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ENERGY CONSERVATION

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Title: ENERGY CONSERVATION


1

Master Energy Program
  • ENERGY CONSERVATION
  • MANAGEMENT
  • A COMPREHENSIVE
  • TRAINING PROGRAM
  • WORKSHOP

2
Master Energy Program
  • Educational Training Seminar
  • This training document has been developed
  • under the support and guidance of
  • The University of Rhode Island
  • URI Energy Center, Energy Outreach Programs
  • Rhode Island Office of Energy Resources
  • Ocean State Clean Cities Coalition

3
Program Logistics
  • Session I Energy 101
  • Energy Basic
  • Session II Around the Home I
  • Small Investment Big
    Savings
  • Session III Around the Home II
  • Big Investment Big
    Savings
  • Session IV - Legislature Policy
  • Standards, Codes,
    Finance Taxes
  • Session V Energy Expo Tour
  • Education Outreach

4
Session I Energy 101
  • History of Energy in the US
  • Where our energy comes from how we use it
  • What is your energy consumption
  • How to read and understand your utility bill
  • Energy accounting, tracking bench marking

5
The History of Energy in the US
  • The past 100 years
  • Wood
  • Whale Oil
  • Coal
  • Petroleum
  • Natural Gas

6
Where Energy in the US Comes From
7
Where World Energy Comes From
8
Future World Supply
9
World Energy Demand
  • United States
  • Europe and Asia OECD
  • China and India - Non-OECD
  • Europe Eurasia Non-OECD

10
Why should you care? US Oil Addiction

11
How We Use Our Energy US Energy Consumption by
Sector
Source Annual Energy Outlook 2006, Energy
Information Administration.
12
The Forms of Energy We Use Us Energy
Consumption by Resource
Source Annual Energy Outlook 2006, Energy
Information Administration.
13
Average Annual GDP and Population Growth for
Selected Regions, 2005-2030
Source EIA, IEO2008
14
World Marketed Energy Use by Fuel Type
33
History
Projections
29
Liquids
37
Natural Gas
Coal
24
27
Share of World Total
23
Renewables
8
8
6
Nuclear
6
Source EIA, IEO2008
15
World Marketed Energy Use OECD and Non-OECD
History
Projections
409
Non-OECD
286
241
OECD
221
Source EIA, IEO2008
16
World Liquids Consumption by Region
Percent Change 2005-2030
11
102
3
7
42
62
Non-OECD
43
47
Source EIA, IEO2008
17
Why should you care? Oil prices continue to rise

18
Why should you care? US production

19
Why should you care? China/India energy demand
increasing

20
What is Your Consumption
  • Home
  • Natural Gas
  • Heating Oil
  • Electricity
  • Water
  • Sewer
  • Transportation
  • Auto
  • Mass Transit
  • Travel

21
Typical Utility Cost Distribution
With Natural Gas
  • Typically the cost of utilities represents the
    second or third largest budget line item
  • The pie chart represents a typical annual
    utility budget break down

22
Typical Utility Cost Distribution
With Heating Oil
  • Typically the cost of utilities represents the
    second or third largest budget line item
  • The pie chart represents a typical annual
    utility budget break down

23
Residential Consumption Cost
24
Residential Consumption Cost
25
Energy Management
  • You cant manage what you havent measured
  • The foundation of sound and sustainable energy
    management


26
Energy Management Plan
What is it?
  • A Must Have Tool
  • Measurement
  • Tracking and bench marking
  • Identifying all utilities
  • Educated approach to use and procurement
  • It will yield savings
  • IT IS ACCOUNTABILITY

27
Why Do You Need A Plan
  • It allows you to see were, when how
  • You use energy
  • How efficient you are
  • Identifies areas of concern
  • The plan is the basis of O M
  • Utility budget forecasting
  • Project Planning
  • Grant Opportunities
  • Renewable Energy Projects
  • Environmental Impact

28
Accountability
  • Utility bill Tracking and Bench Marking
  • Tracking
  • Cost
  • Consumption
  • Use Trends
  • Weather
  • History
  • Budget Projection
  • Excel, Energy Cap Pro or Com Check
  • Energy Star-Portfolio Manager
  • www.energystar.gov

