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New Paradigms of Interaction Developing a critical sense

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Title: New Paradigms of Interaction Developing a critical sense


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New Paradigms of InteractionDeveloping a
critical sense.Historical contextDirect
ManipulationUbiCompTangible InterfacesSHAPE
case study
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What is direct manipulation?definitions by B.
Shneiderman and D. Norman(1980s)Direct
manipulation term coined by Ben Shneiderman
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Definition by Shneidermanreferring to a GUI
visual objectsvisibility and continuous
representation of the objects of interest
directnessuser manipulates (points at, or
moves) the objects with physical actions instead
of describing the command in a command language
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Actionsrapid incremental reversible
operations whose impact on the object of interest
is immediately visible Analogy driving a car
vs. having a chauffeur
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Definition by Norman short distance ones
thoughts can easily be translated into the
physical requirements of the system in use, and
the system outputis readily interpreted in terms
of the goals that are of interest to the user.
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direct engagement feeling that the user is
acting on the objects of the task domain the
degree of direct engagement is affected by
learning, and the task at hand.A direct
manipulation interface is transparent.
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WYSIWYGWhat You See Is What You Get
WYSIWYG benefits easy to get started direct
engagement easy to correct mistakes WYSIWYG
drawbacks logical structure bundled with
appearance and formatting systematic changes
are tedious
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How direct is direct manipulation? typical
sequence to carry out a command select the
object of interest by clicking on it select a
command from a menu or keyboard shortcut fill
in the fields of a dialog box and click the OK
button to see the result compare to a command
language interface!
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Direct Manipulation the full story
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Keyboards... William Austin Burt, early 19th
century 
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               Douglas Engelbart's original
mouse. 1966
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1968 The First Computer Mouse is Demonstrated
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Chord Keyboards, yet another invention of Doug
Engelbart. With five keys, that you press in
"patterns" (or chords), you can get 25
combinations 32. With 3 alternative buttons you
get the normal 96 keys set.
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The revolutionary Xerox Alto computer was
introduced internally at the Xerox Palo Alto
Research Center (PARC) in 1973. This was the
first manufactured machine to use a mouse, and
the Ethernet protocol was established to network
the machines within Xerox. The main processing
unit, the size of a small refrigerator, was
designed to sit under a desk or table, while the
display, mouse, and keyboard sat on the tabletop.
The display was shaped like a piece of
letter-sized paper and in conjunction with the
mouse employed a graphical user interface (GUI).
This was perhaps the most farsighted feature of
the machine, as it took another 20 years for
GUI's to become standard on desktop computers.
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1981 Xerox Star - The GUI is Marketed
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I/O DevicesMatch physiological psychological
characteristics Appropriate for task Suitable
for the work environment Affordances System
feedback And People are Different...For
exampleLeft and/or right handed Designed by
men, used by women !!!
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Ergonomic Problems with the physical interface

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TrackballsThe mouse idea turned upside-down.
trackballs are very useful in environments where
you don't have room for a mouse, or in moving
environments (cars, etc.). the trackball causes
less problems with RSI as you don't have to push
circa 30 grams around your desk all day.
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.... also some with force feedback providing a
haptic experience
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Digitisers                                      
                                                  
     
The Wacom digitiser also detects how hard you
press the stylus against the surface of the
tablet and the tilt angle of the stylus, which
means that you can get variable line width etc.
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Pen based                                       
                                                  
    
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  • Hardware
  • Small mobile computers
  • Sensor networks
  • Tangible interfaces
  • Software / Systems
  • Ubiquitous computing
  • Context-aware computing
  • Augmented Reality

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Main ideaGeneral purpose computers are too
complexSo, create devices that do just one thing
well
Ubiquitous Computing
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  • What are the main ideas in Weisers 1991 paper?
  • The disappearance of technology
  • The opposite of virtual reality
  • More humanizing, more human interaction
  • More natural interaction, less fiddling

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  • Wireless, interconnected devices
  • Constant, but unobtrusive, availability
  • A range of different sizes
  • Context-aware behavior
  • Privacy considerations must be addressed but no
    solutions proposed
  • This work really started several years before
    1991. After more than a decade, we are no closer
    to dealing with the privacy issues.

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Context-Aware Computing
  • Related to Ubicomp and Mobile Computing
  • Takes your current environment into account in
    making decisions
  • Turns off cell phone when you enter the lecture
    hall.
  • When you ask where to go for a meal, notes that
    it is morning and you are in Taipei before making
    a recommendation.
  • Knows who wrote on the whiteboard so a copy of
    the ink can be emailed to the author.
  • Plays music you like when you enter an empty
    elevator.
  • Notifies your doctor when your heart rate goes
    too high.

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  • Makes use of different kinds of information
  • Geographic
  • Temporal
  • Social ?

