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Objective 2

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Title: Objective 2


1
Objective 2TAKS 10th and 11th grades Home
slide
Home
Questions from TAKS regarding cell functions
Questions from TAKS regarding DNA
Questions from TAKS regarding genetics
Questions from TAKS regarding classification
Questions from TAKS regarding body systems
Interactive non-TAKS quizzes on the internet
Link to 10th grade study guide Scroll to p.265
for objective 2
Link to 11th grade study guide Scroll to p.310
for objective 2
2
Objective 2 31 ques quiz over all of obj. 2 Homeostasis 21 questions over homeostasis
Objective 2 31 ques quiz over all of obj. 2 Cells- What they do Great interactive animations over cell structures 6 questions over diffusion Great interactive animations over cell transport 7 ques. Cell structure quiz 8 ques. Cellular energy quiz 8 ques. Cell division quiz
Objective 2 31 ques quiz over all of obj. 2 DNA/ RNA Interactive DNA replication and protein synthesis animation Tutorial 12.1 Transcription then click on animation Tutorial 12.3 Protein Synthesis 8 questions DNA replication Protein synthesis movie
Objective 2 31 ques quiz over all of obj. 2 Genetics 25 ques. Genetics quiz Heredity in Families....Pedigree animation Down syndrome animation
Objective 2 31 ques quiz over all of obj. 2 Kingdoms Bacteria (2) Protists Fungi Animals Plants Box game of D,K,P,C,O,F,G,S.choose Unit 5, Chap. 17 7 ques. Classification quiz 8 ques. Kingdom quiz
Objective 2 31 ques quiz over all of obj. 2 Body systems 8 ques. Body Systems quiz
Home

3
Cell functions
Home
Back to Cell functions
Go to Osmosis
Go to Cell Energy and parts
Go to Cell division
4
Home
Back to Cell functions
5
When a sea urchin egg is removed from the ocean
and placed in freshwater, the egg swells and
bursts. Which of these causes water to enter the
egg? F Coagulation G Sodium pump H Active
transport J Osmosis
Home
Back to Cell functions
Osmosis is the movement of water through a
membrane from cleaner high concentration to
less clean lower concentration. Ocean water
(because of its salt) is the lower concentration.
Freshwater (less salt) is the high
concentration.
34
6
  • 4. Histamine is a polar chemical that can lead to
    an allergic response when it is released by the
    bodys immune system. An antihistamine is a drug
    that can help prevent the allergic reactions
    associated with histamine. An antihistamine is a
    similar molecule to histamine in size, shape, and
    polarity. How does an antihistamine most likely
    prevent the effects of histamine?
  • A It increases the diffusion of histamine across
    the membranes of target cells.
  • B It binds to histamine receptors on the surfaces
    of target cells.
  • C It causes target cells to increase production
    of histamine receptors.
  • D It blocks histamine receptors found in the
    cytoplasm of target cells.

Home
Back to Cell functions
Real histamine
Model histamine
antihistamine
7
Home
Back to Cell functions
8
Home
Back to Cell functions
Which would most likely cause the liquid in Tube
A to rise? F Starch concentrations being equal on
each side of the membrane G Water passing from a
region of lower starch concentration to one of
higher starch concentration H Water and starch
volumes being the same J Solute in the tubes
changing from a higher temperature to a lower
temperature
Starch is a solute.
Osmosis is when cleaner water (in this case
distilled) wants to go through a membrane to
less clean water (in this case,
starchy). Tube B water goes through the
Dialysis membrane toward the Tube A. Water goes
from high concentration to low concentration. Or
if you want to look at it from the solute point
of viewthe water goes from less solute
solution to more solute solution.
The solute (starch) doesnt go through this
membrane.
14
9
Home
Back to Cell functions
The illustration above shows a cell model with
starch solutions both inside and outside the
cell. In which of the following situations will
the solution rise highest in the tube?
10
Home
Back to Cell functions
  • Which molecule provides most of the energy used
    to drive chemical reactions in cells?
  • F DNA
  • G RNA
  • H ATP
  • J ADP