29
Understanding Your Utility Bill
  • Identify all of your utilities
  • Perform a building survey and list all
    utilities meters
  • Reading and understanding the bill
  • Use consumption
  • Demand
  • Taxes
  • Energy Fee
  • Other Charges

30
Energy Accounting
  • Collect Building Physical Data
  • Physical Attributes
  • Multiple buildings/meters
  • Construction type
  • Floor plans, schematics, equipment schedule,
    zoning
  • Operational Profiles
  • Occupancy Profiles
  • Operating hours
  • Local Weather Data
  • Average Monthly Temperatures
  • Heating Cooling Degree Days

31
Energy Fundamentals
  • Common Units of Measurement
  • Electricity - kilowatt (kW) kilowatt-hour(kWh)
  • Natural Gas - cubic foot, therm, Dth
  • Fuel Oil - gallon
  • LPG - gallon
  • Water Sewer CF, HCF, Kgals.

32
Energy Fundamentals
  • British Thermal Unit, Btu
  • 1 Btu Heat required to raise the temperature
    of 1 pound of water by 1 degree F

  • or

  • 1 match
  • Common thermal unit in most building energy
    analyses

1lb. Water
Raised 1 degree Fahrenheit
33
Energy Fundamentals Thermal Values
  • Natural Gas
  • 1 Cubic Foot 950 to 1150 Btu
  • 1 CCF 100 Cubic Feet
  • 1 MCF 1,000 Cubic Feet
  • 1 Therm 100,000 Btu
  • 1 CCF is approx 1 Therm
  • Fuel Oil
  • Kerosene 134,000 Btu/Gallon
  • Number 2 140,000 Btu/Gallon
  • Number 6 152,000 Btu/Gallon
  • Propane
  • LPG 91,600 to 95,000 Btu/Gallon
  • Steam
  • 10 PSIG 1000 Btu/Lb.
  • 100 PSIG 1100 Btu/Lb.
  • Coal
  • Lignite 11,000 Btu/Lb.
  • Bituminous 14,000 Btu/Lb.
  • Electricity
  • 1 kW 1000 Watts
  • 1 kWh 3413 Btu
  • Miscellaneous
  • Wood 8,500 Btu/Lb
  • U235 75,000,000 Btu/gram

34
Session II Around the Home I
  • Understanding Tracking Utility Bills
  • Small investment, big savings opportunity
  • Energy efficiency measures
  • Calculating the value of energy efficiency

35
Small Investment Big Savings
  • Measurement Verification
  • Energy Efficiency Measures
  • Orientation
  • Insulation Weatherization infiltration,
  • R-value, U-value
  • HVAC Efficiency - EER, SEER
  • O M Procedures
  • Filtration
  • Lighting Appliances Energy Star

36
Utility Bills and Rate Structures
  • Consumption vs. Demand
  • Typical Bills
  • Electric
  • Local
  • Electric Billing Components
  • Rate Structures

Understanding how you are billed for energy is
fundamental to learning how you can reduce your
energy use
37
Utility Bill Consumption and
Demand
  • Consumption vs. Demand
  • Energy Consumption
  • Total electrical energy consumed in a given time
    period.
  • Measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh)
  • Energy Demand
  • Rate of electrical energy consumption in a given
    time period.
  • Measured in kilowatts (kW)

38
Consumption vs. Demand
39
Typical Electric Utility Bill
40
Electric Bill with Demand
41
Electric Bill with Demand
42
RI Electric Power Sources
43
Typical Natural Gas Utility Bill
44
Energy Conservation
  • Steps for Efficient Operation
  • Determine Current Performance
  • Evaluate Collected Data
  • Benchmark Building www.energystar.gov
  • Set Goals
  • Determine Potential Performance
  • Prioritize Areas of Energy Saving Opportunities
  • Operational Strategies
  • Low Cost/No Cost
  • Capital Improvement

45
Energy Accounting
  • Collect Utility Energy Data
  • Sources
  • Identify all energy sources
  • Electricity
  • Natural gas
  • Oil
  • Monthly Bills
  • Use most recent data
  • Minimum of 1 year, prefer 2 or 3 years
  • Usage data (kWh, therm, gallons)
  • Cost data ()

46
Accountability
  • Utility bill Tracking and Bench Marking
  • Tracking
  • Cost
  • Consumption
  • Use Trends
  • Weather
  • History
  • Budget Projection
  • Access, Excel, Energy Cap Pro
  • Energy Star-Portfolio Manager or Com Check
  • www.energystar.gov.

