Using APA Style Manual for Scholarly Publishing - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Title: Using APA Style Manual for Scholarly Publishing


1
Using APA Style Manualfor Scholarly Publishing
  • Presented by Betty McNeal
  • B.S. J.D. M.L.S.
  • Director of Information Services
  • UNLV International Gaming Institute

2
Todays Goals
  • Understand style manuals
  • Cover basics of APA manual
  • Explore electronic citation forms
  • Develop strategies for publishing success

3
Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association, 5th edition
  • Sequence of chapters idea to finished
    manuscript
  • Decimal divisions within chapters
  • Samples and examples/pp. 232-281

4
Style Manuals
  • The Chicago Manual of Style
  • MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly
    Publishing
  • U. S. Government Style Manual

5
Chicago vs. APA
  • Chicago
  • Footnotes style
  • Bibliography
  • Book length ms.
  • Author-date style
  • Excessive rules
  • APA
  • Author-date style
  • Article length ms.
  • Economy of space
  • Convenient

6
Subject Style Manuals
  • The Bluebook A Uniform System of Citation
  • AIP Style Manual (physics)
  • ACS Style Manual (chemistry)
  • American Medical Association Manual of Style
  • The AMA Style Guide for Business Writing

7
Style Manual Rationale
  • Ensure complete documentation
  • Set standards of uniformity
  • Give proper credit to sources

8
Style Manual Caveats
  • Lots of variations and exceptions
  • Cant cover every situation
  • Electronic citation standards still evolving

9
Style Manual Contents
  • Designing and reporting research
  • Writing style
  • Editorial style
  • Use of statistics, tables, figures
  • Correct citation forms
  • Manuscript preparation and submission
  • Proofreading, editing, indexing

10
Major use is for Citation
  • Text Citation for immediate reference
  • Complete Citation in Reference List at the end
  • Emphasis on form, detail, exactness
  • Consistency counts

11
In-Text Citations
  • Author(s) and year only
  • Full citation in Reference List
  • Parentheses punctuation
  • In a recent study of reaction times (Jones, 2000)
    compared
  • Jones (2002) compared reaction times

12
2 Authors In-Text citation
  • Jones and Bones (1997) studied
  • In a recent study (Jones Bones, 1997) concluded

13
3-5 Authors In-Text citation
  • Smith, Jones, Brown, Green and Gray (1994)
    proved
  • Smith, et al. (1994) proved
  • Must distinguish between first cite and
    subsequent cites in the text
  • It has been proved (Smith, et al., 1994)
  • Use of et al., in parentheses

14
Several authors, same ( ) In-Text
  • (Edeline Weinberger, 1991, 1993)
  • (Balda, 1980 Kamil, 1988 Smith, 2002)
  • (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b Singh, 1983, in press)
  • 6 or more authors, use first author with et al.
    for all in-text cites, not just the first

15
Group Author In-Text
  • (Pacific Asia Travel Association, 1999)
  • (National Institute of Mental Health NIMH,
    1987)
  • (NIMH, 1987)

16
Direct quote in text
  • Jones (2001, p. 64) predicted that profits will
    decrease for the next five years.
  • Must use quotation marks and page number.

17
No author In-Text
  • Use the first few words from the title and add
    the date, quotes in ( )
  • Actual title New hotel college for UNLV next
    year. (2002).
  • Cite in text as (New Hotel College, 2002)

18
Personal communication In-Text
  • T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18,
    2001)
  • Examples letters, e-mail, interviews, phone
    calls, conversations
  • Do not add personal communications to Reference
    List

19
In-Text citation - Summary
  • Author-date style
  • Brief info in parentheses
  • Comma between author,date within ( )
  • Form varies with placement in sentence

20
Reference List
  • Not a bibliography
  • Full citations
  • Identifies item with bibliographic elements in
    specified order
  • Special punctuation, italics and capitalization

21
Each Reference List Entry
  • Series of Identifying Statements
  • Author (name, initials, type of authorship)
  • Date (year, sometimes month, day)
  • Title (title, edition)
  • Overall source (periodicals, excerpts)
  • Availability (city, publisher, Internet URL)

22
Reference List Order
  • Alphabetical order by author
  • Letter by letter Brown, J. R. precedes Browning,
    A. R.
  • Mc and Mac MacArthur precedes McAllister

23
Reference List Order Same Author
  • Hewlett, L. S. (1996).
  • Hewlett, L. S. (1999a).
  • Hewlett, L. S. (1999b).
  • Allen, R. L. (2001).
  • Allen, R. L., Evans, A. J. (1999).

24
Reference List Order Same First Author
  • Gosling, J. R., Jerald, K., Belfar, S. F.
    (2000)
  • Gosling, J. R., Tevlin, D. F. (1996)

25
Reference List Order Same Last Name
  • Mathur, A. L., Wallston, J. (1999).
  • Mathur, S. E., Ahlers, R. J. (1998).

26
Reference List Publisher Info
  • Publishers Location
  • Use city and state (or province) and country if
    needed for clarity New Castle, PA Chichester,
    England Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 13 stand-alone cities. No state or country needed
    (e. g., New York, Chicago, London, Paris, Tokyo,
    Rome, Boston, etc.)
  • Publishers Name Option to eliminate and Co.,
    and Sons, Publishers, etc.

27
Authors in Reference List
  • Author
  • Co-authors
  • Editor
  • Compiler
  • Group
  • Organization
  • Single name author/Initials

28
Group Authors
  • Corporation
  • Government agency
  • Association/organization
  • Institute
  • Committee/commission
  • Conference

29
Reference List Periodicals
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C.
    (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical,
    xxx(xx), xxx-xxx.

30
Periodical Sample Citation
  • Lam, T., Zhang, H., Baum, T. (2001). An
    investigation of employees job satisfaction
    The case of hotels in Hong Kong. Tourism
    Management, 22(2), 157-165.

31
Reference List Books
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C.
    (year). Title of book (edition abbreviated in
    parentheses). Publishers location Publishers
    name.

32
Sample book citation
  • Buglear, J. (2000). Stats to go A guide to
    statistics for hospitality, leisure and
    tourism. Oxford, England Butterworth- Heinemann.

33
Sample book citations
  • Powers, T. Marketing hospitality (2nd ed.). New
    York John Wiley Sons, Inc.
  • Carmouche, R., Kelly, N. (1995). Behavioural
    studies in hospitality management. London
    Chapman Hall.