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11
Home
Back to Cell functions
12
Energy conversion within an animal cell would be
severely limited by removal of the cells A
mitochondria B chloroplasts C plastids D lysosomes
Home
Back to Cell functions
Mitochondria use oxygen and sugar to recharge
ADPs into ATPs (cell energy source.)
Animal cells dont have chloroplasts. Plants do.
Animal cells dont have plastids (for
photosynthesis.)
Lysosomes help with digestion of food recycling.
27
13
Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration
often considered opposites? F Photosynthesis
produces twice as many ATP molecules as cellular
respiration does. G Water is released during
photosynthesis and consumed during cellular
respiration. H Photosynthesis occurs during the
day, and cellular respiration occurs at night. J
Oxygen is produced during photosynthesis and used
during cellular respiration.
Home
Back to Cell functions
Respiration produces more ATPs than
photosynthesis.
FALSE.
Respiration occurs at all times.
18
14
Which structure regulates gas exchange during the
processes of photosynthesis and respiration? A
Q B R C S D T
Home
Back to Cell functions
Gases go in here!
O2
CO2
11
15
Home
Back to Cell functions
Amino acids are the units of proteins, Lipids are
fats. Your stomach adds the HCl to the food.
Food provides the human body with all of
the following except F calories G amino acid H
hydrochloric acid J lipids
8
16
Home
Back to Cell functions
DNA molecules separate into single strands, which
are then used to construct two identical strands
of DNA. This process ensures that the A
cytoplasm is in equilibrium B mitochondria are
genetically identical to the chloroplasts C
parent cells use little ATP D daughter cells are
genetically identical to the parent cells
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17
If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its body
cells, how many chromosomes will be in each
daughter cell after mitosis? F 11 G 19 H 38 J 76
Home
Back to Cell functions
If it said after meiosis then you would half
the number.
26
18
DNA
Home
Back to DNA
Go to DNA
Go to Protein Synthesis
Go to Mutations
19
In DNA, which of the following determines the
traits of an organism? F Amount of adenine G
Number of sugars H Sequence of nitrogen bases J
Strength of hydrogen bonds
Home
Back to DNA
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20
Home
Back to DNA
  • Which molecule is most responsible for
  • determining an organisms eye color, body
  • structure, and cellular enzyme production?
  • A Complex starch
  • B Fatty acid
  • C Carbohydrate
  • D Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA
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21
Home
Back to DNA
  • All of the following are found in a DNA
  • molecule except
  • A carbon dioxide
  • B deoxyribose
  • C nitrogen
  • D phosphate

The sugar of DNA
The As, Ts, Cs, Gs of DNA
Part of the backbone of DNA
The nitrogenous bases of DNA
The rails of the ladder
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22
Home
Back to DNA
23
Home
Back to DNA
Which of the following nucleotide base sequences
complements the section of DNA modeled above? F
5'UTCGCA3' G H 5'GCGATT3' J 5'TTUCGC3'
5'TTAGCG3'
As go to Ts. Cs go to Gs.
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24
Home
Back to DNA
25
Home
Back to DNA
  • This chart shows the results of an experiment
    performed in the 1920s using a bacterial species
    that causes pneumonia in humans. The experiment
    involved several procedures using two different
    bacterial strains, R and S. What is a possible
    explanation for the results in Group 2?
  • A Living S-strain bacteria can transform into a
    pathogenic form of R-strain bacteria.
  • B Living R-strain bacteria are controlled by a
    mouses immune system.
  • C Dead S-strain bacteria can cause disease.
  • D Dead R-strain bacteria can confer resistance to
    S-strain bacteria.