47
Energy Accounting Tracking
Electric       Fiscal Year 2007 Fiscal Year 2007 Fiscal Year 2007        
Account Meter Billing Period Length Consumptn Demand Cost Cost / Unit Cost / Day Consumpt/ Day
Number Number Start End Days KWH KW Dollars / KWH Dollars KWH
E-24660 50729 12/12/06 1/12/07 31 64200 221.4 8,103.65 0.126 261.41 2070.97
E-24660 50729 1/12/07 2/12/07 31 38000 205.2 4,915.02 0.129 158.55 1225.81
E-24660 50729 2/12/07 3/13/07 29 41800 199.8 5,297.65 0.127 182.68 1441.38
E-24660 50729 3/13/07 4/13/07 31 75600 219.6 8,923.84 0.118 287.87 2438.71
E-24660 50729 4/13/07 5/10/07 27 69200 277.2 8,438.88 0.122 312.55 2562.96
E-24660 50729 5/10/07 6/11/07 32 67000 307.8 8,307.67 0.124 259.61 2093.75
Totals       181 355800 238.5 43,986.71 0.124 243.78 1972.26
48
Heating Oil Tank Record
49
Heating Oil Bill Calculator
50
Heat Oil Bill Log
51
Bench Marking
Energy Star Portfolio Manager
52
Utility Data Logging
53
Rating Use
  • 1-50 INVEST in new equipment
  • 50-75 ADJUST low-cost measures
  • 75-100 MAINTAIN operations

www.energystar.gov.
RIDE SCR 1.12-2 Energy Water Efficiency
54
Reducing Consumption Increasing Savings
  • Trim building operating conditions times
  • To coincide with occupied unoccupied times
  • Maintain comfort in occupied areas
  • Minimize energy waste
  • Utility data monitoring
  • Alternative energy resources
  • Life cycle cost analysis

55
Energy Efficiency Measures
  • Mind Set
  • Occupied Space vs. Unoccupied Space
  • Run Times and Temperatures
  • Controls

Each CFL can save 30.00 over its life cycle
Onset Data Logger
56
What type of Technologies can be utilized?
CFLs
Dimmable Fluorescents
Motion Infrared Sensor
57
Energy Conservation Controls
58
Energy Conservation
59
Energy Conservation
  • Exit Signs
  • Existing lighting 30 watt twin incandescent
  • Annual usage 8,760 hours
  • LED Exit 3 watts
  • Savings 27 w 8760 236 kwhrs 0.10/kwh
    23
  • Rebate 12 retrofit kit, 20 new sign
  • Est. Installed cost 65
  • Payback 2.9 years 1.8 years
  • w/o considering labor / hassles to replace bulb
    periodically!
  • Typical life of 15 watt incandescent bulbs is
    2,000 hours
  • Typical life of LED in exit signs - 20 plus years

60
Summary of Lamps
61
Energy Conservation Basics
  • Simple Payback
  • (Cost Rebate) / Savings /month ROI
  • Total Annual Savings true and cost avoidance
  • NOI

62
Energy Conservation Cost Analysis
  • Occupancy Sensor for Typical Classroom
  • Existing lighting 18 - 4LT8 at 112 watts each
  • Annual usage 2,145 hours (39 wks at 50 hrs plus
    10)
  • Reported unused time 15 or 321 hours
  • Savings 321 18 112 649 kwhrs / year
  • Savings 649 kwhrs 0.10/kwh 65 annually
  • Rebate 25
  • Installed cost 75
  • Payback 0.75 years

63
Trend Analysis
  • On-site metering
  • Dataloggers
  • Multi-channels
  • Multimeters
  • Light meters
  • End-use metering
  • Lighting
  • Heating
  • Domestic Hot water