34
Book Excerpt
  • Author, A. (year). Title of chapter, article or
    excerpt. In A. Editor B. Editor (Eds.), Title
    of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publishers location
    Publishers name.

35
Book Excerpt Sample
  • Daft, R. (1985). Why I recommended that your
    manuscript be rejected and what you can do about
    it. In L. Cummings P. Frost (Eds.), Publishing
    in the organizational sciences (pp. 193-210).
    Homewood, IL Richard D. Irwin, Inc.

36
Reference List Online Publication
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C.
    (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical,
    xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved month day, year, from
    source.

37
Online Publication Sample
  • Prabhu, S. (1996). Challenges for hospitality
    and tourism operators A North American
    perspective. International Journal of
    Contemporary Hospitality Management, 8(7),
    52-62. Retrieved March 4, 2002 from
    http//cherubino.emeraldinsight.com/vl152 43752/
    cl44/nw1/fmdocpdf/rpsv/cw/mcb/ 09596119/v8n7/s6
    /p52

38
We have just covered the basic formulas
  • Formulas work most of the time if you remember
    their basic concepts.
  • Slight variations can sometimes be intuited
  • Periodicaljournal, magazine, newspaper,
    newsletter, annual
  • Bookbook, monograph, brochure, report,
    non-periodical
  • Book excerptchapter, article, section in an
    edited or compiled work
  • OnlineOnline journal, Internet article, online
    newsletter, etc.

39
What if?
  • The book is really a dissertation?
  • The book has no author?
  • The online journal is an electronic version of a
    print journal?
  • The journal article has been accepted but not yet
    published?
  • The work is foreign and a translator is listed?

40
PeriodicalNon-English Title
  • Author, A. (year). Original title English title
    in brackets. Title of Periodical, xx(xx),
    xxx-xxx.

41
Periodical Magazine
  • Time, Newsweek, Architectural Digest, etc.
  • Author, A., (year, month and date). Title of
    article. Title of Magazine, Volume, Pages.
  • If no author, begin with article title, then
    date, then magazine title, etc.

42
Periodical Magazine Supplement
  • APA example may not fit your material
  • Give supplement no. in ( ) immediately after
    volume.
  • What if supplement has its own name?
  • Taucer, V. (2000, February). Voodoo in table
    games operations. Indian Gaming Business, 22.
    Quarterly supplement to IGWB

43
Periodical Entire issue
  • Applies also to special section of journal
  • Give editors name
  • McKee, J. (Ed.). (2000). World of slots 2000
    Special issue. Casino Journal, 13(10).

44
Periodical Monograph bound into a journal
  • Include Monograph in brackets
  • Ganster, D. C. (1991). The nomological validity
    of Type A personality among employed adults
    Monograph. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76,
    143-168.

45
Periodical No Author
  • Charting the projections 1992-2005. (1995,
    Fall). Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 1-27.

46
Periodical Letter to the editor
  • Berkowitz, A. D. (2000, November 24). How to
    tackle the problem of student drinking Letter
    to the editor. The Chronicle of Higher
    Education, p. B20.

47
Dissertation
  • Different forms depending on what source you used
  • Mann, S. H. (1969). A mathematical theory for
    the exploitation and control of biological
    populations. Dissertation Abstracts
    International. 30(09), 3599B. (UMI No. 7005121)

48
Dissertation, style 2
  • Ross, D. F. (1990). Unconscious transference and
    mistaken identity When a witness misidentifies
    a familiar but innocent person from a lineup
    (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University,
    1990). Dissertation Abstracts International 51,
    417.

49
Dissertation, unpublished
  • Wilfley, D. E. (1989). Interpersonal analyses of
    bulimia Normal-weight and obese. Unpublished
    doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri,
    Columbia.

50
Brochure, group author
  • Research and Training Center on Independent
    Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and
    writing about people with disabilities (4th
    ed.). Brochure. Lawrence, KS Author.

51
Encyclopedia/Dictionary
  • Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove
    dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed.,
    Vols. 1-20). London Macmillan.

52
Entry in Encyclopedia
  • Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new
    encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).
    Chicago Encyclopaedia Britannica.

53
Reprint from another source
  • Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piagets
    theory. In K. Richardson S. Sheldon (Eds.),
    Cognitive development to adolescence A reader
    (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum. (Reprinted
    from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703- 732,
    by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York Wiley.

54
Non-English Title
  • Piaget, J., Inhelder, B. (1951). La genese de
    lidee de hasard chez lenfant The origin of
    the idea of chance in the child. Paris Presses
    Universitaires de France.

55
English Translation
  • Laplace, P.-S. (1951). A philosophical essay on
    probabilities (F. W. Truscott F. L. Emory,
    Trans.). New York Dover. (Original work
    published 1814)
  • In-text
  • (Laplace, 1814/1951).

56
ERIC Document
  • ESL for hotel/hospitality industry Level
    beginner. (1997?). (Item No. 0466-A-03 (MF).
    Northport, NY Western Suffolk BOCES, Workplace
    Literacy Program. (ERIC Document Reproduction
    Service No. ED426250)

57
Government Document
  • The Department of Interiors denial of the
    Wisconsin Chippewas casino application
    Hearings before the Committee on Government
    Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives,
    One Hundred Fifth Congress, second session,
    January 21, 22, 28 and 29, 1998. (1998).
    Washington, DC U. S. Government Printing Office.

58
NTIS Report
  • Osgood, D. W., Wilson, J. K. (1980).
    Covariation of adolescent health problems.
    Lincoln University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB
    91-154 377/AS)

59
Professional Paper
  • Watson, S. (1996, April). A pragmatic model for
    evaluating investors in people in the
    hospitality industry. Paper presented at the 5th
    Annual Hospitality Research Conference,
    Nottingham, England.

60
Published Proceedings
  • Buhalis, D. Schereler, W. (Eds.). (1999).
    Information and communication technologies in
    tourism 1999 Proceedings of the 6th
    International Conference in Innsbruck, Austria.
    Wein, Austria Springer.

61
Proceedings
  • Hopken, W. (1999). Modelling of an electronic
    tourism market. In D. Bruhalis W. Schertler
    (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International
    Information and Communication Technologies in
    Tourism Conference in Innsbruck, Austria
    (pp.161-171). Wein, Austria Springer.

