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Plants Used In Cancer Treatment

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Most frequent cancers by organ effected. Major types of cancers ... to treat acute leukemia, rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, Hodgkin's disease and other lymphomas ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Plants Used In Cancer Treatment


1
Plants Used In Cancer Treatment
  • Part - I

2
Cancer
  • What is cancer?
  • US cancer statistics
  • Cancer costs
  • Most frequent cancers by organ effected

3
Major types of cancers
  • Over 200 types of cancer are known grouped into
    major categories
  • Carcinomas
  • Sarcomas
  • Melanomas
  • Teratomas
  • Leukemias and Lymphomas

4
History of Cancer Therapy
  • Folk remedies
  • NCI 1955
  • NCI-USDA late 1950s
  • NCI 1985
  • 21st century

5
Current Plant Based Therapies
  • Periwinkle
  • Mayapple
  • Yew
  • Camptotheca
  • Lapachol

6
Madagascar Periwinkle Vinca alkaloids
  • Catharanthus roseus is known as the common or
    Madagascar periwinkle,
  • Formerly classified as Vinca rosea
  • Perennial evergreen herb in Apocynaceae
  • Originally native to island of Madagascar

7
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8
Traditional uses of periwinkle
  • Used to treat a wide assortment of diseases
  • In Europe, folk remedy for diabetes for centuries
  • In India, juice from the leaves to treat wasp
    stings.
  • In Hawaii, boiled to make a poultice to stop
    bleeding.
  • In China, an astringent, diuretic and cough
    remedy.
  • In Central and South America, homemade cold
    remedy to ease lung congestion and inflammation
    and sore throats
  • Throughout the Caribbean, an flower extract to
    treat eye irritation and infections

9
Interest in Periwinkle
  • Two groups began independently working on
    periwinkle in 1950s when they learned of a tea
    Jamaicans were drinking to treat diabetes
  • Univ of Western Ontario - Beer and Noble
    -interested in plant as a possible oral insulin
    - they isolated alkalod - vinblastin
  • Eli Lilly Pharmaceuticals - Svoboda

10
Lilly Pharmaceuticals
  • Svoboda injected a crude extract of the whole
    periwinkle plant into mice that were infected
    with P-1534 leukemia
  • 60-80 of the mice experienced prolonged life
  • Lilly produced vinblastin as the drug Velban
  • Also synthesized another alkaloid, vincristine
    (VCR), as the drug Oncovin
  • First human tests in 1960 - 49 yr old man dying
    of Hodgkins disease - within one week man was
    walking - 4 months later the tumor gone

11
More alkaloids in periwinkle
  • Overall 70 alkaloids have been identified in
    periwinkle
  • Some have anticancer properties
  • Some lower blood sugar levels
  • Some act as hemostatics (arrest bleeding)
  • Periwinkles also contain the alkaloids reserpine
    and serpentine, which are powerful tranquilizer

12
Vincristine and vinblastine
  • Major chemotherapeutic agents
  • Vincristine has been especially effective for
    treating acute childhood leukemia, often with 99
    remission rates
  • Vinblastine has been especially effective for
    treating Hodgkin's disease - which had been
    considered a fatal up to that point
  • Gave researchers hope that some cancers can be
    overcome by simple chemotherapy
  • Today used for other types of cancers

13
Mode of action of vinca alkaloids
  • Vinblastine, vincristine, and two semi-synthetic
    derivatives (vindesine and vinorelbine) all have
    the same mode of action
  • Inhibit mitosis in metaphase by binding tubulin

14
Potent Drugs
  • They are all administered intravenously once a
    week
  • Cmpds are fatal if they're administered any other
    way, and can cause a lot of tissue irritation if
    they leak out of the vein.
  • Compounds are very similar in structure and have
    the same basic action, they have distinctly
    different effects on the body.

15
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18
Vinblastine
  • Marketed as Velban
  • Half-life in the bloodstream of 24 hours
  • Vinblastine is mainly useful for treating
    Hodgkin's disease, lymphocytic lymphoma,
    histiocytic lymphoma, advanced testicular cancer,
    advanced breast cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma
  • It also seems to fight cancer by interfering with
    glutamic acid metabolism

19
Side effects of vinblastine
  • Side effects include hair loss, nausea, lowered
    blood cell counts, headache, stomach pain,
    numbness, constipation and mouth sores
  • Bone marrow damage is the typical dose-limiting
    factor
  • Caused severe birth defects in lab animals so not
    used on pregnant patients

20
Vincristine
  • Marketed as Oncovin
  • Serum half-life of about 85 hours.
  • Used mainly to treat acute leukemia,
    rhabdomyosarcoma, neuroblastoma, Hodgkin's
    disease and other lymphomas
  • Also Wilms' tumor (80) and Burkitt's lymphoma
    (50), when used in combination with other drugs
  • Neurotoxicity is the dose limiting factor (it can
    cause damage to the peripheral nervous system)

21
Side effects of vincristine
  • Same as those found with vinblastine
  • Nervous system problems such as sensory
    impairment
  • Breathing problems or lung spasms shortly after
    the drug is administered
  • Secondary cancers if they receive the drug along
    with other anticancer drugs that are known to be
    carcinogens
  • Severe birth defects in animal tests

22
Vindesine -semi synthetic
  • Marketed as Eldisine and Fildesin
  • Serum half-life of about 24 hours
  • Mainly to treat melanoma and lung cancers
    (carcinomas) and, with other drugs, to treat
    uterine cancers
  • Toxicity and side effects are similar to those of
    vinblastine

23
Vinorelbine - semi-synthetic
  • Marketed as Navelbine
  • Approved for non-small cell lung cancer and
    breast cancer usually in combination with other
    drugs
  • Clinical trials on-going as a treatment for
    ovarian, cervical, prostrate and other cancers
  • Seems to have a wider range of antitumor activity
    than the other vinca alkaloids
  • Side effects include diarrhea, nausea, hair loss,
    leukopenia
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