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Diesel Hybrid Automobiles and a Greener, More Independent Future


Diesel Hybrid Automobiles and a Greener, More Independent Future – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Diesel Hybrid Automobiles and a Greener, More Independent Future

  • Diesel Hybrid Automobiles and a Greener, More
    Independent Future
  • Weston Eidson weston_at_webmail.us

  • First Hybrid Vehicles
  • Jacob Lohner Co in Vienna, Austria produced
    electric cars from 1898 to 1906.Ferdinand
    Porsche, one of Lohners employees developed a
    drive system based on fitting an electric motor
    to each front wheel without transmissions (hub
    mounted). Vehicles of this type were known as

History Cont.
  • Racing version of the front wheel driven,
    petrol-electric Lohner "Porsche - This vehicle
    was entered in the 1900 "Semmering" race and is
    driven by Dr. Porsche him self.
  • Too Expensive to Compete with conventional
    propulsion so they were abandoned.
  • Some claim Porsche invented the first four wheel
    drive car which was also a hybrid.

History Cont.
  • Main reason for the early development was to
    assist the meager power of the internal
    combustion engine, when this was no longer needed
    the idea of the electric hybrid went dormant for
  • In 1905 H. Piper filed a patent for a
    petrol-electric hybrid vehicle. His idea was to
    use an electric motor to assist an
    internal-combustion engine, mainly to augment the
    ICE to let the vehicle accelerate to 40
    kilometers (25 miles) per hour in 10 seconds,
    instead of the usual 30. By the time the patent
    was issued, three and a half years later, engines
    had become powerful enough to achieve this kind
    of performance on their own.
  • From 1897 to 1907, the Compagnie Parisienne des
    Voitures Electriques (roughly, Paris Electric Car
    Company), built a series of electric and hybrid
    vehicles, including the 1903 Krieger. With
    front-drive and power steering, the Krieger
    wasn't built in much quantity. One model ran on
    alcohol, and there was another version with what
    has been described as a gasoline-turbine engine
    in those times, the term "turbine" sometimes
    meant generator."
  • Cheap petrol and advances in ICE and automobile
    production in general (Henry Ford) gradually
    killed off the Hybrid "Cars".

History Cont.
  • A notable exceptions is the1921 Owen Magnetic
    Model 60 Touring which uses a gasoline engine to
    run a generator that supplies electric power to
    motors mounted in each of the rear wheels.
  • Similar to Submarines

History Cont.
  • Hybrid cars did not appear again until the in
    1960's and 1970's, when cars like the 1965 GM512
    and especially the 1973 VW Taxi Hybrid Vehicle
    which was produced in the wake of the Arab Oil
  • But Hybrid Vehicle technology did not disappear
    its development continued in another arena.

Chicagos Own Pioneer Zephyr
  • Record time from Denver to Chicago using
    Diesel-Electric power
  • 1934 made the 1,015 mile trip in just over 13
    hours with an average speed of 77 MPH
  • 112.5 mph

Zephyrs Locomotion
  • The Pioneer Zephyr, like modern locomotives, is
    essentially an electric train that doesn't need
    overhead wires or a third rail. Instead, it
    generates the electricity it needs with its own
    diesel power plant on board.
  • The generator converts the mechanical power
    output of the diesel engine into electricity.
  • Here's How The engine crankshaft extends into
    the generator, where it is wrapped with coils of
    conducting wire and is surrounded by a stationary
    magnetic field. A DC electric current is produced
    in the coil as the shaft rotates in the magnetic
    field. The electricity runs motors that turn the
    wheels, setting the train in motion.
  • The Pioneer Zephyr could generate up to 750 volts
    of electricity to move the train.

Zephyrs Locomotion Cont.
  • The Zephyr's diesel-electric power plant
    generated 600 horsepower, making the Zephyr more
    energy efficient than steam locomotives. But a
    new kind of engine was only one improvement in
    CBQ's revolutionary train. The next step was to
    put the engine in an equally efficient body.
  • Diesel-electric locomotives are more efficient
    than steam locomotives at turning heat into
    useful mechanical energy. In a steam locomotive,
    burning fuel boils water, converting it into
    steam. The expanding steam pushes the pistons
    that turn the wheels. A lot of heat, or energy,
    is lost in making and delivering steam.
  • In a diesel-electric locomotive, burning diesel
    fuel pushes the pistons directly. Converting this
    mechanical energy at the traction motors for the
    wheels occurs with much less heat loss.
  • This is why diesel-electric locomotives can
    convert up to 40 of the heat from burning fuel
    into useful power. Steam locomotives could rarely
    do better than 6 because of their greater heat