62
Proceedings How to handle?
  • Higher-education facilities Proceedings of the
    first seminar in a series offered by the
    Continuing Education Program of the M.I.T.
    Laboratory of Architecture and Planning and the
    Harvard Graduate School of Design in
    collaboration with the Aga Khan Program for
    Islamic Architecture at Harvard and M.I.T.,
    August 18-22, 1980. Editor, Margaret B. Sevcenko.
    Published in 1982. Cambridge, MA.

63
Suggestions for previous slide
  • Sevcenko, M. B. (Ed.). (1982). Higher- education
    facilities Seminar proceedings. Cambridge, MA
    Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at
    Harvard University and the Massachusetts
    Institute of Technology.

64
Book Author and Editor
  • List the editor in parentheses after the title,
    same as for a Translator (see sample 32, p. 252)
  • Rare but possible
  • Example Author completes extensive manuscript,
    then dies, and editor takes over to prepare book
    for publication

65
Book w/author, editor, annotator, translator and
illustrator
  • Granjon, H. (1986). Along the Rio Grande A
    pastoral visit to southwest New Mexico in 1902
    (M. R. Taylor, Ed., M. W. de Lopez, Trans.).
    Albuquerque University of New Mexico Press.
  • Query H. Granjon lived 1863-1922, but book
    publishing date is 1986. Should we add R. Taylor,
    annotator and A. Pennock, Illustrator? Also
    publisher info says published in cooperation
    with the Historical Society of New Mexico by
    University of New Mexico Press. Is publisher
    correctly listed?

66
Book Vols. Published over time
  • Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959-1963). Psychology A study
    of science (Vols. 1-6). New York McGraw-Hill.

67
Book Author is also Publisher
  • American Psychiatric Association. (1994).
    Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
    disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC Author.

68
University Report
  • Gazel, R. The impact of the Thomas Mack Center
    and the Sam Boyd Stadium in the Las Vegas
    economy. (1997). Las Vegas, NV University of
    Nevada, Las Vegas, Center for Business and
    Economic Research.
  • Query The report says prepared by Gazel for
    the Thomas Mack Center. Is preparer the same
    as author?

69
Conference Complex Publisher
  • Centers for Disease Control Health Risk
    Appraisal Users Conference. (1983). Summary
    proceedings. Atlanta, GA U. S. Dept. of Health
    and Human Services, Public Health Service,
    Centers for Disease Control.
  • Query Is U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services
    sufficient?

70
Book Review
  • Jackson, A. (2000). Adams-American hero. Review
    of the book John Adams, New York Review of
    Books, 66, 83.
  • Question Jackson is author of book review, but
    who is author of John Adams, since there are
    probably many books by that name.

71
Motion Picture
  • Hotel security. (1982). Motion picture.
    Chatsworth, CA National Educational Media.
  • Scorsese, M. (Producer), Lonergan, K.
    (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me
    Motion picture. United States Paramount
    Pictures.

72
Videocassette
  • Las Vegas Hilton Hotel and Casino fire February
    10, 1981. (1981). Videocassette. Las Vegas,
    NV KTNV-TV Channel 13.

73
Audiocassette
  • Costa, P. T., Jr. (Speaker). (1988).
    Personality, continuity, and changes of adult
    life (Cassette Recording No. 207- 433-88A-B).
    Washington, DC American Psychological
    Association.

74
Reference List Summary
  • Agrees with in-text citations
  • States everything needed for identification and
    retrieval
  • Author responsible for errors
  • Check each reference with item in hand

75
Electronic Sources in Reference List
  • Citation concept hasnt changed. Provide
    complete, accurate bibliographic data
  • Do not knowingly publish a dead link
  • Web items may be Web only, or electronic versions
    of items available in print. Cite the version you
    used.

76
Problems with electronic cites
  • Many formats periodical, document, e-mail,
    e-book, newsgroup
  • Some URLs are very long--how to divide for next
    line easy to make typos.
  • Some web sites give several URLs- one for the
    Citation alone, the Abstract, the Article
  • May lack authors, dates and page numbers

77
Internet-only journal
  • Frederickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating
    positive emotions to optimize health and well
    being. Prevention Treatment, 3, Article
    0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from
    http//journals.apa.org/prevention/
  • volume3/pre0030001a.html

78
Internet article w/print source
  • VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., Doe, J. (2001). Role
    of reference elements in the selection of
    resources by psychology undergraduates
    Electronic version. Journal of Bibliographic
    Research, 5, 117-123.

79
Government Web site
  • United States Sentencing Commission. (n.d.) 1997
    sourcebook of federal sentencing statistics.
    Retrieved December 8, 1999, from
    http//www.ussc.gov/annrpt/1997.htm

80
Message posted - Newsgroup
  • Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing with
    sound Msg 1. Message posted to
    news//sci.psychology.consciousness

81
NYT Online
  • Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting
    their emotions, most people flunk out. New York
    Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from
    http//www.nytimes.com

82
Data file from govt agency
  • National Health Interview SurveyCurrent health
    topics 1991Longitudinal study of aging.
    (Version 4) Data file. Hyattsville, MD
    National Center for Health Statistics.

83
Virtual Conference Paper
  • Tan, G., Lewandowsky, S. (1996). A comparison
    of operator trust in humans versus machines.
    Paper presented at the CybErg 96 virtual
    conference. Retrieved May 16, 2000, from
    http//www.curtin.edu.au/conference/ cybert/centr
    e/outline.cgi/frame?dirtan

84
Computer programs/software
  • If well known, do not put in reference list
  • If well known, text reference only
  • If not well known, place in reference list
  • Miller, M. E. (1993). The Interactive Tester
    (Version 4.0)Computer software. Westminster,
    CA Psytek Services.

85
Electronic copy of abstract
  • Fournier, M., (1999). Optimism and adaptation to
    multiple sclerosis What does optimism mean?
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 303-326.
    Abstract retrieved October 23, 2000 from
    PsychINFO database.