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26
Home
Back to DNA
27
Which of the following best describes the
question this set of procedures was designed to
answer? A Can a substance from dead bacteria
transform living bacteria? B Can R bacterial
cells survive heating? C Can dead bacterial cells
confer immunity to a living host? D Can bacterial
cells be isolated from a healthy host?
Home
Back to DNA
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 Transcriptionmessenger RNA (m-RNA) copies the
DNA code for the protein that needs to be made.
Home
Back to DNA
  • DNA passes information to RNA during the
  • process of
  • F transcription
  • G active transport
  • H regeneration
  • J osmosis

m -RNA
DNA
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29
If the template of a strand of DNA is 5'
AGATGCATC 3', the complementary strand will be
F 3' TCTACGTAG 5' G 5' CTACGTAGA 3' H 3'
AGATGCATC 5' J 5' AGACGTCTA 3'
Home
Back to DNA
5' AGATGCATC 3',
Both are DNA. No Us. As go to Ts. Cs
go to Gs.
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30
Which of these represents the DNA segment from
which this section of mRNA was transcribed? A B
TCUTTG C GAAUCU D UCCTGA
Home
Back to DNA
DNA A T C G mRNA U A G C
ACTAAG
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31
Home
Back to DNA
32
Home
Back to DNA
33
Home
Back to DNA
  • The assembly of a messenger RNA strand that
    normally begins with UAC has been changed so that
    the newly assembled messenger RNA strand begins
    with UAG. Which of the following will most likely
    occur?
  • A The protein will be missing the first amino
    acid.
  • B The amino acids that make up the protein will
    all be different.
  • C The mRNA will become attached to a ribosome.
  • D The production of the protein will be stopped.

27
34
Home
Back to DNA
35
Home
G
A
A
AGA
Back to DNA
Use this chart for the next question.
36
Home
Back to DNA
Mutated has one substitution.
normal
The chain above represents three codons. Which of
the following changes would be expected in the
amino acid chain if the mutation shown above
occurred? F The amino acid sequence would be
shorter than expected. G The identity of one
amino acid would change. H The amino acid
sequence would remain unchanged. J The identities
of more than one amino acid would change.
Only if there had been a deletion of 3 or more
letters.
AGA codes for arginine, and ACA codes for
threonine.
AGA codes for arginine, and ACA codes for
threonine.
This can happen when only one or two letters are
added or deleted.
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37
Mutations in DNA molecules can occur when F
replication of DNA is exact G a DNA enzyme
attaches to an
RNA codon H RNA codons are replaced by
DNA nucleotides J a change occurs in
DNA nucleotide bases
Home
Back to DNA
Replication
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38
Home
Back to DNA
39
Home
Ultraviolet radiation can cause mutations in the
DNA of skin cells that have been overexposed to
the sun. This mutated DNA has no effect on future
offspring because F changes in skin cell DNA
are homozygous recessive G mutations must occur
within the RNA codons H offspring reject parental
skin cells J only changes to gamete DNA can
be inherited
Back to DNA
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40
Genetics and Heredity
Home
Back to genetics
41
Home
Back to genetics
Dad GgBb and Mom ggBB Definitely mom will
give all offspring a B for green
eyes.
According to the table, which of the following
phenotypes would probably occur in all the
offspring from the parents shown above? F Solid
gray fur G Striped gray fur H Green eyes J Blue
eyes
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  • If an organism has the genotype RrSsTtUu, what
    proportion of its gametes will be RSTU?
  • ?½,
  • ?¼,
  • ?1/8,
  • ?1/16.

Home
Back to genetics
RrSsTtUu 24 16 Rr 21 2 RrSs
RrSsTt 22 4 23 8
43
Home
Back to genetics
What is a probable reason why increased uses of
anitbiotics are causing more bacteria to be
resistant to those antibiotics? A The bacteria
get used to an antibiotic. B There are always
individuals in a population that were
created resistant. Those individuals and
their clones are outnumbering the non-resistant
strains.
44
Home
Back to genetics
A pea plant with the genotype TtWW is crossed
with a pea plant with the genotype ttWw. How many
different genotypes can be expressed in the
offspring? F 1 G 2 H 3 J 4
TW
tW


