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SUSTAINABLE BUILDING HVAC SYSTEMS Geoff McDonell P'Eng' LEED AP

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Title: SUSTAINABLE BUILDING HVAC SYSTEMS Geoff McDonell P'Eng' LEED AP


1
SUSTAINABLE BUILDING HVAC SYSTEMS Geoff McDonell
P.Eng. LEED AP
2
HVAC Systems Purpose
  • Human Comfort
  • Make up for building heat losses
  • Get rid of building heat gains
  • Remove/dilute
  • indoor pollutants

3
HVAC Systems Purpose
  • Indoor Conditions Design Criteria
  • Temperature range 20-26?C (68?-78?F)
  • Relative humidity range 30-60
  • Air movement velocities 0.15 - 0.25 m/s
  • Surfaces to Air temperature difference ? 2?C
    (4?F)
  • Space heat gains/ losses
  • Internal (people, lights, el. equipment, etc.)
  • External (solar radiation, conduction,
    infiltration)

4
HVAC Systems Purpose
  • Indoor Air Quality
  • Balance between production and removal of indoor
    air contaminants
  • Maintaining indoor pollutant concentrations at an
    acceptable level
  • Pollutant Types
  • - Gaseous/ Particulate
  • - Organic/ Inorganic
  • - Toxic/ Harmless
  • - Stable/ Unstable
  • Pollutant removal method
  • - dilution by space ventilation
  • - direct exhaust from the source

5
All-Air HVAC Systems
  • Unlimited application range
  • Can be designed anywhere, anytime and made to
    work for any application
  • Occupant perception of fresh air conditions
    due to high air movement rate

6
All-Air HVAC Systems
  • Comfort and IAQ
  • - uneven space comfort
  • - high air velocities typically ? 0.3 m/s
    (50-100 fpm)
  • - potentially high noise levels
  • - portion of contaminated air is mixed and
    re-circulated
  • Cost
  • - large equipment capacities required
  • - moving large air volumes ? energy intensive
    operation
  • - large space requirements
  • - higher mechanical equipment and building space
    cost

7
Conventional HVACSystems
Energy Use of a Typical All-Air HVAC System 33
for Space Heating Cooling Plant Up to 40
energy used for perimeter zones 67 for Energy
Transport ! Fan Energy !?
8
Air vs Water
Volumetric Heat Capacity ?.cp J/m3.K A
measure of materials ability to store thermal
energy
  • Air ? ?. cp 1,395 J/m3.K
  • Water ? ?. cp 4,200,000 J/m3.K
  • Water can store 3,400 times more thermal energy
    per unit volume than air!
  • A 15mm water pipe can flow as much energy as a
    350mm air duct!
  • More air volume to move More Fan Energy Used

9
Human Comfort
  • 15 humidity/perspiration
  • 35 convection/air movement
  • 50 radiation heat exchange

In a low velocity air environment at moderate
humidity, Resultant Temperature Mean Radiant
Temperature Air Temperature / 2
10
Human Comfort
RESULTANT TEMPERATURE not Air Temperature
11
Envelope Design
  • Glazing solar performance
  • Glazing thermal performance
  • Thermal bridging
  • Internal mass walls/floors
  • Thermal load control first, then apply comfort
    systems designs.

12
Total Comfort System
Starts with the building envelope
  • Reduce thermal loads to minimum
  • Radiant temperature control system as primary
  • Air system reduced to minimum ventilation

13
RADIANT SYSTEMS OVERVIEW Geoff McDonell P.Eng.
LEED AP
14
Human Comfort
RESULTANT TEMPERATURE not Air Temperature
15
Radiant Systems Design
  • Radiant heating floors limited to 29C-32C
    (85F-90F)
  • Radiant heating ceilings, up to 95C (200F)
  • Radiant floor cooling max. output 40 Watts/Sq.M
  • Radiant cooling ceilings max. output 80-90
    Watts/Sq.M
  • Radiant cooling is limited by ambient dewpoint

Radiant temperature control systems are
controlling the Resultant Temperature in the
space. The key to energy efficiency is
separating the temperature control function from
the ventilation function.
16
Hydronic Radiant Systems
17
Hydronic Radiant Systems
Rules of Thumb Radiant heat transfer surface
area A at surface temp. Ts For a given fixed
capacity Large A Small Ts to room T
difference Small A Large Ts to room T difference
18
Radiant Systems Design
Low mass radiant systemquick response High mass
radiant systemslow response
  • With quick response radiant system, use air
    system as steady state temperature control,
    radiant system for transients.
  • With slow response radiant system, use air
    system for transient trim temperature
    control, radiant system for steady state.