86
Govt database on the Web
  • U. S. General Accounting Office. (1997,
    February). Telemedicine Federal strategy is
    needed to guide investments (Publication No.
    GAO/NSAID/HEHS-97-67). Retrieved September 15,
    2000, from General Accounting Office Reports
    Online via GPO Access http//www.access.gpo.gov/s
    u_docs/aces/aces160shtml?/gao/index.html

87
ftp retrieval
  • Crow, T. J. (2000). Did homo sapiens speciate
    on the y chromosome? Psycoloquy, 11. Retrieved
    March 25, 2001, from ftp//ftp.princeton.edu/ han
    ad/Psycoloquy/2000/volume. 11/psych.00.11.001.lang
    uage-sex- chromosomes.1.crow

88
Legal Publications
  • The Bluebook A Uniform System of Citation
  • APA covers very little, but refers you to the
    Bluebook
  • Special citation forms
  • Footnotes instead of reference list at the end
  • For many footnotes to same item, use id., supra,
    and infra

89
Legal Citations
  • Citation theory the same Identify item so there
    is no mistake as to what it is and form in which
    you obtained it
  • Different citations for different phases of
    publication (slip law, Statutes at Large, U. S.
    Code)

90
Court Decisions
  • Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court and
    Date).
  • Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis.
    1972).
  • In text Lessard v. Schmidt (1972)
  • In text (Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972).

91
U.S. Supreme Court
  • Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
  • Maryland v. Craig, 110 S. Ct. 3160 (1990).

92
Reference to appealed case
  • Durlinger v. Artiles, 563 F. Supp. 322 (D. Kan.
    1981), affd, 727 F.2d 888 (10th Cir. 1984).
  • In text
  • Durflinger v. Artiles (1981/1984)

93
Unpublished case
  • Gilliard v. Oswald, No. 76-2109 (2d Cir. March
    16, 1977).
  • Gustin v. Mathews, No. 76-7-C5 (D. Kan. Jan 31,
    1977) (LEXIS0, Genfed library, Dist. File).

94
Statutes
  • Name of Act, Volume Source xxx (Year).
  • Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. 9401
    (1998).
  • In text
  • Mental Health Systems Act (1988)

95
Uncodified statute
  • Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L.,
    No. 101-336, 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991).

96
State Legal Materials
  • See Bluebook blue pages. U. S. Jurisdictions
  • Each state has different court and statutory
    publications
  • Names, years and abbreviations for each are given

97
Nevada
  • Nevada Reports (Nev.)
  • Pacific Reporter (P., P.2d)
  • Nevada Revised Statutes (NEV. REV. STAT. x
    (19xx) Also NRS
  • Nevada Revised Statutes Annotated (NEV. REV.
    STAT. ANN. x (Michie 19xx)
  • Statutes of Nevada (19xx Nev. Stat. xxx)

98
Nevada citations
  • Nevada Gaming Commission v. Desert Palace, Inc.
    101 Nev. 173, 647 P.2d 477 (1985).
  • 1995 Nev. Stat. 497.
  • NRS 463.1405 (2).
  • NGC Reg.16.405(c).

99
Federal regulation
  • Title/Number, Volume Source xxx (Year).
  • FTC Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. 444
    (1999).

100
Legal Periodical
  • Italics are the reverse of APA rule
  • Authors full name given, first name first
  • Punctuation different
  • Each periodical has prescribed abbreviation
  • Periodical in all caps

101
Legal Periodical Sample
  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg Barbara Flagg, Some
    Reflections on the Feminist Legal Thought of the
    1970s, 1989 U. CHI. LEGAL F. , 11.
  • Query Should you convert this to APA style if
    your article will be published in a non-legal
    journal?

102
Electronic Legal Sources
  • Bluebook discourages Internet citation
  • Cite materials in original form
  • LEXIS and DIALOG are O. K.
  • When referencing legal databases, state
    available in, not retrieved from

103
Legal citation - summary
  • Buy the Bluebook 17th edition
  • Bluebook has more detail, examples, and
    explanations
  • Number, Source abbreviated, Number, ( Date)
  • Must still cite sources in-text (use first few
    words of reference and date)

104
APA Survival Tactics
  • Buy the Manual
  • Personalize and customize the manual
  • Add your own entries to the index
  • Use subject tabs to find sections

105
Survival Tactics, contd
  • Memorize the basic formulas
  • Write up references with item in hand
  • Photocopy title page and bibliographic info from
    all your references
  • Save photocopies and notes for 5 years

106
For more assistance
  • Web site http//apastyle.org
  • APA software. Style Helper 3.0
  • Mastering APA Style Instructors Resource Guide
  • Mastering APA Style Students Workbook
    Training Guide
  • APA Style for Electronic Resources

107
Quiz Time
  • Whats the missing punctuation?
  • Jones J J Miller R F Jr Anderson C Martin D K H
    Getting ahead in hospitality 3rd ed 1999 Boston
    Good Books Inc

108
Quiz Time
  • Unscramble and correct
  • Washington, DC. A financial approach to detecting
    and resolving crimes. U. S. Internal Revenue
    Service. n.d. Financial investigations
    Publication 1714 (6-93). U. S. Government
    Printing Office.

109
Quiz Time
  • Are the personal names in the correct order?
  • Are the italics correct? Whats missing?
  • R. W. Erwin, Jr. (1997). Reviewing books for
    scholarly journals. In Moxley, J. T. Taylor,
    (Eds.) Writing and Publishing For Academic
    Authors (pp. 83-90). Lanham Rowman Littlefield.

110
Quiz Time
  • Below is a faulty electronic journal listing.
    What should be left out?
  • Eaglen, A., Lashley, C., Thomas, R. ( 2000,
    August). Modelling the benefits of training to
    business performance in leisure retailing.
    Strategic Change, 9(Issue5), pages 311-325.
    Electronic magazine. Available on the Internet.
    Retrieved January 10, 2001 from
    http//www3.interscience.wiley.com PDF Full Text
    plus Abstract.