TtWW ttWW
TtWw ttWw
tW
tw
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Home
Back to genetics
46
What trait will most likely be observed in
all offspring of the above set of parents? A
Green feathers B Yellow feathers C Long beak D
Short beak
Home
Back to genetics
The male will ensure that all the offspring green.
Half the offspring will be carriers for yellow.
Half the offspring will have long beaks but will
be carriers for short.
The other half of the offspring will have short
beaks.
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47
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Back to genetics
48
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49
Home
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50
Coat color in mice varies greatly, ranging from
black to grizzly gray, black-and-white, spotted,
or white. The nucleus from a body cell of a
grizzly-gray mouse is fused with an egg from a
black mouse from which the nucleus has been
removed. The egg begins to divide and is then
transplanted into a female white mouse. What will
be the most likely coat color of the
offspring? F Black G Black with white spots H
Grizzly gray J White
Home
Back to genetics
Egg and sperm from black mice.
Grizzly-gray DNA added
Black mouse fertilized eggs DNA removed.
36
51
The diagram represents the chromosomes of a
person with a genetic disorder caused by
nondisjunction, in which the chromosomes fail to
separate properly. Which chromosome set displays
nondisjunction? F 2 G 8 H 21 J 23
Home
Back to genetics
There should be 2 chromosomes (one from the egg
and one from the sperm) in all the 23 spots.
There are 3 chromosomes instead of two.
22
52
Classification
Home
Back to classification
Go to Naming
Go to Kingdoms
53
The bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, is most closely
related to the F spotted chorus frog,
Pseudacris
clarki G Asian flying frog, Polypedates

leucomystax H northern leopard frog, Rana

pipiens J African bullfrog,
Pyxicephalus
adspersus
Home
Back to classification
Things in the same genus are related to each
other.
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54
Which of these classifications is most
specific? A Family B Genus C Phylum D Order
Home
Back to classification
K, P, C, O, F, G, S
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55
Home
Back to classification
56
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are most closely related
genetically to which of the following
organisms? A African hunting dog (Lycaon


pictus) B Gray wolf (Canis lupus) C Grizzly
bear (Ursus arctos) D Domestic cat (Felis catus)
Home
Back to classification
Organisms in the same genus are closely related.
1
57
A laboratory investigation included examining
prepared slides of pond water. Single-celled
organisms with a nucleus and either cilia or
flagella were visible. These organisms probably
belong to the kingdom F Animalia G Fungi H
Plantae J Protista
Home
Back to classification
These 3 kingdoms are normally multicellular,
though there are some unicellular fungi, but the
fungi would not have cilia or flagella.
4
58
Home
Back to classification
  • One characteristic shared by a virus and a living
    cell is that both
  • F store genetic information in nucleic acids
  • G have a crystalline structure
  • H gain energy directly from the sun
  • J use glucose for respiration

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59
Which of the following factors helps spread
disease-causing bacteria? F Low temperatures G
Access to new hosts H Mutation by heat energy J
Availability of light
Parasites need a method of traveling from one
host to another to continue their species.
Home
Back to classification
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Home
Back to classification
  • This organism most likely is a member of
  • which kingdom?
  • F Eubacteria
  • G Protista
  • H Animalia
  • J Plantae

Single cell with nucleus
32
61
The kingdom Animalia includes all of these except
A jellyfish B sponges C amoebas D roundworms
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Protista
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63
Multicellular eukaryotes that are usually mobile
and obtain food from other organisms probably
belong to the kingdom A Plantae B Fungi C
Animalia D Protista
Home
Back to classification
Multicellular, but make their own food.
Multicellular fungi are not mobile.
Unicellular usually.
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Home
Some zooplankton belong to the kingdom Protista.
Members of this kingdom are characterized as A
having segmented bodies with jointed appendages B
containing one or more eukaryotic cells C laying
eggs with a leathery protective shell D having a
four-chambered heart
Back to classification
Kingdom Protista is mostly unicellular
eukaryotes, with some multicellular plantlike
organisms.
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  • Some bacteria thrive in hostile environments,
    such as salt flats, boiling-hot springs, and
    carbonate-rock interiors, primarily because of
    bacterias
  • F biochemical diversity
  • G small sizes
  • H round shapes
  • J methods of movement