19
Radiant Panel Systems
  • Basic radiant design rules apply
  • Can be used for both cooling and heating
  • Radiant cooling limitations apply- humidity
    control a MUST.
  • Room by room trim control with the panels, and
    zone steady state air temps by required air
    system.

20
Suspended Radiant Panels
  • Low mass
  • Quick response time
  • TwaterTpanel easy design
  • Easily integrated with acoustic T-bar
  • Manufactured product
  • EXPENSIVE !

21
Suspended Radiant Panels
Remember to spec the insulation on the back !
22
Suspended Radiant Panels
23
Applied Capillary Tubes
  • Common in Europe
  • Flexible design
  • Recyclable polypropylene
  • Surface plastered installation-low thermal mass
  • Can be cast into concrete
  • Not an oxygen barrier material !

24
Applied Capillary Tubes
25
Applied Capillary Tubes
26
Applied Capillary Tubes
27
Applied Capillary Tubes
28
PEX Tube Systems
  • Radiant walls
  • Radiant ceilings
  • Uses commonly available PEX tubing
  • Field fabricated/engineered systems
  • Applicable mainly to wood-frame
  • Medium costs, not too expensive

29
PEX Tube Systems
Residential ceiling applications
30
PEX Tube Systems
Radiant wall application
31
PEX Tube Systems
Can be used in walls and ceilings as well as
floors
32
Concrete Core Conditioning
  • Swiss Batiso Buildings
  • PEX tubing cast into structural concrete
  • Exposed concrete ceiling
  • High thermal mass
  • Slowwww response

33
Concrete Core Conditioning
  • Uses night air
  • Fan system required
  • Detailed duct coordination

TermoDeck System
34
Radiant Slabs
  • Night time pre-cooling
  • Thermal inertia
  • Creates stable interior temperatures
  • Requires high performance envelope
  • Thermal mass heat pump effect

35
Concrete Core Conditioning-Batiso
  • Relatively low installed costs
  • Very stable indoor climate
  • Lots of coordination needed during design
  • Integrated design process required

36
Concrete Core Conditioning-Batiso
  • Save floor to floor height
  • Optimum human comfort
  • Very low energy use
  • Requires very high performance envelope

37
Radiant Slab Cooling
Floors vs Ceilings
Floor cooling min. temp. 66F (19C) Floor
cooling output limited to 12 Btuh/SF to 15
Btuh/SF Floor coverings, furniture are
insulators Ceiling cooling min. temp. 62F
(16.5C) Ceiling cooling output limited to 25
Btuh/SF to 30 Btuh/SF
38
Radiant Slab Cooling
  • Maximum ambient dewpoint 15C (60F)
  • Indoor relative humidity controlled to be lt60
  • Ventilation air reduced to minimum dedicated
    outdoor air system (DOAS)

Typically overhead/ceiling system for max.
efficiency and comfort
Graphic from Zent-Frenger Batiso System
39
Radiant Slabs
Time response vs tube depths vs fluid temperature
40
Radiant Slabs
  • Control systems response time of concrete slabs
    is about 1.5 - 2 hours per inch of concrete
  • Types of concrete EcoCrete, Slag Cements, Fly
    Ash content
  • Coordination with other Trades

41
Radiant Slabs
  • Coordination during Construction

42
Radiant Slabs
Coordination during Construction
Cast-in-place inserts
43
Radiant Slabs
Coordination during Construction
Tube Loops Pressurization - Air vs Water
44
Radiant Slab Ceilings
Acoustic Considerations
  • Room furnishings
  • Floor finishes
  • Ceiling Texture
  • Suspended radiant panels using slab loops

45
Post Construction
Finding tubes in the finished building
46
Dedicated Outdoor Air System (DOAS)
  • Filtered/treated 100 outdoor air
  • Constant volume or VAV
  • Heat/Energy Recovery
  • Demand controlled
  • Easy to verify and
  • control
  • Works in any climate

47
Central Heat/Energy Recovery
48
Geo-Exchange Systems
  • Water Source Heat Pumps
  • Low temperature heating water 100F/38C
  • High temperature cooling water 60F/15C

Great match to radiant heating/cooling system
operations
49
Geo-Exchange Design
  • Ground Conditions
  • Groundwater/direct waterbody use
  • Soil conductivity
  • Legalities
  • Vertical wells vs Horizontal fields
  • Energy Balance

50
Energy Balance
  • Winter heating requirement
  • Summer heat rejection
  • Ground heat absorption/dissipation
  • Steady state loads (DHW)

51
Geo-Exchange Design
Soil Evaluation
  • Annual temperatures at depth
  • Moisture content
  • Groundwater movement
  • Soil types at depths
  • Bedrock Best for vertical wells

52
Geo-Exchange Systems
  • Closed Loop Systems
  • Vertical wells
  • Horizontal fields
  • Building integrated coils

53
Geo-Exchange Systems
  • Open loop systems
  • Well water/ground water
  • Ponds/Lakes
  • Ocean

54
Geo-Exchange Design
  • Step 1 Minimize the building heating and
    cooling loads FIRST !
  • Step 2 Perform an energy balance - summer
    heat rejection vs winter heat requirements.
  • Step 3 Geo-exchange heat transfer system
    evaluations.