In Chicago U-505
  • Diesel on the Surface
  • Diesel engines propelled U-boats on the surface,
    while electric motors provided power underwater.
    The U-505 had two nine-cylinder, 2,200
    horsepower, turbocharged diesel engines, each of
    which turned a screw or propeller. Using diesel
    power, the U-505 had a top speed of 18.3 knots.
    Cruising at 12 knots, the U-505 could travel as
    far as 11,000 nautical miles before having to
    refuel. At times, temperatures in U-505s diesel
    engine room exceeded 100F, and the noise was
    literally deafening. To make matters worse, the
    fumes made the crews food taste like diesel
  • Electric when Submerged
  • When U-boats dove, the only air for the crew to
    breathe came from air trapped in the boat and a
    small number of oxygen bottles. The U-505 could
    not use the diesel engines underwater because the
    engines would have consumed all the available air
    and created exhaust, causing the crew to
    suffocate. Before diving, the diesel engines were
    disconnected so that two 500 horsepower,
    battery-powered electric motors could propel the
    boat underwater. Running on the electric motors,
    U-505 reached a top speed of 7 knots. After
    traveling a maximum of 63 miles, the boat was
    forced to surface and use its diesel engines to
    recharge its electric batteries.

Hybrid Electric Vehicle
  • Though not todays hybrids the previous examples
    laid the groundwork.
  • The Subs Could Run on Only Diesel Power However.

Diesel Over Gasoline
  • New Diesel cars produce less carbon dioxide and
    nitrous oxide and get 20 to 40 percent better
    mileage than vehicles already on the market.
  • Revised federal pollution rules that took effect
    in January reduce the allowable sulfur content of
    diesel fuel from 500 to 15 parts per million, and
    the new cars are outfitted with sophisticated
    exhaust and filtering systems that further cut
  • Consumers will pay extra for a diesel, though not
    as much as the 2,000 to 7,000 tacked on to the
    price of gas-electric hybrids. For instance, a
    Mercedes-Benz E320 diesel sedan costs about
    1,000 more than a similar gas model.
  • But it gets more than 35 miles per gallon, about
    10 miles per gallon better than a comparable
    gas-fueled Mercedes.

Diesel Over Gasoline Cont.
  • Makers of diesel vehicles say they also are
    prepared to seek a consumer tax break similar to
    the one hybrid buyers enjoy, about a 2,000
    federal deduction.
  • Chrysler, which is owned by German automaker
    DaimlerChrysler and also makes Dodge and Jeep
    brands, will offer diesel-powered passenger cars.
    But Ford Motor Co. and General Motors Corp. plan
    to limit their diesel business to trucks until
    they see how the American market for passenger
    cars unfolds.

Diesel Over Gasoline Cont.
  • Autobytel Inc., an online auto marketplace,
    showed 72 percent of Americans would "absolutely"
    consider buying a diesel vehicle.
  • J.D. Power and Associates forecasts that diesels,
    which currently account for just 3.4 percent of
    the cars on the road in the United States, will
    hit 15 percent within eight years. By comparison,
    J.D. Power projects that by 2011 hybrids will
    have only about 3 percent of the market, 11 years
    after the first one came ashore.

Diesel Over Gasoline Cont.
  • unlike gas-powered cars, diesels do not emit high
    levels of carbon dioxide, a critical greenhouse
    gas. Diesel pollution has come from nitrous oxide
    and particulate emissions, which contribute to
    smog and acid rain. But the new fuel, used with
    the new filter and exhaust systems, significantly
    cuts so-called "nox" and particulate emissions.
  • A four-cylinder diesel engine also can be more
    powerful than a similar-size six-cylinder
    gasoline engine, and a six-cylinder diesel can
    best a gas-guzzling V-8. Diesel-powered
    eight-cylinder SUVs, such as the line
    Mercedes-Benz intends to introduce next year, can
    achieve at least 24 miles per gallon, far better
    than the 10 to 16 miles per gallon many SUVs get.
  • Durability is another selling point for diesels,
    say automakers. Because the engines are so well
    made, it is not uncommon for them to last 500,000
    miles, whereas a gasoline engine that logs
    150,000 miles is considered ancient.
  • Urea, a common chemical compound, will have to be
    periodically replenished by owners, causing the
    Environmental Protection Agency to worry it will
    not be done but onboard computers can remind
    drivers and if need be limit the performance of
    the vehicle until the reservoir is filled,
    similar to filling windshield wiper fluid.