Home
Back to classification
Diversity means differences.
2
66
Home
Back to classification
Square cell Nucleus Walls Chloroplasts Big center
vacuole of water.
The cell above most likely belongs to an organism
of the kingdom F Animalia G Plantae H Fungi J
Eubacteria
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67
Compared to annual rings of trees that have
experienced years of sufficient rainfall,
the annual rings of trees that have experienced a
dry period will F be softer G grow at a faster
rate H be thinner J photosynthesize at a faster
rate
Home
Back to classification
52
68
The diagram illustrates the parts of this flower.
Which of these parts are not directly involved in
sexual reproduction? A Stigma and style B Sepal
and pedicel C Anther and filament D Receptacle
and ovary
Back to classification
3
Home
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Home
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This animal most likely belongs to phylum A
Porifera B Annelida C Mollusca D Arthropoda
This animal is segmented but these
are NOT jointed legs.
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Body systems
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75
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76
Nutrients from digested food move from the
digestive system directly into the A
circulatory system B integumentary system C
excretory system D endocrine system
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Blood Skin/hair/nails Urine/kidneys Hormones
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Home
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Which system of the body would be
directly affected if a large number of T cells
were attacked by a virus? A Cardiovascular
system B Immune system C Endocrine system D
Respiratory system
Blood and heart White blood cells Hormones Breathi
ng/lungs
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Home
Back to systems
  • The diagram represents a human arm. Which
    structure is most responsible for moving the arm
    to a straighter position?
  • A Tendons of origin
  • B Biceps
  • C Radius
  • D Triceps

When a muscle contracts, it gets shorter.
29
79
A portion of the human excretory system is
represented in the diagram. The order in which
urine flows through the system is F urethra ?
bladder ? ureter ? kidney G ureter ? kidney ?
bladder ? urethra H kidney ? ureter ? bladder ?
urethra J bladder ? urethra ? kidney ? ureter
Home
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Ureter Urethra
16
80
Which structure in the upper arm is responsible
for raising the lower arm? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4
1. Anchor of a muscle.
Home
Back to systems
2. Tendons of a muscle.
3. Muscle that gets shorter.
4. Anchor of the muscle.
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Home
Back to systems
Your arms and legs are limbs. You extend (move)
your limbs when your muscles contract.
Which of the following is directly caused
by muscle action? F Regeneration of nerves G
Healing of wounds H Release of hormones J
Extension of limbs
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82
Which system is responsible for producing enzymes
that aid in breaking down substances to be
absorbed for the bodys growth and repair? F
Digestive system G Reproductive system H
Respiratory system J Skeletal system
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Makes food small enough to be absorbed by blood
and needful cells.
Makes gametes and sometimes nourishment for the
young.
Place of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
Place of mineral storage, blood cell production,
muscle attachment, protection of organs, means of
mobility.
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Home
Back to systems
  • A ruler placed between one students fingers and
    thumb is released without warning. A second
    student catches the ruler. The distance the ruler
    falls is recorded. This experiment is most likely
    designed to determine the
  • F effects of stress on the first students heart
    rate
  • G acceleration of the ruler during its fall
  • H second students reaction time to a stimulus
  • J force applied on a falling mass

46
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The medulla, part of the brain stem, reacts
quickly to increased levels of CO2 in the blood
and stimulates a response from the A excretory
system B immune system C respiratory system D
integumentary system
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The kidneys react to other wastes in blood.
The white blood cells react to pathogens.
The lungs react to the muscles which react to the
brain.
The skin reacts to the hypothalamus(themostat.)
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85
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  • Which body system is directly responsible for
    delivering nutrients to cells throughout the
    body?
  • A Circulatory system
  • B Integumentary system
  • C Endocrine system
  • D Respiratory system

47
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All of the following symptoms are likely
associated with bacterial infection except F
skin rashes or lesions G elevated body
temperature H swollen glands or tissues J
increased red blood cell count
Home
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All 3 of these things can happen when you are
fighting a bacterial infection.
You build more white blood cells in response to
infections, NOT red blood cells.
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Endocrine cells of a gland
skeletal cells in a bone
Muscle cells on a bone
In the diagram above, one cell creates
and releases chemicals that travel to a second
cell and quickly induce that cell into action.
This diagram represents part of the A endocrine
system B skeletal system C muscular system D
nervous system
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When a person is frightened by a wild animal,
some organ systems immediately become active,
while others are suppressed. Which of these
systems is likely to be suppressed? F Muscular
system G Respiratory system H Endocrine system J
Digestive system
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Hormones
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