Pressure
    Variations, High G
  • Spacecraft characteristics include
  • Lightweight, toxic fuels, fragile components,
    exotic materials
  • Successful spacecraft usually are able to exist
    in all environments
  • They start out on the ground, integrate with a
    Launch Vehicle
  • They go through the launch process, arrive in
    space, some come back
  • Simulation allows study of all of these
    environments. The knowledge gained allows
    improvement of the spacecraft as well as the
    tools and methods used get them where they belong.

17
KSC is NASAs leader in Ground Process Simulation
18
Space Station Simulation
  • ISS is huge. The SSPF was designed to allow the
    different ISS components to readied for launch
    and tested.
  • Flexibility is provided through the use of an
    air-bearing floor and movable work stands. Crane
    is used only when necessary.
  • Eight test cells are situated along an access way
    large enough to move an entire station element
    with its support stand.
  • With everything movable, the potential exists to
    make moves that cannot easily be undone.
  • Simulation is used to plan all of these moves,
    multiple moves in advance, to assure minimum risk
    to people and equipment.

19
Launch Services Simulation
  • Launch Services provides NASA payloads with
    access to space
  • This includes the Shuttle as well as Expendable
    Launch Vehicles.
  • Many of these payloads are one-of-a-kind
    experiments that are designed for a specific
    task.
  • Simulation is used both to design and build the
    necessary support capabilities as well as plan
    the operations that will be performed.

20
Shuttle Simulation
  • The Previous examples are of relatively new
    systems with existing three dimensional data.
    Shuttle is an older system, for the most part
    without 3-D data.
  • Major Shuttle efforts have centered on developing
    methods to acquire the necessary data.
  • Drawing conversion, Laser Scanners, Smart
    Software
  • We are just starting to be able take advantage of
    Simulation in some areas
  • Process Development, Safety, Work Stands, Access
    Platforms

21
Unique Aspects of Ground Processing Simulation
  • We are typically at the end of an items
    lifecycle. Most of the design decisions have
    been made, and were geared towards mission
    performance, not ground processing.
  • Many of our opportunities are tactical as opposed
    to strategic. The simulation development cycle
    is compressed. Ideally hours and days, not weeks
    and months.
  • Majority of work is in response to operational
    developments.
  • We need to do this now.
  • Schedule changed, will this work?
  • Station needs a spare part, where can we manifest
    it?
  • Often the customer does not have a model of their
    payload.
  • This is where scanners come into play.
  • We are seeing some unique opportunities for
    re-use.
  • It is not the same payload, but is similar enough
    to use same methods.
  • The old simulation has enough data to effectively
    plan their operations.
  • There is a significant ROI when the investment is
    one VHS Tape.

22
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23
Space Operations and the Challenges of Space MS
Panel Mr. Tom Johnson Analytical Graphics
Inc
24
Space Operations and the Challenges of Space MS
Panel
  • Sam McNully
  • CG2, a Quantum3D Company

25
Orbits
26
Orbits on the Ground
27
A Day of Orbits
28
A Day of Orbits
1
4
5
6
14
15
16
29
Relevant Orbits
30
What the Soldier Needs in Space MS
31
Space Simulation Challenge
  • Understand the User First
  • Seek Solutions that Fit the Need
  • Seek Other Perspectives
  • One Size Doesnt Fit All

Just Having a Space Simulation Doesnt Mean You
Have the Right Space Simulation
32
Space Simulation Is Challenging Space Operations
and the Challenges of Space MS Panel Mr. Frank
Grose SAIC
33
Why
  • Satellites
  • Obey the Laws of Physics
  • Exhibit Cyclical or Periodic Earth-relative
    Geometries
  • Wargame Considerations
  • Time Impacts Outcome
  • Location Impacts Outcome

34
Example
  • Box 400 km x 400 km, 0.5 grid
  • Satellite 500 km altitude
  • 60 inclination
  • 15 SHA
  • 10 days
  • 79.31 Coverage
  • Box 400 km x 400 km, 0.5 grid
  • Satellite 500 km altitude
  • 50 inclination
  • 15 SHA
  • 10 days
  • 46.36 Coverage

35
Example
  • Box 400 km x 400 km, 0.5 grid
  • Satellite 500 km altitude
  • 60 inclination
  • 15 SHA
  • 10 days
  • 79.31 Coverage
  • Box 400 km x 400 km, 0.5 grid
  • Satellite 500 km altitude
  • 50 inclination
  • 15 SHA
  • 10 days
  • 46.36 Coverage

36
Space Simulation Challenge
  • Space Simulation User Education
  • Limitations to Simplification of Space for
    Simulation
  • Reliable Outcomes Demand Informed Usage

If you build a simulation that idiots can use,
they will! Attributed to Wilbur Payne, Former
Director, TRADOC System Analysis Activity
37
Space Operations and the Challenges of Space MS
Panel COL James Mitcham, TRADOC ADCSSA
LTC Kurt Woods, SMDC Ms. Patricia OBrien,
AFSPC Mr. Michael Conroy, NASA KSC
Mr. Tom Johnson, AGI Mr. Sam McNully, CG2 Mr.
Frank Grose, SAIC
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