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Software and Avionics for Space Exploration

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Title: Software and Avionics for Space Exploration


1
Software and Avionics for Space Exploration
  • Montgomery B. Goforth
  • Chief, Software and Avionics Integration Office
  • Systems Engineering and Integration Directorate
  • Constellation Program

2
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3
  • Better understand the solar system, the universe,
    and our place in them.
  • Expand our sphere of commerce, with direct
    benefits to life on Earth.
  • Use the Moon to prepare for future human and
    robotic missions to Mars and other destinations.
  • Extend sustained human presence to the moon to
    enable eventual settlement.
  • Strengthen existing and create new global
    partnerships.
  • Engage, inspire, and educate the next generation
    of explorers.

4
  • Safely fly the Space Shuttle and complete the
    International Space Station
  • Develop and fly the Orion crew exploration
    vehicle no later than 2015
  • Return to the moon no later than 2020
  • Promote international and commercial
    participation in exploration

5
NASAs Path to Exploration
Lunar Capability
Initial Capability
Lunar Outpost Buildup

Exploration and Science Lunar Robotics Missions
Research and Technology Development on ISS for
Risk Reduction
Commercial Orbital Transportation Services for ISS
Space Shuttle Operations
Ares I and Orion Development
Operations Capability Development (EVA Systems,
Ground Operations, Mission Operations)
Orion and Ares I Production and Operation
Altair Lunar Lander Development
Ares V and Earth Departure Stage
Surface Systems Development
6
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7
Building on Proven Technologies
Launch Vehicle Comparisons
Crew
Lunar Lander
Lander
Earth Departure Stage (EDS) (1 J-2X) 253 tons
LOx/LH2
S-IVB (1 J-2 engine) 110 t Lox/LH2
Upper Stage (1 J-2X) 127 tons LOx/LH2
S-II (5 J-2 engines) 450 t LOx/LH2
Core Stage (6 RS-68B engines) 1590 tons LOx/LH2
5 - segment shuttle derived solid rocket booster
S-IC (5 F-1) 1770 t LOx/RP
5.5 segment 2 RSRBs
Saturn V
Ares I
Ares V
Space Shuttle
Height 98m Gross Liftoff Mass 910 tons 22
tons to LEO
Height 109m Gross Liftoff Mass 3310t 55 tons
cargo to moon 66 tons to moon in dual-launch mode
150 tons to LEO
Height 111m Gross Liftoff Mass 2950 tons 45
tons to moon 119 tons to LEO
Height 56m Gross Liftoff Mass 2040 tons 25
tons to LEO
8
Systems of Constellation
Initial Capability
Lunar Capability
Ares I
Altair
EVA
EVA
Ares V
Ground Operations
Mission Operations
Lunar Surface
9
  • Serves as the long term crew launch capability
    for the U.S.
  • 5 segment shuttle-derived solid rocket booster
  • New liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen upper stage
    using J-2X engine
  • Launch Abort System

10
  • Orion will support Lunar and
  • Space Station Missions
  • Designed to operate for up to 210 days in Earth
    or lunar orbit
  • Separate crew and service modules
  • Vehicle designed for lunar missions with 4
    crewmembers
  • Can accommodate up to 6 crew
  • Deliver pressurized and unpressurized cargo to
    space station

11
  • Ground processing and testing of integrated
    launch vehicles
  • Launch and logistics services
  • Post landing and recovery services
  • GO Elements
  • Solid Rocket Processing (SRPE)
  • Spacecraft Processing (SPE)
  • Spacecraft Recovery Retrieval (SRRE)
  • Command Control Communications (CCCE)
  • Mobile Launcher (MLE)
  • Vertical Integration (VIE)
  • Operations Support (OSE)

12
How We Plan to Explore
Mission Operations Plan Train - Fly
  • Operations infrastructure
  • Facilities, simulators, trainers, workstations,
    networks, software, documentation
  • Operations products
  • Flight procedures, flight rules
  • Operations teams
  • MO Elements
  • Mission Control Center
  • Constellation Reconfiguration
  • Constellation Training Facility
  • Neutral Buoyancy Lab
  • Space Vehicle Mockup

