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Welcome to the WeBS Retreat

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Title: Welcome to the WeBS Retreat


1
Welcome to the WeBS Retreat
  • David Culler
  • Eric Brewer, David Wagner
  • Shankar Sastry, Kris Pister

2
Outline
  • Introductions
  • Background on the Project
  • What Retreats are About
  • Overview of the Retreat

3
DARPA NEST program
  • Goal novel approaches to design and
    implementation of SW for networked embedded
    information systems
  • enable fine-grain fusion of physical and
    information processes.
  • Dependable, RT, distributed, embedded applns on
    100-10,000 simple computing nodes, dynamically
    reconfigured to changing environment
  • Closed loop interaction between physical and
    information system components
  • eg. MEMS-based control health mgmt of
    platforms, smart structures, coordination of
    large groups of objects
  • appln independent adaptable middleware for
    real-time coordination and synthesis

4
NEST Topic Areas
  • Application Independent Coordination Services
  • customizable, verified algorithmscode to support
    time-bounded coordination across NEST applns
  • Time-Bounded Synthesis
  • theory and technology for time-bounded synthesis
    services
  • gt control sequences, schedules, configs,
    resource maps,...
  • Service Composition and Adaptation
  • automated composition of coord service packages
  • Open Experimental Platforms
  • physical system and software components
  • related challenge problems and integration
    experiments
  • used for affordable evaluation and demonstration
    of NEST technologies

5
NEST in a nutshell
Challenge Application
SW platform
HW platform
sensors actuators processing storage
communication
  • Two Open Experimental Platforms
  • Boeing tight, highly engineered, smart
    structures
  • UCB flexible, low power, wireless, free space,
    ...
  • OEP must include challenge application
  • Not enough to build it, must drive the middleware

6
UCB redefined the program
  • Smart Dust WeC Mote gt TinyOS gt Rene Platform
  • Concurrency framework
  • Messaging Networking stacks (RF and Serial)
  • Basic Multihop routing
  • Crossbow manufacturing
  • 29 Palms Sensit Demonstration
  • We proposed to deliver a platform to the program
    6 months after start of project!

7
Statement of Work
  • Develop sequence of open experimental platforms
  • basic services (time synch, trigger)
  • Develop Challenge Application for NEST
  • FSM high-concurrency programming environment
  • Infrastructure support
  • Adversarial simulation
  • Macroprogramming unstructured aggregates
  • Do challenge appln and integration experiments
  • env. monitor, distributed mapping, pursuer-evader

8
NEST is one component of Activity
  • Completion of Smart Dust Project
  • Ongoing Sensor Webs Project
  • primarily focused on theoretical aspects
  • Creation of Intel Research _at_ Berkeley
  • Extreme Networked Systems Lab
  • CITRIS - Center for Information Technology
    Research in the Interests of Society

9
Structural performance due to multi-directional
ground motions (Glaser CalTech)
Mote infrastructure
  • .

Mote Layout
14
5  
15
15
13
6  
12
9  
11
8  
Comparison of Results
Wiring for traditional structural
instrumentation truckload of equipment
10
Tokachi Port, Hokkaido - Liquifaction
Virtual data logger High Confidence in Passive
state Dense Distributed Data Analysis Reclamation
Rapid, cheap, installation of vertical array
post-blast
11
DARPA NEST Open Experimental Platform
  • 1,000 Micas Delivered to NEST Feb 02
  • 500 to UCB (Nest, Millennium), 250 to Intel
  • Crossbow continues to manufacture
  • new radio
  • new microcontroller
  • 14 Demos in July

12
NEST MICA architecture
  • Atmel ATMEGA103
  • 4 Mhz 8-bit CPU
  • 128KB Instruction Memory
  • 4KB RAM
  • 4 Mbit flash (AT45DB041B)
  • SPI interface
  • 1-4 uj/bit r/w
  • RFM TR1000 radio
  • 50 kb/s ASK
  • Focused hardware acceleration
  • Network programming
  • Rich Expansion connector
  • i2c, SPI, GIO, 1-wire
  • Analog compare interrupts
  • TinyOS tool chain
  • sub microsecond RF synchronization primitive
  • 10 mW active, 40 uW passive