How Hybrids Work
  • http//videos.howstuffworks.com/mazda-hybrid-video

Diesel Hybrid Best of Both Worlds
  • source at BMW is still confident that current
    diesels have hybrids beat. "Hybrid cars are very
    good for slow and stop-start driving but not so
    good at higher speeds. Overall, our diesel
    vehicles are still more economical." A
    diesel-hybrid could be even more economical.

Problem Has Been Price
  • More Expensive Engine
  • Buckling the Systems
  • Chassis

How the Diesel Hybrid WorksCase Study, Peugeot
  • Hybrid technology using a petrol engine is not
    very competitive financially, and does not offer
    significantly better fuel economy or CO2 emission
    performance than a conventional HDi diesel
    engine. However, PSA Peugeot Citroën believes
    that combining a hybrid powertrain with an HDi
    engine would constitute a step change in terms of
    improved fuel economy and lower CO2 emissions in
    Europe, where diesel engines are already widely
  • PSA Peugeot Citroën statement

Case Study Cont.
  • Model year 2010, Looks Closest to coming to
    Market, At least in Europe
  • The hybrids deliver average combined city and
    highway fuel consumption of 3.4 liters per 100
    kilometers (69 mpg US), with 90 grams of CO2
    emitted per kilometera tank-to-wheel record for
    compact cars, the most popular segment in Europe.
    This is about 25 better than a similar vehicle
    equipped with a gasoline hybrid system, or as
    much as a liter per 100 kilometers in combined
    city and highway driving.
  • Todays Toyota Prius is estimated at 52/45 MPG

Case Study Cont.
  • PSA Peugeot Citroëns Hybrid HDi technology
  • 1.6-liter HDi engine and diesel particulate
    filter system (DPFS)
  • New-generation Stop Start system
  • Electric motor and inverter
  • High-voltage battery pack
  • Dedicated control electronics
  • All-electric mode for speeds under 50 kilometers
    an hour (31 mph)
  • Driver selection of Extended ZEV (Zero Emission
    Vehicle, i.e., all-electric) mode
  • Electronically-managed gearbox

Case Study Cont.
Case Study Cont.
  • Engine
  • The prototype marks the first combination of the
    1.6-liter, 66 kW HDi engine with the latest
    generation Stop Start system. The company added
    a dedicated control system to the engine, using
    operating instructions coordinated directly by
    the powertrain management unit (PTMU), most
    notably for engine starts and stops, while also
    guaranteeing delivery of the torque required by
    the driver.
  • The engine, with the diesel particulate filter
    system (DPFS), meets Euro-4 standards.
  • Toyota Prius
  • Gasoline engine 1.5-L, 16-valve, 4-cylinder,
  • cast-aluminum block and head, EFI Atkinson-
  • cycle VVTi (Variable Valve Timing with
  • intelligence), 1301 compression ratio, 70 hp
  • at 4,500 rpm, 82 lb-ft of torque at 4,200 rpm

Case Study Cont.
Case Study Cont.
Case Study Cont.
  • Stop Start system. The Stop Start system used
    in the Hybride HDi powertrain is based on the
    technology integrated in both the Citroën C2 and
    C3. The new system has 40 more power than the
    first generation to support the easier starting
    of the 1.6-liter diesel.
  • In the hybrid powertrain, the Stop Start system
    restarts the ICE. While the Stop Start function
    is only used on the C3 when the vehicle is
    stationary, the engine stop function can occur at
    any given moment on the Hybride HDi, as soon as
    the vehicles speed falls below 60 kilometers an
    hour (37 mph).