13
How We Plan to Explore
Extravehicular Activity (EVA)
  • The two suit configurations use common components
  • Suit Element
  • Provides hypobaric and hypoxic protection
  • Vehicle Interface Element
  • Allows suits to interface with Constellation
    vehicles
  • Tools Equipment Element
  • Includes tools and other equipment used during EVA

14
  • Two 5.5 - segment solid rocket boosters
  • Liquid oxygen / liquid hydrogen core stage
  • Heritage from the Shuttle External Tank
  • Commercial heritage RS-68 main engines
  • Payload capability
  • 106 metric tons to low Earth orbit
  • 131 Metric tons to low Earth orbit using Earth
    Departure Stage
  • 53 metric tons trans-lunar injection capability
    using Earth Departure Stage
  • Can be certified for crew if needed

15
  • Transport 4 crew to and from the surface
  • Visits start with 7 days on surface
  • Length of stays increases step-by-step
  • Builds up to 6 month lunar outpost crew rotations
  • Global access capability
  • Return to Earth anytime
  • Deliver 14-17 metric tons of cargo
  • Provide airlock for surface activities
  • Descent stage
  • Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen propulsion
  • Ascent stage
  • Storable propellants

16
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17
Typical Moon Mission Animation
18
Software and Avionics for Space Exploration
  • Space Exploration will continue for the rest of
    our careers. The Constellation Program is meant
    to last decades. Things will change…
  • The Constellation Architecture is a
    loosely-coupled System of Systems. If we do it
    right, this should allow easier integration of
    Systems into the SoS over time.
  • Key Challenges
  • Interfaces
  • Interoperability
  • Complexity
  • Cost
  • Culture
  • Expectations

19
Software and Avionics Strategy
  • Establish a Constellation Command, Control,
    Communications, and Information (C3I)
    Interoperability Architecture/Standard
  • Establish a Constellation Data Architecture to
    support
  • Find the right ways to verify and validate the
    System of Systems
  • Allocate Development to the Systems
  • Strive for commonality of Avionics Software
    where it makes sense.
  • We must achieve a Constellation Architecture that
    allows for interoperability between systems and
    commonality of software and avionics components.

20
C3I Overview
  • Network-Centric Architecture
  • IP based network throughout.
  • Leverage wide range of tools, software, hardware,
    protocols of technology base.
  • Open standards established interfaces.
  • Very flexible extensible.
  • Enables open architecture that can evolve.
  • Requires architecture be established across all
    Cx elements.
  • C3I Approach
  • C3I fundamentally cuts across all elements and
    must function as a single system (different
    from most systems which partition more along
    physical lines).
  • Historically, communications, networks, command
    and control, security, and information systems
    were designed and developed separately.
  • Legacy systems optimized for given
    vehicle/mission vs. Cx systems which must
    accommodate multiple elements/vehicles AND be
    flexible to exploration style operations.

21
C3I Overview
  • Layered approach
  • Isolates change impacts (enabling evolution)
  • Based on industry standards.
  • Includes publish subscribe messaging framework
    (enabling plug-n-play applications by
    establishing well defined data interfaces).
  • Interoperability
  • Focus on standards and approaches that enable
    interoperability between systems.
  • Establish small set of interface standards
    reduce possible number of interface combinations.
  • Requires interoperability at all layers
    communications, networks, security, C2, and
    information.

22
C3I Architecture Breaking It Down
C3I architecture decomposes into five main
technical areas.
  • Command Control
  • Information
  • Security
  • Network
  • Communications

23
C3I Architecture Phasing Summary
  • Orion to ISS (common interfaces)
  • Common communications frequencies, formats,
    protocols
  • IP network based command, telemetry, voice,
    video, and files.
  • Static network routing.
  • Lunar Outpost - Initial (common systems)
  • Common ground control systems based on common C3I
    Framework and Cmd/Ctrl components (software)
  • Common communications adapter product line
  • Limited dynamic network routing.
  • Limited C3I Framework based flight software.
  • Lunar Outpost Final (common adaptive systems)
  • C3I Framework based flight software.
  • Dynamic network routing.
  • Adaptive, demand-driven communications.
  • Disruption/Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN)

