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Applied Systems Engineering

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Title: Applied Systems Engineering


1
Applied Systems Engineering
  • Module 13 System Integration

2
Objectives
  • Define systems Integration
  • Identify systems Integration activities
  • Develop the relationship between interfaces and
    integration actions
  • Demonstrate a method for identifying interfaces
  • Define when formal interface control is necessary
    and the use and content of interface control
    documents.

3
Where are we in theSE Process?
  • Objectives
  • Understand integration
  • Understand many forms of integration
  • Define interfaces between physical system
    components
  • Define interfaces between system and environment
  • Determine controls and characteristics of all
    interfaces.

4
Key Terminology
  • Integration
  • Interfaces
  • Interface control (documents)
  • System integration
  • Product integration
  • Process integration.

5
System IntegrationWhat is it?
  • Google search results in 419,000 hits. We must
    be well integrated!
  • INCOSE
  • The System Integration (SI) function is to
    establish system internal interfaces and
    interfaces between the system and larger
    program(s). The SI function includes the
    integration and assembly of the system with
    emphasis on risk management and continuing
    verification of all external and internal
    interfaces (physical, functional and logical).
  • The system integration process connects the many
    separate solutions into a system solution.
  • Integrates the product components into a whole.
  • Integrates the process components into a whole.
  • Structures the processes such that they integrate
    the product.
  • Assures the the primary requirement, i.e., the
    product system satisfies the paying customers
    needs.

6
So, how can it be done?
  • Chief Engineer, the genius, like Feynmann,
    Teller, Edison, Langmuir, Fermi, Ford, Herb,
    etc.
  • Life cycle design system and systems engineering
    processes
  • Requirements management
  • Functional analysis
  • Architecture
  • Analysis
  • Tests
  • Risk management
  • Organization
  • Change control
  • Review
  • Document hierarchy
  • Interface control.

Dr. Bs Major Professor
7
Life cycle
  • See Textbook page 195 on (Chapter 8).
  • The process is the integrating mechanism.
  • The various life cycle phases and system levels
    are all connected by feed back to assure an
    integrated system.
  • Evolutionary design is a particularly integrated
    development and design system, and was selected
    by the DOD for just that reason.

8
Requirements Management
  • Note the distinction between Requirements
    Analysis and Requirements Management
  • Requirements Analysis analyzes the system and the
    requirements to ensure that a complete and
    accurate (consistent, traceable, verifiable,
    functional, readable, and correct) set of
    requirements exist.
  • Requirements Management ensures that over the
    course of the project, a person or organization
    continually monitors activities and verifies that
    they are consistent with the project level
    requirements. Since the top level requirement is
    that it satisfy the customer needs, this process
    will assure integration.

9
Functional Analysis
  • Properly prepared and followed functional
    analysis assures system integration this has
    been the process employed by
  • Electrical Engineers
  • Wiring diagrams
  • Chemical Engineers
  • Process flow diagram
  • Then prepare a process and Instrumentation
    diagram.
  • Mechanical Engineers
  • Drawing Tree
  • Civil Engineers
  • Plot Plan
  • Systems Engineers
  • FFBD
  • N-Squared Diagrams
  • IDEF diagram (see http//www.idef.com/default.htm
    l).

10
Use of N Squared Diagrams
I/O Analysis
11
Interface Control
Transported material ICD Materials carried
list Materials carried characteristics
list Package size, shape,... Package
environments Package container
ICD
Interface control document
Packaged Materials
Ship
Shipping Notice
Convey
Receive
Receipts
12
Architecture
  • Utilization of Architecture as the integrating
    process is almost 1 to 1 related to the previous
    slide. The functional analysis process produces
    the Architectural Map, i.e.
  • Wiring diagrams
  • Process flow diagram
  • Process and Instrumentation diagram
  • Drawing Tree
  • Plot Plan
  • FFBD
  • N-Squared Diagrams
  • IDEFs.

13
Analysis
  • Analysis produces integration by search and
    detect
  • Errors
  • Inconsistencies
  • Inaccuracies
  • Incompleteness
  • Functionality.

14
Tests
  • See Textbook, p. 138.
  • Integration is intimately related to the test
    function.
  • Test verifies integration.
  • Test-failures integrate the processes by
    returning the fix of the failure to the
    responsible system process.

15
Risk Management
  • Refer to class notes for Risk Management lecture.

16
Organization
  • Projects can be organized in a manner designed to
    provide integration.
  • Put a person in charge of each major functional
    area (the approach used by SBW Project
  • Environmental Regulation
  • Community Action Plan
  • Product customer interface
  • Paying customer interface
  • Safety
  • Engineering discipline
  • Risk management
  • etc.
  • IPT, CPT, Systems Engineers assigned to various
    areas (the approach used by BWIP, Pit 9 Stage II).

17
Change Control
  • Well structured change control process where the
    changes controlled are primarily technical
    instead of simply cost.
  • In this system, the change control board would
    have to be technically competent, work hard,
    conduct analyses not just a monthly meeting of
    the good olboys.

18
Review
  • Technical reviews may be a form of integration.
  • Must be structured to achieve this end
  • Examples that dont produce integration Your
    neighbor in your discipline reviews your work. A
    checker checks a drawing.
  • Examples that produce integration A reasonably
    well staffed Systems Engineering organization
    reviews all documents. Large, well-integrated,
    major baseline reviews structured with all
    stakeholders represented, independent technical
    reviewers, and systems engineers.