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Glazing Performance
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Putting It All Together
  • Three Legs of the Human Comfort Stool
  • Radiant Temperature Control
  • Efficient ventilation
  • Humidity control

62
Total Comfort System
63
Putting It All Together
Swiss Batiso Building Design
  • Very high performance envelope
  • Radiant slab system temperature control
  • Dedicated outdoor air system
  • Supplemental natural ventilation
  • Low energy mechanical plant

64
Swiss Batiso Building
Constant Temperature Building
Schaffhausen, Switzerland
SarinaPort, Friborg, Switzerland
65
Swiss Batiso Building
66
Swiss Batiso Building
67
Batiso Building
Courtesy of Earth Tech
  • Gleneagles Comm. Ctr., West Vancouver, BC
  • Geo-exchange heat pump plant
  • DOAS
  • Displacement ventilation
  • Radiant slab heating/cooling

68
Batiso Building
  • Irving Barber Learning Centre, UBC
  • Radiant slab heating/cooling
  • DOAS displacement ventilation
  • High performance facade

Downs Archambault Architects Earth Tech Mechanical
69
Radiant Slab Costs
Envelope vs. Mechanical/Electrical Costs
Premium for Visionwall or Heat Mirror 6.00/sq.f
t. of building. (Based on 80/sq.ft. for
Visionwall vs. 40/sq.ft. for normal commercial
double pane, 6 foot high glass on 12 foot floor
to floor curtain wall style construction).
70
Radiant Slab Costs
Envelope vs. Mechanical/Electrical Costs
Mechanical Cost for VAV or Fan-Coil System with
Conventional GlazingHVAC System 12.00/Sq.Ft
.Plumbing 4.50/Sq.Ft.Sprinklers 2.25/Sq.Ft
.Controls 1.75/Sq.Ft. 20.50/Sq.Ft.
71
Radiant Slab Costs
Envelope vs. Mechanical/Electrical Costs
Mechanical Cost for the Thermoactive Slab System
with Displacement VentilationHVAC
System 8.50/Sq.Ft.Plumbing 4.00/Sq.Ft.Sprin
klers 2.00/Sq.Ft.Controls 1.00/Sq.Ft. 1
5.50/Sq.Ft.
72
Radiant Slab Costs
Envelope vs. Mechanical/Electrical Costs
Electrical Cost for Conventional
Building 13.50/Sq.Ft. Mechanical Cost for
Conventional Building 20.50/Sq.Ft. Electrical
Cost for Thermoactive Slab Building 12.00/Sq.Ft.
Mechanical Cost for Thermoactive Slab
Building 15.50/Sq.Ft. Savings for
Mechanical/Electrical Systems 6.00/Sq.Ft. Premiu
m for High Performance Glass 6.00/Sq.Ft. Conclu
sion Thermoactive slab building CAN be built at
the same or lower cost than a conventional
building.
73
Case Study
UBC Fred Kaiser ECE Building
- Integrated design - High performance
envelope - Radiant heating/cooling slabs Total
Mechanical systems cost 19.05/SF
(Tender) Energy use 40 less than conventional
building
74
Occupant Comfort Systems Fred Kaiser Bldg.
Ventilation Systems
75
Case Study
Simon Fraser University Dormitories
Net Capital Cost Premium of 160,000.00 on 17M
Total
DavidsonYuenSimpson Arch. Earth Tech Mech Elec
With central HRV ventilation system, and radiant
heating 50 less Energy Use
76
Occupant Comfort Systems -Fred Kaiser Bldg.
Ventilation Systems Induced Natural/
Displacement Ventilation
77
Fred Kaiser Bldg. UBC
Cooling Plant Closed Circuit Cooling Tower
Runs at night to generate 16C cooling water with
low energy requirements Weather station on roof
for continuous monitoring
78
Fred Kaiser Bldg. UBC
Daylighting and Indirect Lighting
-Lighting controls -High eff. Lamps -Personal
control -Occ. sensors
79
Fred Kaiser Bldg. UBC
  • Energy Use
  • 40 less than conventional HVAC systems
  • CBIP Grant of 43,000
  • Water Use
  • 50 less than conventional fixtures
  • Capital Costs
  • Same overall cost as conventional building
    systems
  • Satisfies all of the Human Comfort
  • requirements - radiant, ventilation.