111
Thanks for coming
  • Enjoy your research!
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Using APA Style Manual for Scholarly Publishing

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Title: Using APA Style Manual for Scholarly Publishing


1
Using APA Style Manualfor Scholarly Publishing
  • Presented by Betty McNeal
  • B.S. J.D. M.L.S.
  • Director of Information Services
  • UNLV International Gaming Institute

2
Todays Goals
  • Understand style manuals
  • Cover basics of APA manual
  • Explore electronic citation forms
  • Develop strategies for publishing success

3
Publication Manual of the American Psychological
Association, 5th edition
  • Sequence of chapters idea to finished
    manuscript
  • Decimal divisions within chapters
  • Samples and examples/pp. 232-281

4
Style Manuals
  • The Chicago Manual of Style
  • MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly
    Publishing
  • U. S. Government Style Manual

5
Chicago vs. APA
  • Chicago
  • Footnotes style
  • Bibliography
  • Book length ms.
  • Author-date style
  • Excessive rules
  • APA
  • Author-date style
  • Article length ms.
  • Economy of space
  • Convenient

6
Subject Style Manuals
  • The Bluebook A Uniform System of Citation
  • AIP Style Manual (physics)
  • ACS Style Manual (chemistry)
  • American Medical Association Manual of Style
  • The AMA Style Guide for Business Writing

7
Style Manual Rationale
  • Ensure complete documentation
  • Set standards of uniformity
  • Give proper credit to sources

8
Style Manual Caveats
  • Lots of variations and exceptions
  • Cant cover every situation
  • Electronic citation standards still evolving

9
Style Manual Contents
  • Designing and reporting research
  • Writing style
  • Editorial style
  • Use of statistics, tables, figures
  • Correct citation forms
  • Manuscript preparation and submission
  • Proofreading, editing, indexing

10
Major use is for Citation
  • Text Citation for immediate reference
  • Complete Citation in Reference List at the end
  • Emphasis on form, detail, exactness
  • Consistency counts

11
In-Text Citations
  • Author(s) and year only
  • Full citation in Reference List
  • Parentheses punctuation
  • In a recent study of reaction times (Jones, 2000)
    compared
  • Jones (2002) compared reaction times

12
2 Authors In-Text citation
  • Jones and Bones (1997) studied
  • In a recent study (Jones Bones, 1997) concluded

13
3-5 Authors In-Text citation
  • Smith, Jones, Brown, Green and Gray (1994)
    proved
  • Smith, et al. (1994) proved
  • Must distinguish between first cite and
    subsequent cites in the text
  • It has been proved (Smith, et al., 1994)
  • Use of et al., in parentheses

14
Several authors, same ( ) In-Text
  • (Edeline Weinberger, 1991, 1993)
  • (Balda, 1980 Kamil, 1988 Smith, 2002)
  • (Johnson, 1991a, 1991b Singh, 1983, in press)
  • 6 or more authors, use first author with et al.
    for all in-text cites, not just the first

15
Group Author In-Text
  • (Pacific Asia Travel Association, 1999)
  • (National Institute of Mental Health NIMH,
    1987)
  • (NIMH, 1987)

16
Direct quote in text
  • Jones (2001, p. 64) predicted that profits will
    decrease for the next five years.
  • Must use quotation marks and page number.

17
No author In-Text
  • Use the first few words from the title and add
    the date, quotes in ( )
  • Actual title New hotel college for UNLV next
    year. (2002).
  • Cite in text as (New Hotel College, 2002)

18
Personal communication In-Text
  • T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18,
    2001)
  • Examples letters, e-mail, interviews, phone
    calls, conversations
  • Do not add personal communications to Reference
    List

19
In-Text citation - Summary
  • Author-date style
  • Brief info in parentheses
  • Comma between author,date within ( )
  • Form varies with placement in sentence

20
Reference List
  • Not a bibliography
  • Full citations
  • Identifies item with bibliographic elements in
    specified order
  • Special punctuation, italics and capitalization

21
Each Reference List Entry
  • Series of Identifying Statements
  • Author (name, initials, type of authorship)
  • Date (year, sometimes month, day)
  • Title (title, edition)
  • Overall source (periodicals, excerpts)
  • Availability (city, publisher, Internet URL)

22
Reference List Order
  • Alphabetical order by author
  • Letter by letter Brown, J. R. precedes Browning,
    A. R.
  • Mc and Mac MacArthur precedes McAllister

23
Reference List Order Same Author
  • Hewlett, L. S. (1996).
  • Hewlett, L. S. (1999a).
  • Hewlett, L. S. (1999b).
  • Allen, R. L. (2001).
  • Allen, R. L., Evans, A. J. (1999).

24
Reference List Order Same First Author
  • Gosling, J. R., Jerald, K., Belfar, S. F.
    (2000)
  • Gosling, J. R., Tevlin, D. F. (1996)

25
Reference List Order Same Last Name
  • Mathur, A. L., Wallston, J. (1999).
  • Mathur, S. E., Ahlers, R. J. (1998).

26
Reference List Publisher Info
  • Publishers Location
  • Use city and state (or province) and country if
    needed for clarity New Castle, PA Chichester,
    England Calgary, Alberta, Canada
  • 13 stand-alone cities. No state or country needed
    (e. g., New York, Chicago, London, Paris, Tokyo,
    Rome, Boston, etc.)
  • Publishers Name Option to eliminate and Co.,
    and Sons, Publishers, etc.

27
Authors in Reference List
  • Author
  • Co-authors
  • Editor
  • Compiler
  • Group
  • Organization
  • Single name author/Initials

28
Group Authors
  • Corporation
  • Government agency
  • Association/organization
  • Institute
  • Committee/commission
  • Conference

29
Reference List Periodicals
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C.
    (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical,
    xxx(xx), xxx-xxx.

30
Periodical Sample Citation
  • Lam, T., Zhang, H., Baum, T. (2001). An
    investigation of employees job satisfaction
    The case of hotels in Hong Kong. Tourism
    Management, 22(2), 157-165.

31
Reference List Books
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C.
    (year). Title of book (edition abbreviated in
    parentheses). Publishers location Publishers
    name.

32
Sample book citation
  • Buglear, J. (2000). Stats to go A guide to
    statistics for hospitality, leisure and
    tourism. Oxford, England Butterworth- Heinemann.

33
Sample book citations
  • Powers, T. Marketing hospitality (2nd ed.). New
    York John Wiley Sons, Inc.
  • Carmouche, R., Kelly, N. (1995). Behavioural
    studies in hospitality management. London
    Chapman Hall.

34
Book Excerpt
  • Author, A. (year). Title of chapter, article or
    excerpt. In A. Editor B. Editor (Eds.), Title
    of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Publishers location
    Publishers name.

35
Book Excerpt Sample
  • Daft, R. (1985). Why I recommended that your
    manuscript be rejected and what you can do about
    it. In L. Cummings P. Frost (Eds.), Publishing
    in the organizational sciences (pp. 193-210).
    Homewood, IL Richard D. Irwin, Inc.