24
Lunar Surface Systems
  • Mission Statement
  • Develop a sustained human presence on the moon to
    promote exploration, science, commerce, and the
    United States' preeminence in space, and to serve
    as a stepping stone to future exploration of Mars
    and other destinations.
  • Desired Characteristics
  • Minimally functional outpost capability
    established as early as possible
  • Outpost can be built at any rate with steadily
    increasing capabilities incorporated as desired
    go as you pay
  • Pervasive mobility ability to move outpost
    components to other locations on the lunar
    surface
  • Ability to pause outpost buildup at any time to
    accommodate sortie missions to other locations
  • Ability for international and commercial
    participants to contribute elements and systems
    that augment basic core capability
  • Core technologies and operations applicable to
    Mars exploration
  • Outpost configuration and capabilities (layout,
    mission duration, power) can be implemented to
    mimic Mars surface scenarios

25
Conceptual Lunar Outpost Surface Systems
Communication/ Navigation
10 kW Array (net)
2 kW Array (net)
Logistics Pantry
Habitation Element
Habitation Element
Power Support Unit (PSU) ( Supports / scavenges
from crewed landers )
Lunar Electric Rover (LER)
PSU (Facilitates LER docking charging)
Common Airlock With Lander
ATHLETE Long-distance Mobility System (2)
ISRU Oxygen Production Plant
Unpressurized Rover
26
Conceptual Lunar Communications Architecture
  • Long Haul Communication
  • S-Band TTC and Ka-Band high rate data transfers
    to/from lunar vicinity.
  • Trunked local network communications combining
    streams to provide high bandwidth infrastructure.
  • Provide a roadmap on-ramp for advanced
    capabilities, including optical communication.
  • Lunar Vicinity Navigation
  • Long-range tracking from Earth based assets.
  • Local lunar navigation aids (beacons, relays).
  • Precision navigation for autonomous and precision
    landing at lunar outpost location.
  • In-Situ Lunar Networks
  • Connect crew, robots, vehicles and science
    packages.
  • Form local work area networks enabling
    teleoperation and telepresence of robotics on the
    lunar surface.
  • Enable coordinated multi-person, multi-system
    surface operations.
  • Mars Forward Approach
  • Build using Mars-precursors.
  • Develop operational experience and capabilities
    for missions beyond the Moon.
  • Key Elements
  • Earth-based ground stations providing trans-lunar
    links and infrastructure trunk lines.
  • Local lunar orbiting relays providing in-situ
    routed communication navigation aids.
  • Constellation systems providing cross-support
    vehicles as nodes in the communications network.

27
Lunar Surface Architecture Visualization
28
Lunar Surface Moses Lake Test
29
LSS Challenges
  • In common with other Constellation elements
  • Harsh environment
  • Small number of assets
  • Relaxed compared to other Constellation elements
  • Comparatively static environment, not dynamic
    flight phases
  • Longer critical time to respond to failures
  • Enhanced compared to other Constellation elements
  • During initial phases, alternate quiescent
    /dormant phases with crewed phases requiring
    remote initialization.
  • During later phases, 24/7 operation
  • Requirement for autonomous operations
  • Safing requires longer duration, abort is more
    difficult.
  • Logistics/Resupply

30
Key LSS Architecture Discussion Points
  • Cost Drivers
  • Software and Avionics Reuse/Adaptability
  • Software Development Methodologies
  • Open Architecture
  • Safety, Criticality, Reliability, Robustness,
    Resilience
  • Interoperability and common user interfaces
  • Assets from diverse sources (including
    international partners)
  • Assets performing diverse functions (rover,
    habitat)
  • Automation and Autonomy
  • Human-Robotic Architecture
  • Planning Operations Support
  • Enhanced fault detection and recovery software.
  • Systems Health Management
  • LSS must enable small teams of astronauts to
    handle what now requires ground support.
  • Extensible to Mars exploration

31
Mars Mission Visualization
32
Exploration is really the essence of human
spirit
-Frank Borman
Commander,
Apollo 8
Martian Sunset
33
END
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