51-Pin I/O Expansion Connector
8 Analog I/O
8 Programming Lines
Digital I/O
Atmega103 Microcontroller
DS2401 Unique ID
Coprocessor
Transmission Power Control
Hardware Accelerators
SPI Bus
TR 1000 Radio Transceiver
4Mbit External Flash
Power Regulation MAX1678 (3V)
2xAA form factor
13
NEST Rich Sensor board
Environment Ranging Detection Movement
Microphone
Sounder
Magnetometer
1.25 in
Temperature Sensor
Light Sensor
2.25 in
Accelerometer
14
TinyOS Application Graph
Route map
router
sensor appln
application
Active Messages
Radio Packet
Serial Packet
packet
Temp
photo
SW
Example ad hoc, multi-hop routing of photo
sensor readings
HW
UART
Radio byte
ADC
byte
3450 B code 226 B data
clocks
RFM
bit
Graph of cooperating state machines on shared
stack
15
NEST Challenge Appln
  • level field (400-2500 m2) with 5-15 tree-like
    obstacles
  • Pursuers team
  • 400-1000 nodes
  • 3-5 ground pursuers,
  • 1-2 aerial pursuers
  • Evaders team
  • 1-3 ground evaders
  • Self organization of motes
  • Localization of evaders
  • Evaders position and velocity estimation by
    sensor network
  • Communication of sensors estimates to ground
    pursuers
  • Design of a pursuit strategy
  • Minimize capture time and energy
  • accuracy of localization synch
  • stability of network and dist. alg

16
Strategy Planner
Map Builder
Vehicle coordination layer
Pursuers communication infrastructure
Tactical Planner Regulation
Vehicle-level sensor fusion
Control Signals to pursuer
Single vehicle estimation and control layer
Nest Sensorweb
vision
GPS
Sensorial Information
Physical Platform
17
Some of the demo applns
18
Energy/Env Monitoring/Mgmt
Interactive Streaming Data Access Ubicomp /
HCI Networking Management Privacy / Security
  • Cory Hall last summer
  • Center for Built Env.
  • Intel Smart Lab
  • Cory Environment and asset tracking
  • Etch. Smart-Alarm
  • LBL Energy Mgmt

19
Meeting Social Network
20
Intel Demonstrating the Technology
  • Intel Research Impact
  • 800 multihop network at IDF (Aug 2001)
  • Intel Sales and Marketing (Jan 2002)
  • Intel Developers Forum (Feb 2002)
  • 100 nodes in audience of 2000
  • Network Discovery
  • Power-aware routing
  • In-Network aggregation
  • Silly voting demo

Network in Marconi Center
21
in situ habitat monitoring
Packaging Sensor Suite Longevity Power
Management Predictability Long-term Data
Analysis Remote Management delay-tolerant
network energy-based exp. design
Alan Mainwaring _at_ Intel Research
22
Smart Fire Helmet
Dick White
  • CO sensor interfaced to MICA
  • Intended to provide chemical sensing in helmet

23
Controlled Test Bench
  • Well-defined position
  • Parallel access to nodes
  • Integrated with MatLab

in situ programming Localization (RF,
TOF) Distributed Algorithms Distributed
Control Auto Calibration !!!!
24
Wealth of Research Challenges
  • Many highly constrained (energy capability),
    connected devices
  • able to be casually deployed in infrastructure
    (existing or in design)
  • imperfect operation and reliability
  • operating in aggregate
  • New family of issues across all the layers

application
service
prog / data model
network
mgmt / diag / debug
algorithm / theory
system
architecture
technology
25
Little History of Invention
  • Often driven by the need to overcome hurdles,
    rather than opportunity for perfection
  • Airbags gt MEMS accelerometer
  • RF pressure gauge?
  • Clusters
  • US locomotive industry
  • Balloon Frame House construction
  • ...

26
Some of the things were seeing
  • Concurrency poor I/O hierarchy
  • event-driven fine-grain threading
  • Simple radio SW sampling
  • accelerators, low-power listen, wake-up,
    sampling, RSSI, time-stamp
  • No routing, high error rate
  • application specific multihop, routing,
    aggregation
  • spatial redundancy
  • Inaccessibility, limited radio
  • network programming, tiny Virtual machine
  • Inconsistent sounders, tone detectors
  • auto-calibration
  • Toy robots network in the loop
  • closed loop control using sensor field
  • control in the face of errors, delay, loss

27
What did we say we would do?
28
NEST SOW FY01
  • A. FY01 Production and Distribution of Testbed
    kits
  • Assemble ten (10) OEP1 Testbed kits each
    consisting of approximately 100 wireless
    networked sensor nodes, plus base-stations, lab
    programming harness, and software tools.
  • Distribute kits to project groups
  • PCB board manufacture and assembly will be
    out-sourced.
  • B. FY01 Challenge Problem Development
  • Collateral work, in coordination with DARPA,
    developing Challenge Applications involving
    distributed control and large-scale for the OEP1.
  • Developing integration experiments related to
    Challenge Applications.
  • C. FY01 NEST Emerging Platform Research
    Milestones and Work Items