36
Reference List Online Publication
  • Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author, C. C.
    (2000). Title of article. Title of Periodical,
    xx, xxx-xxx. Retrieved month day, year, from
    source.

37
Online Publication Sample
  • Prabhu, S. (1996). Challenges for hospitality
    and tourism operators A North American
    perspective. International Journal of
    Contemporary Hospitality Management, 8(7),
    52-62. Retrieved March 4, 2002 from
    http//cherubino.emeraldinsight.com/vl152 43752/
    cl44/nw1/fmdocpdf/rpsv/cw/mcb/ 09596119/v8n7/s6
    /p52

38
We have just covered the basic formulas
  • Formulas work most of the time if you remember
    their basic concepts.
  • Slight variations can sometimes be intuited
  • Periodicaljournal, magazine, newspaper,
    newsletter, annual
  • Bookbook, monograph, brochure, report,
    non-periodical
  • Book excerptchapter, article, section in an
    edited or compiled work
  • OnlineOnline journal, Internet article, online
    newsletter, etc.

39
What if?
  • The book is really a dissertation?
  • The book has no author?
  • The online journal is an electronic version of a
    print journal?
  • The journal article has been accepted but not yet
    published?
  • The work is foreign and a translator is listed?

40
PeriodicalNon-English Title
  • Author, A. (year). Original title English title
    in brackets. Title of Periodical, xx(xx),
    xxx-xxx.

41
Periodical Magazine
  • Time, Newsweek, Architectural Digest, etc.
  • Author, A., (year, month and date). Title of
    article. Title of Magazine, Volume, Pages.
  • If no author, begin with article title, then
    date, then magazine title, etc.

42
Periodical Magazine Supplement
  • APA example may not fit your material
  • Give supplement no. in ( ) immediately after
    volume.
  • What if supplement has its own name?
  • Taucer, V. (2000, February). Voodoo in table
    games operations. Indian Gaming Business, 22.
    Quarterly supplement to IGWB

43
Periodical Entire issue
  • Applies also to special section of journal
  • Give editors name
  • McKee, J. (Ed.). (2000). World of slots 2000
    Special issue. Casino Journal, 13(10).

44
Periodical Monograph bound into a journal
  • Include Monograph in brackets
  • Ganster, D. C. (1991). The nomological validity
    of Type A personality among employed adults
    Monograph. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76,
    143-168.

45
Periodical No Author
  • Charting the projections 1992-2005. (1995,
    Fall). Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 1-27.

46
Periodical Letter to the editor
  • Berkowitz, A. D. (2000, November 24). How to
    tackle the problem of student drinking Letter
    to the editor. The Chronicle of Higher
    Education, p. B20.

47
Dissertation
  • Different forms depending on what source you used
  • Mann, S. H. (1969). A mathematical theory for
    the exploitation and control of biological
    populations. Dissertation Abstracts
    International. 30(09), 3599B. (UMI No. 7005121)

48
Dissertation, style 2
  • Ross, D. F. (1990). Unconscious transference and
    mistaken identity When a witness misidentifies
    a familiar but innocent person from a lineup
    (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University,
    1990). Dissertation Abstracts International 51,
    417.

49
Dissertation, unpublished
  • Wilfley, D. E. (1989). Interpersonal analyses of
    bulimia Normal-weight and obese. Unpublished
    doctoral dissertation, University of Missouri,
    Columbia.

50
Brochure, group author
  • Research and Training Center on Independent
    Living. (1993). Guidelines for reporting and
    writing about people with disabilities (4th
    ed.). Brochure. Lawrence, KS Author.

51
Encyclopedia/Dictionary
  • Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove
    dictionary of music and musicians (6th ed.,
    Vols. 1-20). London Macmillan.

52
Entry in Encyclopedia
  • Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new
    encyclopedia Britannica (Vol. 26, pp. 501-508).
    Chicago Encyclopaedia Britannica.

53
Reprint from another source
  • Piaget, J. (1988). Extracts from Piagets
    theory. In K. Richardson S. Sheldon (Eds.),
    Cognitive development to adolescence A reader
    (pp. 3-18). Hillsdale, NJ Erlbaum. (Reprinted
    from Manual of child psychology, pp. 703- 732,
    by P. H. Mussen, Ed., 1970, New York Wiley.

54
Non-English Title
  • Piaget, J., Inhelder, B. (1951). La genese de
    lidee de hasard chez lenfant The origin of
    the idea of chance in the child. Paris Presses
    Universitaires de France.

55
English Translation
  • Laplace, P.-S. (1951). A philosophical essay on
    probabilities (F. W. Truscott F. L. Emory,
    Trans.). New York Dover. (Original work
    published 1814)
  • In-text
  • (Laplace, 1814/1951).

56
ERIC Document
  • ESL for hotel/hospitality industry Level
    beginner. (1997?). (Item No. 0466-A-03 (MF).
    Northport, NY Western Suffolk BOCES, Workplace
    Literacy Program. (ERIC Document Reproduction
    Service No. ED426250)

57
Government Document
  • The Department of Interiors denial of the
    Wisconsin Chippewas casino application
    Hearings before the Committee on Government
    Reform and Oversight, House of Representatives,
    One Hundred Fifth Congress, second session,
    January 21, 22, 28 and 29, 1998. (1998).
    Washington, DC U. S. Government Printing Office.

58
NTIS Report
  • Osgood, D. W., Wilson, J. K. (1980).
    Covariation of adolescent health problems.
    Lincoln University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB
    91-154 377/AS)

59
Professional Paper
  • Watson, S. (1996, April). A pragmatic model for
    evaluating investors in people in the
    hospitality industry. Paper presented at the 5th
    Annual Hospitality Research Conference,
    Nottingham, England.

60
Published Proceedings
  • Buhalis, D. Schereler, W. (Eds.). (1999).
    Information and communication technologies in
    tourism 1999 Proceedings of the 6th
    International Conference in Innsbruck, Austria.
    Wein, Austria Springer.

61
Proceedings
  • Hopken, W. (1999). Modelling of an electronic
    tourism market. In D. Bruhalis W. Schertler
    (Eds.), Proceedings of the 6th International
    Information and Communication Technologies in
    Tourism Conference in Innsbruck, Austria
    (pp.161-171). Wein, Austria Springer.