19
Reviews and Updates
  • Review cost and schedule baselines and risk
    assessments for modification due to integration
    activities.
  • Update the System Design Document with
    integration and interface data.
  • Conduct a System Design Review.
  • Update technical baselines to reflect changes
    resulting from the review.
  • Manage the interface activities per the
    negotiated interface agreements.

20
Document Hierarchy
  • Development of a detailed document hierarchy
    early in the project.
  • Assign topics, authors, reviewers, and approvers.
  • Assign functions and requirements for each
    document.
  • Assign predecessor and successor documents.
  • Budget for all documents
  • This was the process followed in the old 499 A
    days, attempted in the DOE 4700 days, and used in
    Government Bureaucracies (IRS).

21
Interface Control
  • In theory, Interface control will provide
    integration, almost by definition, although too
    narrow a view will not (how many people have
    connected their new computer system and not have
    it work, although all interfaces were originally
    controlled (car parts are the same.)
  • INCOSE Handbook focuses on Interface Control to
    provide integration
  • These activities are divided into the internal
    interfaces among the components and subsystems
    comprising the system, entitled System Build and
    the external interfaces between the system and
    other systems, entitled System Integration with
    External Systems.
  • Early versions of this course focused solely on
    interface control to provide integration, as
    evidenced by the following 12 slides.

22
InterfacesWhat are they?
  • Interactions between system functions or physical
    components. Interfaces can be
  • Functional
  • activities of systems or organizations
    (operations)
  • actions performed within a process system
  • actions within the product system chemical
    process, manufacturing facility, car, etc.
  • Logical
  • software interfaces.
  • Physical
  • mechanical
  • power
  • timing.
  • Organizational

Interfaces can be internal or external to the
system.
23
Why Control Interfaces?
Place Tab A into Slot B
?
A
B
24
Concepts for System Integration by Interface
Control
  • Identify interfaces early in the system
    development phases.
  • Understand the nature of these interface.
  • Reach agreement on the interactions across all
    interfaces.
  • Manage work consistent with interface agreements.
  • Integrate the work input-outputs or interconnects
    as planned.
  • Verify successful integration, at the interface,
    to the system requirements.

25
Integration Actions and Activities
  • Define the required data, resources, materials,
    etc., that flow across system or sub-system
    boundaries in order for the system to work.
  • Negotiate agreements that supply the needed
    access or resources.
  • STOP! THINK!
  • Slides 7 20 provided the actions and activities
    that will identify and control interfaces and
    integration.

26
Approach to Manage andControl Interfaces
  • Identify the interfaces.
  • Define all attributes of the interfaces
  • what, form, how, who, when, where
  • (There is a reasonable argument that interfaces
    do not have requirements as they are 2
    dimensional.)
  • Reach agreement on the defined interface
    elements.
  • When appropriate, formalize interface agreements.

MANAGE THE INTERFACE ACTIONS TO THE AGREEMENTS
27
System Elements with Interface Needs
  • Participating organizations
  • functional interfaces
  • Selected solution design approach/architecture
  • functional interfaces.
  • Test
  • interfaces with requirements.
  • Operations
  • functional and/or physical interfaces.

Interfaces can be internal or external to the
system.
28
Importance of Physical and Operational Interfaces
Docking with MIR
Russian Space Station MIR is the Russian word
for Peace.
29
System External Interfaces
  • Interactions between the system and other
    enterprises.
  • System outputs and inputs initiate system
    interactions and the need to establish external
    interfaces.
  • Output and input are defined at the system
    boundaries.
  • IDEF diagram is a common tool to support the
    identification of system external interfaces.

Define and Manage Interfaces
30
System Internal Interfaces
  • Outputs or inputs or interconnections initiate
    the need to establish internal interfaces.
  • Output/input establishes a common boundary
    (interface) between functions.
  • Interconnections establish a common boundary
    (interface) between physical components.
  • N-squared matrix is a common tool to support the
    interaction definition.
  • One way to eliminate interfaces is to combine
    functions (e.g., desktop PC vs. laptop PC).

Define and Manage Interfaces
31
Classic Interface Problems
  • Pipe to vessel connections.
  • Power to equipment connections.
  • Application software compatibility with operating
    system/hardware.
  • Facility penetrations for piping runs and power
    distribution.
  • Equipment attachment to equipment anchor points
  • Shipping receiving.
  • Information requested - information received.
  • Multi-disciplines on any project.
  • Stakeholders.

32
Interface ControlDocument Content
  • Description of the interface (the what).
  • Applicable documents.
  • Characteristics of the interface (the form, the
    how).
  • Assigned responsibilities for the interface and
    interfacing activities (who).
  • Schedule information for interfacing activities
    (when).
  • Location issues (where).
  • Verification requirements .

33
System Integration Process
34
Objectives Review
  • Define integration activities.
  • Process vs. product integration.
  • Internal system-level integration vs. external
    integration.
  • Do we want it to work or do we want to control
    interfaces?
  • Define when formal interface control is necessary
    and the use and content of interface control
    documents.

35
MRS Integration
  • Interfaces
  • Integration needs.
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