64
Building Envelope Maintenance
  • Roofs
  • Walls
  • Insulation
  • Doors
  • Windows
  • Shading devices

65
More Energy Terms
  • R-value and U-value

R-value is the resistance a material has to
heat flow.
U-value is a measure of a materials conductivity
of heat.
How they relate
R-value 1/ U-value
66
Building Heat Loss
67
Heat Gain
sensible heat gain
conduction
and radiation
68
KPIs and Efficiency

Courtesy of PECI, Inc
69
Water Resources
70
PM Types of Extended Surface Air Filters

71
Air Filter MERV Ratings

72
Filter Performance by Type

73
Calculating the Value of Energy Efficiency
  • Energy Accountability
  • How to Audit and Interpret the data
  • True Savings and Cost Avoidance
  • ROI, NOI and Life Cost Analysis

74
Trend Analysis
  • Analyzing Consumption Trends


75
Benchmarking
  • Baseline Profile

76
Monthly Electrical Consumption
Corporate Electric Consumption
77
Consumption Profile
78
Demand Profile
79
Session III Around the Home II
  • Big investment, big savings
  • - retro-fits and upgrades
  • - alternative energy resources
  • Calculating the value of energy efficiency
  • ROI Return on Investment
  • NOI Net Operating Income

80
Retro-fits and Upgrades
  • Lighting
  • HVAC
  • Controls
  • Insulation
  • Windows

81
Lighting Upgrades
  • Incandescent to florescent
  • CFL compact florescent lamps
  • T-5 T- 8 Fixtures
  • LED light emitting diodes
  • Occupancy Sensors

82
HVAC
  • High Efficiency Heating Air Conditioning
  • Natural Gas or Oil condensing furnaces
  • Oil to Gas or Vis Versa
  • High Efficiency Motors

83
Controls
  • DDS Direct Digital Signal
  • - Programmable Thermostatic Control
  • - VSD or VFD Motor Controls
  • - CO2, RH Sensors

84
Insulation
  • Walls, Ceiling Floor fiberglass mate,
    cellulose,

  • foam, rigid foam cellutrex
  • R-Value materials resistance to heat flow,
  • the higher the R-value the
    better
  • Moisture barriers tyvek, foil, paper a poly

85
Windows
  • U-Value materials conductivity of heat, the
    lower the U-value the better

86
Big Investment, Big Savings
  • Renewable Alternative Energy Resources
  • Passive Solar
  • Solar PV
  • Solar Thermal
  • Wind
  • Radiant
  • Geothermal
  • CHP
  • Bio-mass
  • Transportation

87
Orientation Passive Solar Gain
  • South, South East or South West exposure is best

88
Solar PV
  • Solar Photo Voltaic sunlight to electric energy

89
Solar Thermal
  • Solar Energy to thermal energy hot air, hot
    water,
  • thermal transfer fluids and heat exchangers

90
Wind Energy
  • Wind to Electric
  • Wind to Compressed Air
  • Wind to Mechanical
  • Wind to Water
  • Wind to Electric
  • Wind to Compressed Air
  • Wind to Mechanical
  • Wind to Water

91
Residential Wind Turbine
Sky Stream 3.7 1.8 kW
92
Radiant Heating and Cooling Systems
93
Radiant Heating Cooling Benefits
94
Geothermal
  • Heating Cooling Pumps

95
Combined Heat and Power
  • Co-Generation

96
Biomass Energy Resources
  • Coal
  • Wood Chip
  • Methane Recovery
  • Ethanol
  • Biodiesel
  • Synthetic-Gas
  • Synthetic-Diesel

97
Transportation
  • Choosing the right vehicle
  • Gas
  • CNG
  • Hybrid
  • Diesel

98
  • Relative Energy Potential of Vehicle
    Fuels
  • All internal combustion engines operate on the
    heat produced by the combustion of the fuel.
  • The higher the British Thermal Unit BTU value
    per gallon, the less fuel is required to produce
    the required heat or power.
  • Diesel produces 5.52 times as much energy as CNG
    and is more efficient.