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Interactive Workspaces
Norbert Streitz I-Land Project GMD Darmstadt,
Germany
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Interactive Workspaces Project Stanford University
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  • Operations based on locations and orientations of
    users and devices
  • Cool app
  • Point a camera at a sign see its translation on
    the screen

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  • Computers on body
  • track body relative movements
  • monitor person
  • train person

Wearable Pose-Aware Computers
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Tangible Interfaces
Merge physical with computational Also called
Phidgets Physical Widgets Still only an area of
exploration, but lots of fun See Hiroshi Ishii
work at MIT
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Tradeoffs of Physical versus Digital
  • Bits
  • represent all symbols
  • extremely flexible
  • quick to disseminate
  • cheap to reproduce
  • computational power
  • Physical
  • direct manipulation
  • persistent
  • collaborative
  • affordances
  • multimodal
  • Bits Physical gt Tangibles?
  • can we get the best of both worlds?
  • good physical representations of abstractions?

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Why Tangible Interfaces?
  • Lose something when we use a non-tactile,
    non-material interface
  • Tradeoffs between human touch and subtlety of
    expression vs. search for efficiency
  • Tangibility / physicality
  • humans attempt to learn through contact with the
    world
  • children experience the world naturally this way.

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Example of Research at IDC in Ubiquitous
ComputingCase Study -
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The SHAPE Case Study
SHAPE Situating Hybrid Assemblies in Public
Environments EU, FET (Future and Emerging
Technologies) Programme The Disappearing
Computer initiative 16 projects, Steering Group,
group events, inter-project collaboration
activities http//www.disappearing-computer.net D
uration January 2001-January 2004 SHAPE is a 36
months project
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The SHAPE Case Study Consortium of partners
UK, Sweden and Ireland Collaborative project
design of interactive environments, namely museum
exhibitions. Three Living Exhibitions produced
by the project Stockholm, Nottingham and
Limerick. IDC coordinated the one at the Hunt
Museum in Limerick Public events, not just lab
exercises
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The SHAPE Case Study Design Process User
studies technology exploration Concept
Design Prototyping and creative design Continued
evaluation Building of the final
exhibition Public testing with the public 30
months
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The SHAPE Case Study Looking at users and
spaces Studying the museum no prescribed series
of tasks Large variety of people, many purposes
(study, leisure, etc.) Understand the features of
the museum and the exhibition policies Understand
peoples interactions with the museum and with
each other Planning different phases of study
using different techniques
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The SHAPE Case Study Observations Phase 1
informal observations in the galleries and note
taking.
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The SHAPE Case Study Observations Phase 2
Video observations of particular exhibits
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The SHAPE Case Study Observations Phase 3
Video observations of educational workshops
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The SHAPE Case Study Observations Data
analysis observing movement, social interaction,
conversations, interactions around the physical
artefacts and the space.
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The SHAPE Case Study Observations Some
findings Collaborative discovery Discussing
objects Active participation Peoples own
opinions Role of Docents Children and adults
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The SHAPE Case Study Inspirational Materials
session Phase 4 Cleaning session used as design
session Field notes Docents stories,
anecdotes, bizarre facts about the
objects Learning about classification and
labelling Interviews with experts
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The SHAPE Case Study Walkthroughs Phase 5
Walkthrough of the museum with experts. Design
insights Favourite objects Storytelling
strategies (function, period, connection to
Hunts, etc.) Engagement strategies how to keep
visitors interested, what kinds of visitors,
etc.
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The SHAPE Case Study Technology
exploration Low-Tech prototypes to explore
possibilities
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The SHAPE Case Study Creative Design Brainstormi
ng Focus Groups Sketching Scenarios Low-fi
prototypes
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The SHAPE Case Study Technology
exploration Low-Tech prototypes to explore
possibilities
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The SHAPE Case Study Creative Design Detailed
scenarios and storyboards 4 Mysterious objects
from the Hunt Museum that were never fully
interpreted. Ask people to investigate them and
express their opinions
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The SHAPE Case Study Implementation Survey of
the space and building the infrastructure
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  • The SHAPE Case Study Implementation
  • Building the exhibition in the museum respecting
    the qualities of the place as well as
    implementing the technology.
  • 2 spaces
  • the Study Room where people can investigate the
    objects and find out what its known about them
  • The Room of Opinion where people can look at
    replica objects and leave their opinion on them
  • 2 different activities 2 different spaces and
    atmosphere

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The SHAPE Case Study Re-Tracing the Past
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The SHAPE Case Study Re-Tracing the Past
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The SHAPE Case Study Re-Tracing the Past
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The SHAPE Case Study Re-Tracing the Past
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The SHAPE Case Study Re-Tracing the Past
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The SHAPE Case Study Re-Tracing the Past
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Public Interaction
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Evaluation and Reflection video analysis and
interviews
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