80
Fred Kaiser Bldg. UBC
81
Fred Kaiser Bldg. UBC
  • Operational Issues
  • Glass quantity and performance
  • Interior blinds/shades
  • Cold spots/Warm spots
  • Sliding doors and
  • Coffee Shop

82
BC Cancer Research Centre Overview
  • energy efficiency 42 per cent energy savings
    with no use of HCFCs
  • flexibility of design, including interstitial
    service floors that allow work spaces to be
     reconfigured as technology and services change
  • water efficiency, achieving exceptional 43 per
    cent savings, including the use of waterless
    urinals as a first for this type of  building
  • 24 per cent recycled construction and finishing
    materials, described as extraordinary for
    laboratories and health care facilities

83
LEED CI Silver
Hughes Condon Marler Architects Office
Renovation Vancouver, BC
84
Going Beyond LEED
Building Energy and Sustainability Goals
  • North American Energy Codes are a moving target
  • ASHRAE 90.1 (U.S. and City of Vancouver)
  • MNECB (Canada)
  • Equipment and Appliance Energy Ratings
  • Lighting
  • Fuel burning equipment
  • Electrical equipment
  • HVAC Equipment

85
Going Beyond LEED
Zero-energy Buildings Hard, clear Building Energy
Targets -gt 50 Kwh/sq.M/yr. Waste Management and
materials Renewing, restoring and enhancing
ecosystems
BedZed Development, England
86
Going Beyond LEED
Each year, as much as 40 of the raw materials
and energy produced in the world are used in the
building sector. --ASMI, "The Environmental
Challenge in the Building Sector" 1999
Author Paul Hawken estimates 3,200 pounds of
waste are generated to create one pound of
product .and only 1 of all materials mobilized
to serve America is actually made into products
and still in use six months after sale.
The number of gallons of water needed to produce
one pound of edible product Apples 49Carrots
33Potatoes 24Tomatoes 23Beef 2,500 Georg
Borgstrom, presentation to the Annual Meeting of
the American Association for the Advancement of
Science, 1981, cited in John Robbins, Diet for a
New America (Walpole, NH Stillpoint, 1987), pg.
367
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New CCM Module Updates
  • DDC input
  • High or Low Limit output to N/C or N/O contacts
  • Added 4 Thermostat control.
  • Added Relay Ctrl Independent of Pump Control.
  • Added Processor for More accurate Temp control,
    and timing.
  • Added N.O. N.C. selectable with temp rise or
    drop.
  • Added Exerciser for Valves, activate at any
    particular time interval.
  • Added Fuse to primary instead of secondary.
  • Added forth pin to interface connector (for
    exerciser).

106
iRadiant
107
Commercial Buildings Market
Small Buildings 95 (1,000 to 50,000 S.F.)
Medium Buildings 4 (50,000 to 200,000 S.F.)
Large Buildings 1 (200,000 to 500,000 S.F.)
108
Commercial Building Market
PROFILE
Number of Buildings
000s Square Feet
109
Small Building Target Market
Source Service / Replacement / Modernization
Market Report
110
Other Available Controls
  • Fan Coil Unit Controllers
  • Packaged DX Unit Controllers
  • Air Handling Units
  • Heat Pump Unit Controllers
  • Lighting Controls
  • Access Control
  • Utility Metering

111
Applications - Fan Coil Unit Controllers
  • FCU 1 Fan, two pipe, modulating valve
  • FCU 2 Fan, two pipe, floating point valve
  • FCU 3 Fan, four pipe, modulating valve
  • FCU 4 Fan, four pipe, floating point valve

112
Applications Packaged Unit Controllers
  • DXU 1 Two stages heating cooling
  • DXU 2 Economizer, two stages heating, four
    stages of cooling.

113
Applications - Air Handling Unit
  • AHU-1 Control with modulating heating cooling
    valves and economizer

114
Applications - Heat Pump Unit Controllers
  • HPU 1 Two stage compressor control, with
    reversing valve and Fan mode selection.

115
Applications Lighting Control
  • LCU 1 Eight zone control with light level
    influence.
  • Switch mode options available
  • Blink warning prior to switch off
  • Integrates with HVAC Access schedules
  • Can accommodate 8 lighting zones

116
Applications Access Control
  • ACU Door access control with security
    monitoring
  • Integrates with HVAC and lighting for Energy
    saving
  • Utilizes standard proximity type card readers
  • Monitors last door used by card
  • Anti pass back option
  • Accommodates Card, PIN and Cipher applications

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LCI2 Remote Access Screen
124
LCI2 Entry Screen
125
LCI2 Controllers
126
LCI2 BTU Meter Screen
127
LCI2 BTU Settings Screen
128
LCI2 BTU Outputs Screen
129
LCI2 BTU Input Screen
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