99
Diesel Vehicle Facts
100
B100 Properties
  • Renewable
  • Positive Energy Balance, 3.5-1
  • Biodegradable
  • 10x less toxic than table salt
  • High cetane (averages gt50)
  • High lubricity (lt300 HFRR)
  • BTU content (118,000 to 120,000)
  • Cold flow (feedstock specific)
  • Flash point gt260 F
  • No nitrogen or aromatics
  • Virtually sulfur free
  • Contains 11 oxygen by weight

101
Calculating the Value of Energy Efficiency
  • Energy Accountability
  • Audit, Track and Bench Mark
  • Energy Values and Conversions
  • Consumption and Cost Profiles

102
Analysis
  • Review the utility data
  • Feasibility Study Business Plan
  • What are your needs
  • What is your potential
  • What is your budget
  • Calculating ROI Return of Investment
  • Calculating NOI Net Income Investment
  • Life cycle cost analysis

103
Calculating Efficiency
  • ROI return on investment
  • NOI net operating income
  • Life Cycle Cost Analysis

104
Return On Investment
  • Simple Payback
  • (Cost Rebate) / Savings /month ROI
  • Total Annual Savings true cost avoidance
  • NOI

105
Example Calculation
  • Occupancy Sensors
  • Existing lighting 18 - 4LT8 at 112 watts each
  • Annual usage 2,145 hours (39 wks at 50 hrs plus
    10)
  • Reported unused time 15 or 321 hours
  • Savings 321 18 112 649 kWh / year
  • Savings 649 kWh 0.10/KWh 65 annually
  • Rebate 25
  • Installed cost 75
  • Payback 0.75 years

106
Motor Efficiency Example
  • Car Mileage Upgrade
  • 25 mpg to 30mpg
  • 20 increase in efficiency
  • life savings 1,300
  • 15hp Motor Upgrade
  • 86 to 90 efficient
  • 4 increase in efficiency
  • life savings 2,320

107
Life Cycle Cost Analysis
  • Standard Design vs. High Performance Design

Construction Cost vs. Operating Cost Over 30
Years for a 100,000 Sq. Ft. Facility
Construction Cost vs. Operating Cost
108
Collaborative Initiatives
  • Community - renewable alternative energy
  • projects
  • Aggregate energy purchasing - deregulated market
  • Community Recycling Programs
  • Community Domestic Water Sewer Services

109
Green Buildings Business
  • High Performance design build
  • Green materials
  • Green Roofs
  • IAQ - indoor air quality
  • Emissions reduction

110
Environmental Impact
  • The United States Environmental Protection Agency
    Estimates that every kilowatt-hour (kWh) of
    electricity use avoided prevents the emission of
    the following
  • 1.5 pounds of carbon dioxide
  • 5.8 grams of sulfur dioxide
  • 2.5 grams of nitrogen oxides
  • A facility saving 10 per year equals a
    10,000 kWh.
  • These savings are equal to the removal
    of
  • 15,000 pounds of carbon
    dioxide emissions
  • 128 pounds of sulfur dioxide
  • 55 pounds of nitrogen oxide

  • OR
  • 2 automobiles removed from highways annually
  • 1 acre of trees being planted

111
Session IV Legislature Policy
  • Utility Deregulation
  • Local and Federal Legislature Policy
  • Financing Alternative Resources
  • Tax Incentives
  • Grants Rebate Programs
  • Building Codes
  • Green Building Standards

112
Utility Deregulation
  • Electric 1998
  • Natural Gas 1998
  • Heating Oils 1998
  • No competitive bid requirement
  • Commodity can be purchased from third party
    marketer
  • LDC, Local distribution company, provides
    transportation

113
State Legislature Funding Sources
  • Demand Side Management Funds
  • Renewable Energy Portfolio Funds
  • RGGI Funds

114
Demand Side Management- RIGL 39-2-12
  • 1996 extended to 2013
  • Surcharge on electricity (2.3 mills/kWh)
  • Approx. 20 million/year for efficiency programs
    and about to increase -gtNGRID regulated by PUC
  • Approx 3 million/year for renewable energy -gt
    RI EDC