62
Proceedings How to handle?
  • Higher-education facilities Proceedings of the
    first seminar in a series offered by the
    Continuing Education Program of the M.I.T.
    Laboratory of Architecture and Planning and the
    Harvard Graduate School of Design in
    collaboration with the Aga Khan Program for
    Islamic Architecture at Harvard and M.I.T.,
    August 18-22, 1980. Editor, Margaret B. Sevcenko.
    Published in 1982. Cambridge, MA.

63
Suggestions for previous slide
  • Sevcenko, M. B. (Ed.). (1982). Higher- education
    facilities Seminar proceedings. Cambridge, MA
    Aga Khan Program for Islamic Architecture at
    Harvard University and the Massachusetts
    Institute of Technology.

64
Book Author and Editor
  • List the editor in parentheses after the title,
    same as for a Translator (see sample 32, p. 252)
  • Rare but possible
  • Example Author completes extensive manuscript,
    then dies, and editor takes over to prepare book
    for publication

65
Book w/author, editor, annotator, translator and
illustrator
  • Granjon, H. (1986). Along the Rio Grande A
    pastoral visit to southwest New Mexico in 1902
    (M. R. Taylor, Ed., M. W. de Lopez, Trans.).
    Albuquerque University of New Mexico Press.
  • Query H. Granjon lived 1863-1922, but book
    publishing date is 1986. Should we add R. Taylor,
    annotator and A. Pennock, Illustrator? Also
    publisher info says published in cooperation
    with the Historical Society of New Mexico by
    University of New Mexico Press. Is publisher
    correctly listed?

66
Book Vols. Published over time
  • Koch, S. (Ed.). (1959-1963). Psychology A study
    of science (Vols. 1-6). New York McGraw-Hill.

67
Book Author is also Publisher
  • American Psychiatric Association. (1994).
    Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental
    disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC Author.

68
University Report
  • Gazel, R. The impact of the Thomas Mack Center
    and the Sam Boyd Stadium in the Las Vegas
    economy. (1997). Las Vegas, NV University of
    Nevada, Las Vegas, Center for Business and
    Economic Research.
  • Query The report says prepared by Gazel for
    the Thomas Mack Center. Is preparer the same
    as author?

69
Conference Complex Publisher
  • Centers for Disease Control Health Risk
    Appraisal Users Conference. (1983). Summary
    proceedings. Atlanta, GA U. S. Dept. of Health
    and Human Services, Public Health Service,
    Centers for Disease Control.
  • Query Is U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services
    sufficient?

70
Book Review
  • Jackson, A. (2000). Adams-American hero. Review
    of the book John Adams, New York Review of
    Books, 66, 83.
  • Question Jackson is author of book review, but
    who is author of John Adams, since there are
    probably many books by that name.

71
Motion Picture
  • Hotel security. (1982). Motion picture.
    Chatsworth, CA National Educational Media.
  • Scorsese, M. (Producer), Lonergan, K.
    (Writer/Director). (2000). You can count on me
    Motion picture. United States Paramount
    Pictures.

72
Videocassette
  • Las Vegas Hilton Hotel and Casino fire February
    10, 1981. (1981). Videocassette. Las Vegas,
    NV KTNV-TV Channel 13.

73
Audiocassette
  • Costa, P. T., Jr. (Speaker). (1988).
    Personality, continuity, and changes of adult
    life (Cassette Recording No. 207- 433-88A-B).
    Washington, DC American Psychological
    Association.

74
Reference List Summary
  • Agrees with in-text citations
  • States everything needed for identification and
    retrieval
  • Author responsible for errors
  • Check each reference with item in hand

75
Electronic Sources in Reference List
  • Citation concept hasnt changed. Provide
    complete, accurate bibliographic data
  • Do not knowingly publish a dead link
  • Web items may be Web only, or electronic versions
    of items available in print. Cite the version you
    used.

76
Problems with electronic cites
  • Many formats periodical, document, e-mail,
    e-book, newsgroup
  • Some URLs are very long--how to divide for next
    line easy to make typos.
  • Some web sites give several URLs- one for the
    Citation alone, the Abstract, the Article
  • May lack authors, dates and page numbers

77
Internet-only journal
  • Frederickson, B. L. (2000, March 7). Cultivating
    positive emotions to optimize health and well
    being. Prevention Treatment, 3, Article
    0001a. Retrieved November 20, 2000, from
    http//journals.apa.org/prevention/
  • volume3/pre0030001a.html

78
Internet article w/print source
  • VandenBos, G., Knapp, S., Doe, J. (2001). Role
    of reference elements in the selection of
    resources by psychology undergraduates
    Electronic version. Journal of Bibliographic
    Research, 5, 117-123.

79
Government Web site
  • United States Sentencing Commission. (n.d.) 1997
    sourcebook of federal sentencing statistics.
    Retrieved December 8, 1999, from
    http//www.ussc.gov/annrpt/1997.htm

80
Message posted - Newsgroup
  • Chalmers, D. (2000, November 17). Seeing with
    sound Msg 1. Message posted to
    news//sci.psychology.consciousness

81
NYT Online
  • Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting
    their emotions, most people flunk out. New York
    Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from
    http//www.nytimes.com

82
Data file from govt agency
  • National Health Interview SurveyCurrent health
    topics 1991Longitudinal study of aging.
    (Version 4) Data file. Hyattsville, MD
    National Center for Health Statistics.

83
Virtual Conference Paper
  • Tan, G., Lewandowsky, S. (1996). A comparison
    of operator trust in humans versus machines.
    Paper presented at the CybErg 96 virtual
    conference. Retrieved May 16, 2000, from
    http//www.curtin.edu.au/conference/ cybert/centr
    e/outline.cgi/frame?dirtan

84
Computer programs/software
  • If well known, do not put in reference list
  • If well known, text reference only
  • If not well known, place in reference list
  • Miller, M. E. (1993). The Interactive Tester
    (Version 4.0)Computer software. Westminster,
    CA Psytek Services.

85
Electronic copy of abstract
  • Fournier, M., (1999). Optimism and adaptation to
    multiple sclerosis What does optimism mean?
    Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 22, 303-326.
    Abstract retrieved October 23, 2000 from
    PsychINFO database.