Case Study Cont.
  • Electric motor and inverter, The synchronous
    permanent magnet electric motor develops 16 kW of
    continuous power, with 80 Nm of torque. It offers
    peak power of 23 kW and 130 Nm to meet occasional
    demand from the driver.
  • PSA Peugeot Citroën opted for the volume and
    performance of the motor to ensure that the
    all-electric mode would be used for speeds up to
    50 kilometers per houra speed typical of city
  • Connected to the inverter, the motor operates in
    a voltage range from 210 to 380 volts. In the
    restricted space available, this electric
    motor/inverter does not enable use of the
    conventional engine cooling circuit, whose
    typical temperature is too high. Water cooling is
    therefore provided by a special radiator and a
    low-temperature cooling circuit at 60C.
  • For main road and highway driving, the electric
    motor can provide a 35 power boost for extra
  • Toyota Prius
  • Electric motor Three-phase AC permanent
  • magnet with peak power of 33 kW/44 hp
  • at 1,0405,600 rpm, peak torque of
  • 350.0 N-m/258 lb/ft (0400 rpm)

Case Study Cont.
  • Battery system. The battery pack consists of 240
    NiMH (Nickel-Metal Hydride) cells that deliver 23
    kW of power at a nominal voltage of 288 volts.
    The cells are cooled by special air intakes that
    recover air from the passenger compartment,
    taking advantage of its temperature control.
  • There is also a conventional 12V storage battery,
    which continues to handle its usual functions.
  • The high-voltage battery pack fits in the rear
    part of the Groups platform 2 vehicles (base for
    the Peugeot 307 and Citroën C4) in place of the
    spare tire, following a slight modification to
    the cut-out in this compartment. Adding the
    batteries does not reduce trunk capacity for any
    of the vehicles.
  • Toyota Prius
  • Battery Sealed nickel-metal hydride battery,
  • 274 volts

Case Study Cont.
  • All-electric mode Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV).
    The driver can use a special switch to access an
    extended all-electric mode that expands the
    operating range for the vehicle in this mode. In
    this case, the ICE is only activated for more
    prolonged acceleration.
  • The extended all-electric mode is de-activated
    either automatically, when the high-voltage
    battery pack no longer has a sufficient charge,
    or manually, by using the dedicated switch.

Case Study Cont.
  • Economics and Future. PSA Peugeot Citroën says
    that while it could market its Hybride HDi
    vehicles as early as 2010, the introduction is
    dependent upon its ability to make the technology
    available at an affordable price.
  • Today, the price gap between a Hybride HDi model
    and a comparable diesel HDi model is still too
    wide and would have to be halved to make diesel
    hybrid vehicles accessible to most consumers.
  • The Group is planning a two-pronged approach to
    reach that goal
  • Extensive RD on the four areas that generate
    most of the extra cost high-voltage batteries,
    electric motor/generator, inverter and the
    regenerative braking system.
  • Unite the expertise of equipment manufacturers
    and research laboratories to focus on this
  • PSA Peugeot Citroën has asked the French Agency
    for Industrial Innovation to support the project.

Case Study Cont.
Case Study Cont. CO2
  • Band CO2 emissions
  • A lt100 g/km
  • B 101-120 g/km
  • Peugeot Citroën Has Tested at (80 g/km) city and
    (90 g/km) highway
  • Examples
  • Honda Insight petrol electric hybrid (80 g/km)
  • Smart diesel (90 g/km)
  • Toyota Prius 1.5 litre petrol-electric hybrid
    (104 g/km)
  • Smart car 0.7 litre petrol (113 g/km)
  • Citroen C2 1.4 litre diesel (108 g/km)
  • Ford Fiesta 1.4 diesel (114 g/km CO2)

Smart Car Diesel Hybrid
  • The diesel hybrid version of the smart car
    consumes just 2.9 liters of fuel/100 km (81 mpg
  • The diesel hybrid combines a 20 kW electric motor
    with the 30 kW (40 hp) diesel engine. The design
    is much the same as Crosstown (gasoline) hybrid,
    with the electric motor providing start-stop
    functionality, drive assistance, shift delay
    bridging and regenerative braking.
  • Because the cars shift delays are bridged by the
    electric motor, it only needs 17.8 seconds to
    accelerate from zero to 100 km/h. Thats ten
    percenttwo secondsbetter than with a
    conventional diesel drive.

Smart Car Diesel Hybrid Cont.
  • The Diesel Is Much More Economical in terms of
  • No Commercial Plans Yet However

Where Are We Now? Chicago CTA
  • Chicago, Among Other Cities Has a Small Test
    Fleet of Diesel Hybrid Busses.
  • Hybrid buses are a good example of what Ive
    been saying for some time there really is no
    downside when it comes to protecting the
    environment, said Mayor Daley. It improves
    public health it beautifies the city it saves
    money and it enhances the quality of life.
  • The New Flyer hybrid bus is powered by both a
    diesel engine and electric motor for improved
    fuel efficiency and up to a 90 percent reduction
    in emissions compared to a diesel powered bus.