115
Renewable Energy Standard (2004)
  • Authority RIGL 39-26-7 through December 2019.
  • Sets Renewable Portfolio Standard - must
    procure a given amount of renewable energy each
    year
  • Goal 16 renewable energy by 2020
  • If annual goal not met, NGRID makes alternative
    compliance payment to RI
  • 2007 was RIs first year with RPS requirement
  •  

116
Renewable Energy Goals
  • At least 3 in 2007
  • Additional 0.5 in 2008-2010
  • Additional 1 in 2011-2014
  • Additional 1.5 in 2015-2019
  • No data yet for 2007 in RI
  • Massachusetts
  • Met 74 of 2.5 requirement
  • Made alternative compliance payment of 17.8 for
    26 of requirement not met

117
Renewable Energy Credits
  • Green Energy Certificates for the production
    of renewable and alternative energy
  • Electric Utility primary sources
  • Value varies with the region and source of
    production
  • Value Ranges - from 0.04 to 0.o7 per kWh

118
RI Economic Development Corp.
  • Funding for Ocean SAMP
  • As of January, 2009 will offer
  • Municipal grants up to 1 million
  • Affordable housing grants up to 200,000
  • Will be looking to leverage funds to grow economy
    create jobs

119
Least Cost Procurement (2006)
  • Requires NGRID to invest in all energy efficiency
    that is cheaper than building new supply
  • WHY energy efficiency costs 3 cents/kWh whereas
    electrical rates are 12.5 cents/kWh (estimates)
  • Energy Efficiency Plan under review by PUC
    NGRID will triple its investments in energy
    efficiency programs for consumers over next few
    years

120
Energy Efficiency Resources Management Council
  • Stakeholder group to oversee new procurement
    process
  • Given budget of 2 of DSM or about 460,ooo to
    carry out responsibilities
  • Overview of Recommendations
  • http//www.env-ne.org/resources/open/p/id/646

121
Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
  • First market-based mandatory cap-and-trade
    program in US to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
  • Sept, 2008 should clear about 1.0 million for RI
    to be used by DEM/OER/EDC for
  • Energy efficiency conservation
  • Renewable energy
  • Direct rate relief for consumers
  • Direct rate relief for low income consumers

122
RI Office of Energy Resources
  • Low income energy programs
  • Energy efficiency mgt programs
  • Energy planning
  • Energy outreach
  • Administers renewable state income tax

123
Other Tax Incentives
  • Federal 30 tax credit for residential and
    commercial solar installations
  • State 7 sales tax write off

124
Federal Legislature
  • Energy Bills 2005, 2006, 2007
  • Farm Bill 2007, 2008
  • US Environmental Protection Agency
  • US Department of Energy
  • US Department of Agriculture
  • US Green Building Council

125
Grants and Rebates
  • NGRID - National Grid, electric natural gas
  • USEPA - Environmental Protection Agency
  • USDOE - Department of Energy
  • USDA - Department of Agriculture
  • NOHRA - National Oil Heat Research Alliance
  • NREL - National Renewable Energy Laboratory
  • www.dsire.usa.org

126
Green Building Standards
  • LEED Leadership in Energy and Environmental
    Design
  • CHPS Collaborative for High Performance
    Schools
  • EPA/DOE - Energy Star

127
State Building Legislature
  • State Buildings LEED Certified required in
    State Buildings and Schools
  • School Buildings - RIDE SCR 1.12-2 Energy Water
    Efficiency Requires Compliance with NECHPs

128
State and National Building Codes
  • American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and
    Air Conditioning Engineers - ASHRAE 90.1, 2001
    2004
  • Local Building Codes ASHRAE, BOCA

129
In the Community
  • Collaborative initiatives
  • - alternative energy projects
  • - aggregate energy purchasing
  • Green Building Business
  • Energy Legislation and Policy
  • Education and Outreach
  • - spreading the word

130
Education Outreach
  • Spreading the Word
  • Building an Energy Conservation Ethic
  • Changing Mind Sets
  • Understanding the need for change

131
Guided Tour
  • Session V
  • Sunday, November 16, 2008
  • Rhode Island Energy Solutions Expo
  • Ryan Center 1000 AM to 400 PM
  • Two Guided Tours
  • 1000 AM 200PM
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