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Title: Give%20Me%20Liberty!

Chapter 25
Norton Media Library
Give Me Liberty! An American History Second
Edition Volume 2
by Eric Foner
I. Escalation of civil rights protest
  • High points
  • Sit-in campaigns
  • Origins at Greensboro
  • Spread across South
  • Founding of Student Non-Violent Coordinating
    Committee (SNCC)
  • Freedom Rides
  • Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
  • Purpose
  • Experience
  • Outcome desegregation of interstate bus travel

I. Escalation of civil rights protest (contd)
  • Birmingham desegregation campaign
  • Climax of region-wide demonstrations
  • Leadership of Martin Luther King Jr.
  • Letter from Birmingham Jail
  • Deployment of black school children
  • Brutal response of Bull Connor widespread
    revulsion over
  • Impact on public opinion
  • Growing sympathy for civil rights
  • Presidential endorsement of movement
  • Outcome adoption of desegregation plan

I. Escalation of civil rights protest (contd)
  • Themes and characteristics
  • Growing involvement of college students, youth
  • Vision of empowerment of ordinary blacks
  • Commitment to nonviolent resistance
  • Multiplicity of organizations, settings, and
  • Escalation of violent response
  • Perpetrators
  • Ordinary citizens
  • Local and state officials

I. Escalation of civil rights protest (contd)
  • Targets, episodes
  • Firebombing, beatings of Freedom Riders
  • Mob violence, against desegregation of University
    of Mississippi
  • Use of fire hoses, dogs, beatings against
    Birmingham protesters
  • Assassination of Medgar Evers
  • Deadly bombing of Birmingham church

I. Escalation of civil rights protest (contd)
  • March on Washington
  • Magnitude
  • As peak of nonviolent civil rights coalition
  • Breadth of demands
  • Kings I Have a Dream speech
  • Glimpses of movements limitations and fault
  • All-male roster of speakers
  • Toning down of John Lewiss speech

The Kennedy Presidency
  • John F. Kennedy (JFK)
  • Image of glamour, dynamism
  • Inaugural themes
  • new generation
  • pay any price
  • do for your country.
  • JFK and the world
  • New Cold War initiatives
  • Peace Corps
  • Space race call for moon landing
  • Alliance for Progress
  • Bay of Pigs fiasco
  • Berlin crisis construction of Berlin Wall

II. The Kennedy Presidency (contd)
  • Cuban missile crisis
  • Narrative
  • Discovery of Soviet missiles in Cuba
  • U.S. quarantine of Cuba
  • Soviet withdrawal of missiles
  • Significance and aftermath
  • Imminence of nuclear war
  • Sobering effect on JFK American University
  • Nuclear test ban treaty
  • JFK and civil rights
  • Initial disengagement
  • Growing support

II. The Kennedy Presidency (contd)
  • Assassination of JFK
  • Shock to nation
  • Succession of Lyndon B. Johnson (LBJ) to

III. The Johnson presidency
  • LBJ
  • Personal background
  • New Deal outlook
  • Civil rights under LBJ
  • Civil Rights Act
  • Support from LBJ
  • Provisions
  • Voter registration drive in Mississippi Freedom
  • Concerted civil rights initiative
  • Influx of white college students
  • Violent reception
  • Bombings, beatings
  • Murder of three activists
  • Widespread revulsion over

III. The Johnson presidency (contd)
  • Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
  • Crusade for representation at Democratic
  • Fannie Lou Hamer
  • Bitterness over Democrats response
  • Voting Rights Act
  • Background
  • Selma-to-Montgomery march
  • LBJ address to Congress
  • Provisions
  • Twenty-Fourth Amendment
  • Immigration reform Hart-Cellar Act
  • Links to civil rights reform
  • Provisions
  • Long-term consequences

III. The Johnson presidency (contd)
  • 1964 election
  • Right-wing views of Republican Barry Goldwater
  • Emergence of Sixties conservatism
  • Young Americans for Freedom
  • Sharon Statement
  • Ideas
  • Prominence in Barry Goldwaters 1964 campaign
  • New conservative constituencies
  • Expanding suburbs of southern California,
  • Sun Belt entrepreneurs
  • Deep South whites
  • Racial overtones of conservative appeal
  • LBJs landslide reelection victory
  • Seeds of conservative resurgence