Chicago CTA Cont.
  • We will be evaluating the performance of these
    hybrid buses in Chicagos extreme weather
    conditions and compare the two types of drive
    systems to determine if hybrid buses are suitable
    as future additions to CTAs fleet, said CTA
    President Frank Kruesi. Other new buses in our
    fleet are equipped with low-emission engines that
    produce 60 percent fewer emissions than the buses
    they are replacing, so if the hybrids perform
    well, we have the potential for emission levels
    to fall even further.
  • The 20 hybrid buses are part of CTAs larger
    investment of 650 low-emission buses that are
    replacing aging buses in CTAs fleet. The buses
    are manufactured by New Flyer in St. Cloud,
    Minnesota. The average cost of a hybrid bus is
    530,000, compared to 341,000 for a standard
    diesel bus.
  • Notice the Battery Packs on top of the bus

Chicago CTA Cont.
  • Emission levels from CTA buses in 2005 was 22
    percent of 564 tons less than the annual emission
    level in 1997, even as ridership has grown by 12
    percent over the same period. By converting to
    ultra low sulfur diesel fuel in 2003, the CTA is
    well ahead of schedule in implementing the 2007
    Federal Emission requirements for reduced
    particulate matter and carbon monoxide.

Chicago CTA Cont.The Two Forms Of Hybrids
  • The first 10 hybrid buses to arrive will be
    equipped with a parallel drive system, which is
    similar to a hybrid system found in a car. An
    on-board computer blends the diesel engine power
    and the electric motor power from the battery
    unit for optimum efficiency. When the vehicle
    leaves a stop, it will operate initially on
    electric power and as its speed increases, it
    will operate on a combination of electric power
    and diesel engine power until it reaches an
    optimum speed where it will operate entirely on
    the diesel engine.
  • The second 10 to arrive will be equipped with a
    series drive system, which is a more traditional
    generator-driven traction motor propulsion
    system. In this system, the diesel engine runs a
    generator. The generator provides electric power
    to the traction motors which, in turn, power the
    bus. A computer manages power to the traction
    motors and battery. At certain times during
    operation, the bus runs on generator power or
    battery power.

Second Form of Hybrid
  • Mild Hybrid Chevrolet found 10 increase in
    fuel economy by shutting down and restarting the
    engine on demand .
  • Conventional vehicles with oversized starter
    motors, allowing the engine to be turned off
    whenever the car is coasting, braking, or
    stopped, yet restart quickly and cleanly.
    Accessories can continue to run on electrical
    power while the engine is off
  • Some have Regenerative Braking
  • Many people do not consider these to be hybrids
    at all since they do not have hybrid drivetrains
    (there is no electric motor to drive the
    vehicle), and these vehicles do not achieve the
    fuel economy of full hybrid models.

Future of Diesel Hybrids
  • Aptera hybrid is to be built from lightweight
    composites, and designed to deliver its 330 mpg
    in normal city and highway driving and
    demonstrate acceleration and handling similar to
    that of a Honda Insight.
  • Production powertrain will consist of a 12 hp (9
    kW) diesel engine with a 25 hp (19 kW) permanent
    magnet DC motor. (Accelerated Composites is
    designing the prototype with a gasoline engine
    for cost.) The electric motor is coupled through
    a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) when
    the engine is off the car can run on the electric
    motor alone.
  • The company plans to use ultracapacitors for
    energy storage, although it is working with
    lightweight lead gauze batteries in the
    prototype. (Lead gauze batteries suspend the
    electrolyte in a gauze material.)
  • The Aptera weighs 850 lbs and is made almost
    entirely of lightweight composites, based on
    Accelerated Composites Panelized Automated
    Composite Construction (PAC2) process. It
    accelerates from 060 mpg in 11 seconds, and has
    a top speed of 95 mph.

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.
  • BMW Rumor
  • source at BMW is still confident that current
    diesels have hybrids beat. "Hybrid cars are very
    good for slow and stop-start driving but not so
    good at higher speeds. Overall, our diesel
    vehicles are still more economical." A
    diesel-hybrid could be even more economical.
  • working on diesel hybrid versions of its 5-Series
    sedan and X5 sport utility vehicle, both in time
    for 2010.

