Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air RIOPA Study - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air RIOPA Study PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 25aebb-ZDc1Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air RIOPA Study

Description:

Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air RIOPA Study – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:21
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 24
Provided by: wei123
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air RIOPA Study


1
Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor and Personal Air
(RIOPA) Study
  • Clifford P. Weisel
  • Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences
    Institute, Piscataway, NJ
  • With J Zhang, BJ Turpin, MT Morandi, S Colome,
    Thomas H. Stock, DM Spektor
  • Presented at
  • The 2004 MIT Endicott Air Toxics Symposium

2
EXPOSURE CONSIDERATIONS
  • People spend more time indoors (home, work,
    school, recreation, etc.) than outdoor, but also
    in transit
  • Percent time can vary by location season
  • Air toxics
  • have outdoor sources which can enter (though
    often modified) indoors
  • can be produced from activities or generated
    indoors
  • can be elevated in special micro- environments
    (i.e. automobile cabins)

3
RIOPA STUDY HYPOTHESES
  • 1) At residences immediately adjacent to outdoor
    sources a measurable and significant portion of
    the air toxic exposures will be attributable to
    ambient sources
  • 2) Residential air exchange rates and ambient
    air measurements can predict the contribution
    from ambient sources to indoor air personal
    exposure

4
STUDY DESIGN
  • Sample 100 homes twice, 3 months apart in each of
    three urban centers
  • Elizabeth, NJ Houston, TX Los Angeles, CA
  • Target air toxics VOCs, Aldehydes, PM2.5 for
    mass, metals PAHs
  • Personal, indoor outdoor air samples collected
    over 48 hours
  • Personal samples from Adults who stay
    primarily at home children
  • Air exchange measurements

5
ATTRIBUTING AIR TOXIC SOURCES OUTDOOR/INDOOR
  • Examine scatter plots of personnel air, indoor
    air and outdoor air concentrations for each
    sampling set
  • Model the indoor concentrations based on outdoor
    concentrations, penetration factors and air
    exchange rates
  • Use statistical analyses to predict personal
    concentration based on activity data (future
    analyses)

6
OUTDOOR SOURCE DOMINATED
Scatter around 11 line for all three plots are
fairly random outdoor source dominate with
little loss from outdoor
7
OUTDOOR SOURCE DOMINATED Compounds that fit this
category
  • Methyl tert butyl ether (MTBE)
  • Methylene chloride
  • Carbon tetrachloride
  • Trichloroethylene
  • Propionaldehyde
  • Crotonaldehyde
  • These are not compound present in many consumer
    products

8
INDOOR SOURCE DOMINATED
Elevated levels for both the indoor and personal
concentration compared to the outdoor levels,
while the personal and indoor scatter around the
11 line - indoor sources dominate
9
INDOOR SOURCE DOMINATED Compounds that fit this
category
  • Major Indoor Component
  • Chloroform
  • a-Pinene
  • ß-Pinene
  • d-Limonene
  • 1,4-Dichlorobenzene
  • Formaldehyde
  • Acetaldehyde
  • Borders on 11 Line
  • Styrene
  • Acetone
  • Benzaldehyde

Some home show very strong indoor sources
10
MIXED SOURCES
Elevated levels for both the indoor and personal
concentration compared to the outdoor levels for
some samples indoor sources dominate other
samples scatter around the 11 line outdoor
sources dominate
11
MIXED SOURCES Compounds that fit this category
  • Benzene
  • Toluene
  • Tetrachloroethylene
  • m,p Xylene
  • o Xylene
  • Ethyl benzene

12
LOSSES DURING TRANSPORT
Lower indoor values indicative of losses during
penetration Individual higher indoor values --
indoor sources dominate Personal higher than
indoor or outdoor -- indicative of an activity
source.
13
LOSSES DURING TRANSPORT Compounds that fit this
category
  • PM2.5
  • Acrolein

14
SUMMARY OF SCATTER PLOTS
  • Compounds can be classified into four groups
    dependant on indoor-outdoor concentration
  • Majority of homes dominated by outdoor air
  • Majority of homes dominated by indoor sources
  • Significant portion of homes dominated by outdoor
    air with others showing indoor sources
  • Losses of compounds when penetration indoors
    occurs with indoor/personal sources evident

15
MODELING OUTDOOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO INDOORS
  • Goal to evaluate the role of outdoor intrusion on
    the indoor air concentration
  • Use indoor outdoor levels and AER
  • Account for penetration factors and loss terms
  • Mass balance model
  • Random Component super-position statistical model

16
OUTDOOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO INDOOR AIR TOXIC
CONCENTRATIONS USING A MASS BALANCE MODEL - FOR PM
Loss rate (k) in hr-1 indoor source strength
(S/V) in µg m-3 hr-1, median outdoor
contributions to indoor air toxic concentrations
in
17
OUTDOOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO INDOOR AIR TOXIC
CONCENTRATIONS USING A MASS BALANCE MODEL -FOR
CARBONYLS
18
OUTDOOR CONTRIBUTIONS TO INDOOR AIR TOXIC
CONCENTRATIONS USING A MASS BALANCE MODEL -FOR
VOCS
19
SUMMARY OF MODELS
  • PM showed loss during penetration indoor with
    improvement in the estimate as individual home
    variability was accounted for
  • Carbonyls showed loss (water solubility effects?)
    on some strong indoor sources
  • Non-polar VOCs no losses during penetration with
    ambient influence consistent with scatter plot
    suggestions

20
AFFECT OF PROXIMITY ON AMBIENT AIR
CONCENTRATION Mobile Sources
  • Assign locations to all homes and source location
    using GIS techniques
  • Calculate distances between home and closest
    point to roadway and each point or area source
  • Conduct statistical evaluation linear
    regression analyses after appropriate
    transformations.
  • Distance and meteorology as independent
    variables.
  • Evaluate statistical appropriateness of
    associations and outliers

21
SUMMARY OF PROXIMITY ANALYSES
  • Mobile source compounds were inversely related to
    distance to major highways gas stations, wind
    speed (some) positive to atmospheric stability
  • MTBE stronger to Gas Stations
  • Toluene had point source influence
  • Carbonyls not related to distance only
    meteorology
  • Tetrachloroethylene was inversely related to
    distance to drycleaners, temperature, wind speed
    - positive to atmospheric stability

22
CONCLUSION
  • Ambient levels do not predict exposure to all
    compounds
  • Indoor air can be modeled from outdoor levels and
    AER to quantitatively evaluated for outdoor air
    influence
  • Proximity to sources can be statistically
    identified as affecting the ambient air around
    houses for a number of compounds

23
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
  • Funding by (presentation not reviewed by
    agencies)
  • Mickey Leland National Urban Air Toxics Center
  • Health Effects Institute
  • NIEHS Center of Excellence Program
  • US EPA
  • Participants who allowed for life disruption
  • Sampling and Analyses Team
  • Leo Korn, Arthur Winer, Shahnaz Alimokhtari,
    Jaymin Kwon, Krishnan Mohan, Robert Harrington,
    Robert Giovanetti, William Cui, Masoud Afshar,
    Silvia Maberti, Derek Shendell, Qing Yu Meng,
    Adam Reff, Andrea Polrdori, Robert Porcja, Yelena
    Naumova, Jong Hoon Lee, Lin Zhang, Tina Fan,
    Jennifer Jones, L Farrar, Yangrid Blossiers, and
    Marian Fahrey
About PowerShow.com