86
Govt database on the Web
  • U. S. General Accounting Office. (1997,
    February). Telemedicine Federal strategy is
    needed to guide investments (Publication No.
    GAO/NSAID/HEHS-97-67). Retrieved September 15,
    2000, from General Accounting Office Reports
    Online via GPO Access http//www.access.gpo.gov/s
    u_docs/aces/aces160shtml?/gao/index.html

87
ftp retrieval
  • Crow, T. J. (2000). Did homo sapiens speciate
    on the y chromosome? Psycoloquy, 11. Retrieved
    March 25, 2001, from ftp//ftp.princeton.edu/ han
    ad/Psycoloquy/2000/volume. 11/psych.00.11.001.lang
    uage-sex- chromosomes.1.crow

88
Legal Publications
  • The Bluebook A Uniform System of Citation
  • APA covers very little, but refers you to the
    Bluebook
  • Special citation forms
  • Footnotes instead of reference list at the end
  • For many footnotes to same item, use id., supra,
    and infra

89
Legal Citations
  • Citation theory the same Identify item so there
    is no mistake as to what it is and form in which
    you obtained it
  • Different citations for different phases of
    publication (slip law, Statutes at Large, U. S.
    Code)

90
Court Decisions
  • Name v. Name, Volume Source Page (Court and
    Date).
  • Lessard v. Schmidt, 349 F. Supp. 1078 (E.D. Wis.
    1972).
  • In text Lessard v. Schmidt (1972)
  • In text (Lessard v. Schmidt, 1972).

91
U.S. Supreme Court
  • Brown v. Board of Educ., 347 U.S. 483 (1954).
  • Maryland v. Craig, 110 S. Ct. 3160 (1990).

92
Reference to appealed case
  • Durlinger v. Artiles, 563 F. Supp. 322 (D. Kan.
    1981), affd, 727 F.2d 888 (10th Cir. 1984).
  • In text
  • Durflinger v. Artiles (1981/1984)

93
Unpublished case
  • Gilliard v. Oswald, No. 76-2109 (2d Cir. March
    16, 1977).
  • Gustin v. Mathews, No. 76-7-C5 (D. Kan. Jan 31,
    1977) (LEXIS0, Genfed library, Dist. File).

94
Statutes
  • Name of Act, Volume Source xxx (Year).
  • Mental Health Systems Act, 42 U.S.C. 9401
    (1998).
  • In text
  • Mental Health Systems Act (1988)

95
Uncodified statute
  • Americans With Disabilities Act of 1990, Pub. L.,
    No. 101-336, 2, 104 Stat. 328 (1991).

96
State Legal Materials
  • See Bluebook blue pages. U. S. Jurisdictions
  • Each state has different court and statutory
    publications
  • Names, years and abbreviations for each are given

97
Nevada
  • Nevada Reports (Nev.)
  • Pacific Reporter (P., P.2d)
  • Nevada Revised Statutes (NEV. REV. STAT. x
    (19xx) Also NRS
  • Nevada Revised Statutes Annotated (NEV. REV.
    STAT. ANN. x (Michie 19xx)
  • Statutes of Nevada (19xx Nev. Stat. xxx)

98
Nevada citations
  • Nevada Gaming Commission v. Desert Palace, Inc.
    101 Nev. 173, 647 P.2d 477 (1985).
  • 1995 Nev. Stat. 497.
  • NRS 463.1405 (2).
  • NGC Reg.16.405(c).

99
Federal regulation
  • Title/Number, Volume Source xxx (Year).
  • FTC Credit Practices Rule, 16 C.F.R. 444
    (1999).

100
Legal Periodical
  • Italics are the reverse of APA rule
  • Authors full name given, first name first
  • Punctuation different
  • Each periodical has prescribed abbreviation
  • Periodical in all caps

101
Legal Periodical Sample
  • Ruth Bader Ginsburg Barbara Flagg, Some
    Reflections on the Feminist Legal Thought of the
    1970s, 1989 U. CHI. LEGAL F. , 11.
  • Query Should you convert this to APA style if
    your article will be published in a non-legal
    journal?

102
Electronic Legal Sources
  • Bluebook discourages Internet citation
  • Cite materials in original form
  • LEXIS and DIALOG are O. K.
  • When referencing legal databases, state
    available in, not retrieved from

103
Legal citation - summary
  • Buy the Bluebook 17th edition
  • Bluebook has more detail, examples, and
    explanations
  • Number, Source abbreviated, Number, ( Date)
  • Must still cite sources in-text (use first few
    words of reference and date)

104
APA Survival Tactics
  • Buy the Manual
  • Personalize and customize the manual
  • Add your own entries to the index
  • Use subject tabs to find sections

105
Survival Tactics, contd
  • Memorize the basic formulas
  • Write up references with item in hand
  • Photocopy title page and bibliographic info from
    all your references
  • Save photocopies and notes for 5 years

106
For more assistance
  • Web site http//apastyle.org
  • APA software. Style Helper 3.0
  • Mastering APA Style Instructors Resource Guide
  • Mastering APA Style Students Workbook
    Training Guide
  • APA Style for Electronic Resources

107
Quiz Time
  • Whats the missing punctuation?
  • Jones J J Miller R F Jr Anderson C Martin D K H
    Getting ahead in hospitality 3rd ed 1999 Boston
    Good Books Inc

108
Quiz Time
  • Unscramble and correct
  • Washington, DC. A financial approach to detecting
    and resolving crimes. U. S. Internal Revenue
    Service. n.d. Financial investigations
    Publication 1714 (6-93). U. S. Government
    Printing Office.

109
Quiz Time
  • Are the personal names in the correct order?
  • Are the italics correct? Whats missing?
  • R. W. Erwin, Jr. (1997). Reviewing books for
    scholarly journals. In Moxley, J. T. Taylor,
    (Eds.) Writing and Publishing For Academic
    Authors (pp. 83-90). Lanham Rowman Littlefield.

110
Quiz Time
  • Below is a faulty electronic journal listing.
    What should be left out?
  • Eaglen, A., Lashley, C., Thomas, R. ( 2000,
    August). Modelling the benefits of training to
    business performance in leisure retailing.
    Strategic Change, 9(Issue5), pages 311-325.
    Electronic magazine. Available on the Internet.
    Retrieved January 10, 2001 from
    http//www3.interscience.wiley.com PDF Full Text
    plus Abstract.

111
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