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.
  • Based on the new 2006 Mercedes-Benz S-Class, the
    Bluetec Hybrid uses what the company claims to be
    the "cleanest diesel in the world." A process
    called Selective Catalytic Reduction--literally
    the use of urea injected into the
    exhaust--neutralizes gases and reduces nitrogen
    oxide emissions by 80 percent.
  • The hybrid system allows a twenty-percent
    reduction in fuel consumption compared to a
    conventional S-Class diesel.
  • Zero to sixty mph in just over seven
    seconds--about as fast a gasoline-powered V-6
  • However looks as though the company will prefer
    to further research fuel cells

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.
  • Toyota to sell diesel hybrid by 2010 thanks to
  • Toyota's recent purchase of a 5.9 stake in Isuzu
    will bear fruit in 2010 when the Japanese
    juggernaut marries its Synergy hybrid drive
    system with a diesel engine. Presumably such a
    hook up was made possible, or at least hastened,
    by the expertise in diesels that Isuzu brings to
    the table.
  • as diesel engines excel in efficiency when
    cruising at highway speeds, much more so than a
    gasoline engine, which to this point has always
    been the electric motor's dance partner in modern
  • JapanToday is reporting that a Toyota subcompact
    with this diesel hybrid drivetrain will be
    available as soon as 2010.

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.
  • 1.7-liter CDTI engine, delivers up to 25 to 30
    percent improved fuel economy
  • 59 miles per gallon
  • Integrating both hybrid and diesel technology
    could add up to 8,000 to the price of a vehicle,
    which may limit its appeal to American consumers.
    "Even (with gas at) 3 a gallon, 8,000 (more) is
    a lot to pay."
  • DaimlerChrysler's future diesel hybrids will be
    based on the hybrid technology being developed
    with GM and would be available in late 2007 or
    early 2008, according to Quinnell. In the future,
    "Adding the hybrid option would be an option to
    check off," as customers do today to request a
    turbo-charged engine, Quinnell said.

Future of Diesel Hybrids Cont.
  • Ford Concept Making Hybrids Sporty and Cool with
    a Lithium Ion battery, 65 mpg , All-Wheel Drive,
    and a Solar Catching Sun Roof to Power the Lights

Customize to Hybridize
  • California Motors
  • Hybrid Powertrain Additions
  • Bio-Diesel Hybrid
  • There is a natural compliment between the
    properties of a diesel engine and the properties
    of an electric motor. Working together these two
    propulsion methods create an optimal system for
    moving large mass with quick acceleration and
    maximum fuel efficiency. Military implementations
    have yielded not only maximum performance, but
    also stealthy operation in combat scenarios.
    Hybrid Buses and shuttles benefit tremendously
    given their frequent stops and starts.

This Just In
  • Zytek
  • Standard vehicle Zytek dual mode hybrid Fuel
    economy (Urban) 5.9l/100km, 47.9 mpg No fuel used
    in electric drive
  • Fuel economy (Combined) 4.6l/100km, 61.4 mpg
    3.2l/100km, 88mpg (corrected to charge neutral,
    ie with no net change in battery state of charge)
  • Overall CO2 (Tank-wheel) 121g/km 85g/km
    Acceleration 0-100kph 15.53s Under 12s (about

This Just In Cont.
  • Plug in
  • Dual Mode
  • Todays passenger car production hybrids are
    either parallel or dual mode systems. Pure series
    hybrids offer high efficiency at low speeds but
    this greatly reduces as speed increases, and
    hence this drivetrain only finds application in
    low speed, stop start vehicles such as inner city
    buses. Parallel hybrids have the internal
    combustion engine permanently coupled to the
    wheels so are more efficient at high speeds, but
    offer less flexibility to optimise the drive for
    low speed duty cycles.
  • A new generation of dual mode transmissions offer
    the ability to operate in series or parallel mode
    so the drive can be optimised for each operating
    condition, but they are generally more complex
    and therefore larger and more expensive. There
    are also inevitable compromises in todays
    production dual-mode designs.
  • Zyteks novel solution is a dual-mode hybrid that
    eliminates these compromises by using
    sophisticated control strategies to replace
    clutches and complex epicyclic gearsets. In
    addition to the many advantages of dual-mode
    operation, this reduces component count,
    eliminates wearing friction surfaces, reduces
    packaging volume and substantially reduces
    manufacturing costs. The design also allows each
    motor to be optimised for its function within the

This Just In Cont.
  • Five Door Competition
  • 5,000 Grant from UK Government

  • Less Diesel Consumed, Less Dependant
  • Diesel Also Can Use Bio Fuel to Further Reduce
  • Can be Cheaper to Create/Refine Diesel
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