III. The Johnson presidency (contd)
  • Great Society
  • Goals and philosophies
  • Government action to promote general welfare
  • Fulfillment and expansion of New Deal agenda
  • Eradication of poverty
  • Broadening of opportunity
  • Lessening of inequality
  • New conception of freedom
  • Key measures
  • Medicaid and Medicare
  • Increased funding for education, urban
  • Increased funding for the arts, humanities,
    public broadcasting

III. The Johnson presidency (contd)
  • War on Poverty
  • Outlook
  • Influence of Michael Harringtons The Other
  • Emphasis on fostering skills, work habits
  • De-emphasis on direct aid, structural remedies
  • Input of poor into local programs
  • Key measures
  • Food stamps
  • Office of Economic Opportunity initiatives
  • Achievements
  • Affirmation of social citizenship
  • Substantial reduction of poverty
  • Limitations
  • Inadequate funding
  • Long-term persistence of poverty, inequality

IV. Evolution of black movement
  • Emerging challenges to civil rights movement
  • Persistence of racial inequality and injustice,
    North and South
  • Diverging perspectives of whites and blacks on
    racial issues
  • Ghetto uprisings around nation
  • Leading episodes Harlem, Watts, Newark, Detroit
  • Kerner Report
  • Growing attention to economic issues
  • Kings Bill of Rights for the Disadvantaged
  • A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustins Freedom
  • Kings Chicago Freedom Movement
  • Demands
  • Mayor Richard J. Daleys political machine
  • Ineffectiveness of mass protest tactics
  • Radicalization of King

IV. Evolution of black movement (contd)
  • C. Malcolm X
  • Background
  • Black Muslims
  • Message
  • Black self-determination
  • Rejection of integration, nonviolence
  • Assassination
  • Legacy
  • Lack of consistent ideology or coherent movement
  • Enduring appeal of call for black self-reliance

IV. Evolution of black movement (contd)
  • Black Power
  • Introduction by Stokely Carmichael
  • Imprecision and multiplicity of meanings
  • Resonance among militant youth
  • Place in wider spirit of self-assertion black
    is beautiful
  • Militant directions of SNCC, CORE
  • Black Panther Party
  • Emergence
  • Demands and programs
  • Demise
  • Internal divisions
  • Assault by government

V. Birth of New Left
  • Arena college campuses
  • Following white middle-class youth
  • Spirit and ideology
  • Departure from Old Left and New Deal liberal
  • Aspects of postwar society brought under
  • Personal alienation
  • Social and political conformity
  • Bureaucratization
  • Corporate, Cold War outlook of American
  • Material acquisitiveness
  • Social and economic inequality
  • Gulfs between national values and realities
  • Visions and inspirations
  • Authenticity
  • Participatory democracy
  • Black freedom struggle

V. Birth of New Left
  • Key moments
  • Influential social critiques
  • James Baldwins The Fire Next Time
  • Rachel Carsons Silent Spring
  • Michael Harringtons The Other America
  • Jane Jacobs The Death and Life of Great American
  • Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)
  • Emergence and growth
  • Port Huron Statement
  • Free Speech Movement at Berkeley

VI. War in Vietnam
  • Americas growing involvement (pre-LBJ)
  • Outlook of policymakers
  • Cold War assumptions
  • Ignorance of Vietnamese history, culture
  • Fear of losing Vietnam
  • Key developments
  • Defeat of French colonialism
  • Fostering of Ngo Dinh Diem regime in South
  • Dispatch of counter-insurgency advisers
  • Collapse of Diem regime U.S.-backed coup

VI. War in Vietnam (contd)
  • Johnsons war
  • LBJs initial outlook
  • Escalation
  • Gulf of Tonkin resolution
  • Initiation of air strikes
  • Introduction of ground troops
  • Increasing magnitude of troop presence, bombing
  • Brutality
  • Bombing
  • Chemical defoliation, napalm
  • Search and destroy missions body counts
  • Lack of progress
  • Resilience of Viet Cong and North Vietnamese
  • Failings of South Vietnamese government

VI. War in Vietnam (contd)
  • Opposition at home
  • Emerging critiques
  • Antiwar movement
  • Early stirrings
  • SDS rallies
  • Themes
  • Growth
  • Draft resistance
  • 1967 Washington rally

VII. Wider currents of dissent
  • Counterculture
  • Spread among youth
  • College students
  • Working class
  • Spirit and vision
  • Rejection of mainstream values
  • Challenge to authority
  • Community, creativity, pleasure over pursuit of
  • Cultural liberation
  • Sexual revolution

VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Symbols and manifestations
  • Physical appearance, fashion
  • Sex, drugs, rock and roll
  • Be-Ins
  • Timothy Leary LSD
  • Turn on, tune in, drop out
  • New forms of radical action
  • Underground newspapers
  • Youth International Party (Yippies)
  • Communes
  • Rock festivals Woodstock
  • Hair

VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Reawakening of feminism
  • Status of women at outset of 1960s
  • Legal subordination
  • Barriers to power, opportunity
  • Betty Friedans The Feminine Mystique
  • Steps toward equal rights
  • Equal Pay Act
  • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
  • Founding of National Organization for Women
  • Range of demands
  • Middle-class character

VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Rise of womens liberation
  • Roots in civil rights and student movements
  • Inspiration of movements ideals
  • Indignation against movements inequalities
  • Key initiatives
  • Protests within SNCC, SDS
  • Consciousness-raising groups
  • Miss America beauty pageant protest
  • Impact on public consciousness
  • Expansion of idea of freedom
  • Introduction of sexism, sexual politics, the
    personal is political
  • Campaigns and demands
  • Abortion rights reproductive freedom
  • Wide-ranging issues Sisterhood is Powerful
  • Growing acceptance of feminist ideas

VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Rise of gay liberation
  • Traditional oppression of gays
  • Legal and cultural stigmatization
  • Harassment of gay subcultures
  • Stonewall revolt
  • Emergence of militant movement
  • Out of the closet
  • Gay pride marches
  • Latino activism
  • Chicano pride movement
  • United Farm Workers
  • Cesar Chavez
  • Blend of civil rights and labor struggles
  • Grape strike, boycott
  • Young Lords Organization (New York)
  • Feminist current

VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Indian militancy
  • Background shifting Indian policies of postwar
  • Demands
  • Material aid
  • Self-determination
  • Initiatives
  • Founding of American Indian Movement
  • Occupation of Alcatraz Red Power movement
  • Impact

VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • New environmentalism
  • Themes
  • Critique of prevailing notions of progress,
    social welfare
  • Activist, youth-oriented style
  • Language of citizen empowerment
  • Initiatives
  • Rachel Carsons Silent Spring
  • Campaign to ban DDT
  • Expanding range of causes, organizations
  • Progress
  • Bipartisan appeal
  • Clean Air and Clean Water Acts
  • Endangered Species Act
  • Inauguration of Earth Day

VII. Wider currents of dissent (contd)
  • Consumer activism
  • Ralph Nader
  • Unsafe at Any Speed
  • Subsequent investigations
  • Spread of consumer protection laws, regulations

VIII. Rights revolution under Warren Court
  • Warren Court
  • Reaffirmation of civil liberties
  • Curtailing of McCarthyite persecution
  • Intertwining of civil liberties and civil rights
  • NAACP v. Alabama
  • New York Times v. Sullivan
  • Loving v. Virginia
  • Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer Co.
  • Imposition of Bill of Rights protections on
  • Bars on illegal search and seizure, cruel and
    unusual punishment
  • Right of defendant to speedy trial, legal
  • Miranda v. Arizona

VIII. Rights revolution under Warren Court
  • Political reapportionment Baker v. Carr
  • Reinforcement of separation of church and state
  • Establishment of right to privacy
  • Griswold v. Connecticut
  • Roe v. Wade
  • Implications for womens rights
  • Source of ongoing controversy

IX. 1968 climax of Sixties turmoil
  • Momentous events around nation
  • Tet offensive repercussions at home
  • Eugene McCarthys challenge to LBJ for nomination
  • New Hampshire primary
  • Withdrawal of LBJ
  • Assassination of King subsequent urban unrest
  • Student revolt at Columbia University
  • Assassination of Robert F. Kennedy
  • Antiwar protests, police riot at Chicago
    Democratic convention

IX. 1968 climax of Sixties turmoil (contd)
  • Momentous events around the world
  • Worker-student uprising in France
  • Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia
  • Killing of student protesters at Mexico City
  • Comeback of Richard Nixon
  • Stages
  • Attainment of Republican nomination
  • Narrow election victory over Hubert Humphrey
  • Independent campaign of George Wallace
  • Sources
  • Conservative backlash
  • Resonance of appeals to silent majority, law
    and order

Studyspace link
End slide
This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set
for Chapter 25
Give Me Liberty! An American History 2nd Edition,
Volume 2
by Eric Foner
W. W. Norton Company Independent and