29
FY01 Platform Research
  • 8/2001 Release OEP1 preliminary design document
  • 12/2001 Release OEP v1.
  • Design, development and testing of OEP HW
  • Specifications, diagnostics
  • Open code release of Tiny OS version 1.0 prog.
    env
  • 1/2002 Tutorial Workshop and Distribution
  • 1/2002 OEP1 Embedded Software Component
  • Evaluation of tiny stack of wireless networking
    components
  • Demonstration of
  • NEST application as collection of cooperating FSM
    components
  • preliminary dynamic ad hoc routing components
  • preliminary time synchronization beacon
  • preliminary tiny authentication and encryption
    protocol
  • Systematic analysis of the use of TinyOS
    commands, events, and tasks

30
FY01 Platform Research
  • 6/2002 Evaluation of OEP1
  • Support facility for project groups using the
    platform.
  • Logging and analysis of platform usage, failure
    modes, energy profile.
  • Analysis of hardware design relative to evolving
    project needs
  • Analysis of v1 OS and programming environment
    relative to evolving project needs
  •  6/2002 Emerging Platform Design Prototype
  • Design specification for robust version of TinyOS
  • Demonstration of reusable OS components for
    devices and network support
  • Design of low-level programming language for FSM
    components
  • Preliminary Analysis of techniques for resilient
    aggregation and random sampling

31
FY 02 Platform Research Activities
  • 9/2002 OEP2 proposed platform feature set
    document
  • 12/2002 FSM-based Environment on OEP1
  • Compiler/interpreter implemented for low-level
    FSM language.
  • Initial suite of resilient aggregation components
  • Initial Application Specific Virtual Machine
  • 12/2002 Support for Systematic Empirical Studies
  • Prototype of adversarial simulation facility
  • Design of logging and trace collection facility
  • Evaluation of integration experiments
  • 12/2002 Novel Platform Design
  • Initial Implementation of TinyOS version 2.
  • Initial Design of OEP2 node hardware, 
  • 6/2003 Algorithm design and analysis support
  • Complete FSM-based programming environment
  • Implementation of logging and trace collection
    facility.
  • Preliminary vis. and debugging tools for FSM
    prog. environment
  • Implementation of initial gather, scatter,
    select, and scan
  • Preliminary evaluation of secure aggregation.

32
Challenge Application
  • 1. Sensing and Updates of the Environment in
    Response to Events and Queries.
  • 2. Distributed Map Building.
  • Tasking of 100s-1000s of map building entities
  • task based and dynamic depending on the usage of
    it
  • 3. Pursuit Evasion Games
  • September 02 Environmental Monitoring of floor
    sized spaces using networks of 100s of motes.
  • September 03 Decentralized Map Building of
    indoor environments using both fixed and mobile
    SLAPs of the order of 250 motes. 
  • September 04 Preliminary Adversarial games using
    two networks of motes outdoors using coordination
    and information gathering by UAVs and UGVs.
  • August 05. Capstone Demonstration of Pursuit
    Evasion Game.

33
What retreats are about
  • 6 month project checkpoint
  • milestones, accomplishments, shortfalls
  • course correction
  • Students refine communication and investigation
    skills
  • interested benign audience, lots of feedback
  • In depth exchange with industrial collaborators
  • discussion and feedback
  • close with feedback session
  • Build team and cement connections

Theme Demonstrating NEST Technology
34
Agenda
  • NOW Demonstration of distributed control
    crossing many aspects of the project
  • M 4-6 Tech. beneath the Demo
  • Phil Application Architecture
  • Robert - local processing
  • Jason - localization, leader election, robust
    communication
  • Shawn - camera control
  • Luca - tracking estimation
  • Sarah - COTS Bots
  • Bruno - Pursuer control
  • Dinner
  • Demo / Talks
  • Kamin - Time-of-flight Localization
  • Naveen - Location authentication
  • Alan, Joe - Habitat monitoring
  • Sam, Wei - In-network Query Processing

35
Tuesday
  • 830 - 1000 Programming
  • Phil L. - Mate' Tiny Network Virtual Machine
  • David G. - NesC programming support for TinyOS
    events
  • Eric B. - Macroprogramming
  • 1030 - 1200 Breakout - Setting/Changing
    Direction
  • Network Service Definition, Platform
    evaluation
  • Distributed Mapping, Towards PEG
    Spec
  • 1200 - 100 Lunch
  • 100 - 400 Recreation
  • 400 - 600 New Directions
  • Jason H. - Putting TinyOS in Silicon
  • Chris K., Ying, Joe - Robust Routing with
    Demo/Vis
  • David W. - Security directions
  • 730 - 900 Flexible Evening Session
  • Judy M. - Monitoring Structural Response to
    Earthquakes using Wireless Sensor Networks
  • Mike H. - New and future Crossbow motes w/ demo
  • Wild, Crazy, or Future ideas under gong

36
Wednesday
  • 730 - 830 Breakfast
  • 830 - 930 Open Mic
  • 930 - 1030 Breakout Reports
  • 1030 - 1100 Break and Checkout
  • 1100 - 1200 Visitor Feedback
  • 1200 - 100 Lunch
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